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Reports, Legislation and Information Sources 

A Guide Issued by the Comptroller General 




U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20548 



May 1978 



CED-78-37 



LCCardNo. 78-52213 

GPO Stock Number: 020-000-00161-5 



For solo by Iho Sup or in ton don! ol Documnnls, U S Qovornmonl ptlntlno Ollico 
WflBtilngion, C 00-102 



PAGE 
INTRODUCTION i,i 

CITATION SECTION 

Safe and Nutritious Food 1 

Domestic Feeding Programs 1 

Food Safety and Quality 10 

Nutrition Education 17 

Nutrition Surveillance 18 

Food Production and Distribution 19 

Farm Structure 19 

Food Production-Resources 20 

Farm Marketing and Distribution 30 

Price Supports, Set Asides, Marketing Orders, Target Prices 32 

International Food 34 

Food Aid and Development Assistance 34 

Trade Policies and Promotion 39 

Population Control 45 

Internal Organization and Policies 46 

Food Policy 48 

Food Policy Determination 48 

Procurement and Specifications 52 

Financial Auditing 56 



APPENDIX SECTION 

APPENDIX 1 

Congressional Documents on Food 61 

Safe and Nutritious Food 61 

Food Production and Distribution 72 

International Food 80 

Food Policy 84 

APPENDIX 2 

Federal Information Sources and Systems on Food 85 

APPENDIX 3 

Recurring Reports to the Congress on Food 101 

APPENDIX4 

Federal Program Evaluations on Food 107 

APPENDIX 5 

Major Food Legislation , 141 



INDEX SECTION 

Subject Index 147 

AgencyfOrganization Index 211 

Congressional Index 225 



This prototype edition of Food: Reports, Legislation and Information Sources contains over 
500 citations and abstracts of food-related documents released by the General Accounting Office, 
Office of Technology Assessment, Congressional Budget Office, Congressional Research Service 
and Congressional Committees from July 1973 through September 1977. This guide is the second 
in a series of planned topical directories (the first was GAO Energy Digest) to be issued by the 
Comptroller General. Topics covered include domestic feeding programs, food safety and quality, 
nutrition, food production resources, farm marketing and distribution, price supports, food aid, 
trade policy, population control and food policy. The appendices include selected congressional 
committee prints, pertinent references from GAO's Congressional Sourcebook Series, and a syn- 
opsis of major food legislation 

HOW TO USE THE GUIDE 

The guide is organized into three sections: AGITATION SECTION, an APPENDIX SECTION, 

and an INDEX SECTION. 

CITATION SECTION 

Brief descriptions of the documents are arranged under 15 subject categories for easy 
browsing. (See the table of contents for a listing of the subject categories ) Most citations incorpor- 
ate informative abstracts and contain some or all of the following information: accession number, 
title, document number, date, pagination, type of document, addressee, author, agency/organiza- 
tion, congressional relevance, legislative authority, and the data base reference number. A sample 
entry is shown on page vi. 

APPENDIX SECTION 

Appendix 1 contains citations of congressional documents on food. Appendices 2-4 were 
derived from machine-readable data bases developed by GAO's Program Analysis Division for the 
Congressional Sourcebook Series. Appendix 5 was developed by GAO's Food Staff. All items in 
each of the appendices are in sequential accession number order. The five appendices are 
described below: 

(1) Congressional Documents on Food. Contains primarily committee prints arranged under 
four broad topics. (See the table of contents for a listing of subject categories.) 

(2) Federal Information Sources and Systems on Food. Lists Federal information sources 
and systems alphabetically by agency and then by title. 

(3) Recurring Reports to the Congress on Food. Contains bibliographic citations of both re- 
quired and voluntary food reports submitted to the Congress by Federal departments and agencies, 
The reports are arranged alphabetically by agency and then by title. 

(4) Federal Program Evaluations on Food. Contains executive agency program evaluation 
reports arranged alphabetically by agency and then by title. 

(5) Major Food Legislation, Includes abstracts of significant food-related legislation enacted 
through the first session of the 95th Congress. 

INDEX SECTION 

Three separate indexes enable the user to search for information by one or any combination 
of the following points: subject, agency/organization, and congressional relevance. 

(1) Subject Index, (Includes descriptors, identifiers, and the short title of the laws listed in 
Appendix 5.) 

(2) Agency/Organization Index. (Includes both Federal agencies and nongovernmental cor- 
porate bodies.) 

(3) Congressional Index. (Includes entries under relevant congressional committees/agen- 
cies, and individual Representatives and Senators to whom documents are addressed.) 



HOW TO OBTAIN DOCUMENTS 

AH documents announced in the Citation Section are available on request from the following 
unit: 

Distribution Section 
US General Accounting Office 
441 G St. , N.W., Room 4522 
Washington, DC 20548 

Telephone (202) 275-6241 

(To order, use the 5-digit accession number assigned to each entry ) 
Documents cited in Appendix 1 are available from 

(1) The congressional committee or subcommittee which published the documents. 

or 

(2) Congressional Information Service 
Customer Service Representative 
PO, Box 30056 
Washington, DC 20014 

Telephone (301) 654-1 550 

(Use the report number following the title as the CIS order number.) 
or 

(3) U.S. Government Printing Office 
North Capitol between G and H St.. N.W 
Washington, DC 20401 

Telephone (202) 783-3230 

Documents and information cited in Appendices 2-4 are not stocked at the General Account- 
ing Office Contact the originating agency indicated. 

Public laws cited in Appendix 5 may be found in the U.S. Code or the Statutes-at-Large. If the 
laws have not been codified, copies may be obtained from: 

U S Government Printing Office 
North Capitol between G and H St , N W. 
Washington, D C 20401 

Telephone (202) 783-3230 

HOW TO OBTAIN COPIES OF THE PROTOTYPE GUIDE 

Both microfiche and paper copies of this guide are available to Members of Congress, con- 
il committee staff members, officials of Federal, State, and local governments, non-profit 
ions, and college libraries, faculty members, and students by writing to- 
^~--"il Accounting Office 
Section, Room 4522 
N.W. 
" " 20548 

j officials may purchase the guide by writing to- 

Jocuments 
Printing Office 
20401 

or this volume is 020-000-00161-5. 



IV 



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND/OR SUGGESTIONS 

This food minisourcebook is a prototype effort in the food area, and we would appreciate any 
feedback from the readers on its usefulness If you wish to provide comments or if you require 
further information, please contact one of the following 

William E. Gahr or Todd D. Weiss Information Systems Staff 

Community and Economic Development Division, Program Analysis Division 

Room 6826, GAO Building Room 5008, GAO Building 

441GSt.,N.W. 441GSt,N.W 

Washington, D.C 20548 Washington, DC. 20548 

Telephone (202) 275-5525 Telephone (202) 275-1837 



Accession Number 
Title 

Document Report Number 

Type of Document 
Addressee 

Congressional Relevance 
Legislative Authority 



Abstract 



999 

An Appraisal of the Special Summer Food Service Program for 
Children. _RED-7 5-336: B-178564 February 14, 1977. 34j>p. + 5 
appendices (7 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller 

General. 

. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture, Food and 
Nutrition Service. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Congress. 



Authority: National School Lunch Act, as amended 13 (42 U.S.C. 
1751 etseq). 



Data Base Reference: G01735 



- The Special Summer Food Service Program for Children, which is 
administered by the Food and Nutrition Service, is designed to feed 
children during their summer vacation period. Federal assistance to 
the program is provided either through aid to State educational agen- 
cies or through aid from Ihe Food and Nutrition Service's regional 
offices to nonprofit food services operated by. ... 



Pagination 



Author 

Agency/Organization 
Concerned 



Source DataBase 

G = GAO Documents 
E - E-Series Sourcebook 
R = R-Senes Sourcebook 
S =S-Senes Sourcebook 

'Accession Number 
under which this item 
apears in the original 
data base. 



VI 



SAFE AND NUTRITIOUS FOOD 



DOMESTIC FEEDING PROGRAMS 



001 

[ Comments on Food and Nutrition Service's Proposed Medical Evaluation 
of the Special Supplemental Food Program]. March 5, 1974, 3 pp. 4- 
enclosure (22 pp.). 

Report to Edward J. Hekman, Administrator, Food and Nutrition 
Service; by Richard J. Woods, Assistant Director. 

Organization Concerned: University of North Carolina. 
Authority! P.L. 92-433. 

With the aid of consultants, a study was performed of the Food 
and Nutrition Service's (FNS) evaluation of medical benefits of the 
Special Supplemental Food Program. An evaluation design was 
proposed by the University of North Carolina under contract to 
FNS. Findings/Conclusions; There was concern that the evaluation 
would not meet the congressional intent of providing sufficient con- 
clusive data on which to base recommendations regarding continua- 
tion of the program. Inherent obstacles to successful completion of 
the proposed evaluation were; lack of accepted standards by which 
to measure nutritional benefit; probability that little measurable 
benefit can be found among patients at health clinics; problems in- 
volved in the quality of data collected at widely dispersed sites with 
varying factors; and difficulties in determining whether food was 
consumed by intended recipients. Other factors limiting the useful- 
ness of data to be collected were that evaluation samples would 
probably not show benefits because there is no requirement for any 
level of "nutritional risk," and there are no controls for isolating any 
factor as the cause of benefits. If the evaluation is to be carried out 
in spite of limitations, every effort should be made to increase the 
integrity of the data. (HTW) 



002 

Effectiveness oj Project FIND: Helping the Elderly Obtain Food Assist- 
ance and Other Services. B-164031(3). April 5, 1974. 31 pp. + 3 
appendices (6 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Frank Church, Chairman, Senate Special Committee 
on Aging; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organisation Concerned! Social Security Administration; Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 
American National Red Cross. 

Conflreitlonal Relevance) Senate Special Committee on Aging. 
Authority! Food Stamp Act, as amended. 

The objective of Project FIND was to contact and enroll eligible 
elderly citizens in food stamp and commodity distribution programs. 
The project began in August 1972 with a mailing to selected elderly 
persons of brochures describing benefits and eligibility criteria. Per- 
sons who thought they were eligible were to contact local offices or 
return an enclosed card for more information. Assistance was prov- 
ided by American National Red Cross volunteers. Fittdings/Con- 
clitxionx; Direct Federal cost of the project was about $2 million. The 
Department of Agriculture estimated that about 190,000 elderly, 
about 6.3% of the target population, were enrolled in Federal food 
assistance programs as a result of the project. This estimate seemed 
to be overstated. In counties reviewed by GAO, the number of per- 

Food 



sons enrolled through the project was estimated to be a very small 
percentage of the elderly poor. Only a small number of elderly requir- 
ing services other than food was identified. Factors limiting the effec- 
tiveness of the project were, a limited time schedule resulting in 
insufficient home visits, timing of the project that conflicted with 
other volunteer activities; ineligibility of some elderly because of an 
increase in social security benefits; incorrect information in broc- 
hures; limited training of volunteers; lack of coordination; and dif- 
ficulties in reaching inner-city areas. Recommendations; Future 
projects should include: better advance planning, consideration of 
factors affecting the impact of projects, allowing a reasonable time for 
completion, and developing procedures for monitoring and evaluat- 
ing in the planning stage. (HTW) 



003 

Administration and Effectiveness of Family Food Programs on Selected 
Indian Reservations in New Mexico and South Dakota. A-51604. May 
30, 1974. 22 pp. + appendix (1 pp.). 

Report to Sen. George S. McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Com- 
mittee on Nutrition and Human Needs; by Robert F. Keller, Acting 
Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Congretsional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 
93-86; 87 Stat. 221). Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S.C. 
2011). Agricultural Act of 1949, 416 (7 U.S.C. 1431). 7 US.C 
2013(b). 7 U.S.C. 612c. S. 2871 (93rd Cong.). S. 3235 (93rd Cong.). 
H.R. 1311 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 13168 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 13171 (93rd 
Cong.). H.R. 13306 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 13380 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 
13417 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 13734 (93rd Cong.). 

A review of the food stamp program as it relates to Indians on 
selected reservations in Sandoval County, New Mexico, and of the 
food stamp and food distribution programs as they relate to Indians 
on the Cheyenne River, Pine Ridge, and Rosebud Reservations in 
South Dakota showed that the States' administration of the food 
stamp programs was generally satisfactory Findings/Conclusions: 
There is no evidence that tribal government administration of the 
food stamp program would be any more efficient or effective than 
State agency administration. No problems appeared unique to the 
Indians that would prevent them from obtaining adequate diets un- 
der either the food stamp or food distribution program. Recommen- 
dations: If reservations now participating in the food distribution 
program are to be brought into the food stamp program, the Food and 
Nutrition Service (FNS) should make a concerted efforts, before the 
food stamp program starts, to inform potentially eligible Indians of 
the benefits of the program and how it operates. FNS should work 
with the State administering agencies, particularly in South Dakota, 
to assess the need for more and better located food stamp issuance 
points and the feasibility of mailing stamps to participants. The De- 
partment of Agriculture should make a concerted effort to imple- 
ment, for all Indian participants in the family food assistance 
programs, nutrition education programs that recognize Indian living 
conditions and customs. If the food distribution program is con- 
tinued, such programs should emphasize how best to use and prop- 
erly supplement the donated foods. In those areas having or 
switching to the food stamp program, Indians should be instructed 
how to obtain adequate diets with food stamps. (SQ 

1 



004 



Citation Section 



004 

[Differences in Administering and Operating the Food Stamp Program 
which May Ha\e Contributed to the Varying Rates of Program 
Participation], A-51604 May 31, 1974 5 pp 
Report to Sen. George S McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Com- 
mittee on Nutrition and Human Needs, by Robert F. Keller, Acting 
Comptroller General. 

Oiganlxotlon Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S.C. 2011). 
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C 2701). 

The administration of the food stamp program varied widely 
among four rural counties in South Carolina and Virginia, two of 
which had high levels of participation and two of which had low 
levels. The program was designed to help low-income families obtain 
nutritionally adequate diets by enabling them to buy food through 
regular retail stores The amount the person paid for the stamps 
depended on his income. Findings/Conclusions: The varying rates 
of participation may have resulted from differences in State manage- 
ment, the accessibility of stamp-issuing points, and the existence of 
local community action agencies South Carolina had direct control 
of the program, paid all administrative costs, and hired all employees. 
Virginia supervised the program but had no direct control, paid only 
80% of the administrative costs, and let local welfare boards hire 
employees. Generally, food stamp issuing points were difficult and 
costly to get to Some of the counties were trying to improve the 
situation, but only one mailed stamps (o participants Local com- 
munity action agencies encouraged participation among low-income 
families and, in some instances, were providing transportation (SS) 



005 

Observations on Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program 

Food and Nutrition Service. RED-75-3 10; B-176994. December 12, 

1974. 34 pp -{- 3 appendices (18 pp). 

Report to the Congress: by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service; University of 

North Carolina 

Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

Authority; Child Nutrition Act of 1966, 17 (P.L 92-433; 86 Stat 

724; 42 U.S.C. 1786) (PL. 93-326; 88 Stat. 286) P.L 93-50. 

The Special Supplemental Food Program, managed by the Food 
and Nutrition Service (FNS), provides cash grants to the States to 
provide supplemental foods through health clinics to pregnant or 
lactating women and to infants and children up to 4 years of age 
determined by competent professionals to be nutritional risks be- 
cause of inadequate nutrition and income. As of October 29, 1974, 
there were 254 approved projects with caseloads totaling about 440,- 
000 persons Evaluations of the program were to determine: (1) the 
medical benefits of the nutritional assistance provided, including any 
benefits in combating and abating any mental as well as physical 
damage that might otherwise be caused to infants due to malnutri- 
tion; and (2) the cost efficiency of various methods of distributing the 
food. Findings/Conclusions: Under a contract with the University 
of North Carolina, the FNS has a detailed medical evaluation under- 
way at 19 projects. However, the conclusions drawn from the medi- 
cal evaluation probably will be of questionable use in determining 
whether to continue the program since the FNS and the University 
did not take adequate steps to insure data reliability. Attempts to 
improve data reliability would not be beneficial because a large part 
of the data has already been collected under circumstances which 
raise serious doubts about the reliability of the data. Recommenda- 
tions: Considering the questionable credibility and usefulness of the 
evaluation and the savings which still might be possible through 



termination of the contract with the University, Congress may wish 
to advise the Secretary of Agriculture whether it wants the evalua- 
tion to be continued. (SC) 



006 

Observations on the Food Stamp Program. RED-75-342; A- 
51604 February 28, 1975. 26 pp. + 3 appendices (5 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organlxotlon Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service. 

Congressional Relevance: Congress 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S C. 2011). 

The food stamp program is designed to help low-income 
households obtain nutritionally adequate diets by supplementing 
their food budgets. Findings/Conclusions: The Food and Nutrition 
Service (FNS), which administers the program nationally, could do 
a better job of managing the program if it had better data on actual 
and potential program participants. Because adequate data on actual 
and potential program participants are lacking, the FNS does not 
have an adequate basis on which to- gauge the effectiveness of pro- 
gram coverage; monitor and improve the direction and effectiveness 
of efforts to reach out to people who are not in the program but who 
may be eligible, or estimate and prepare for the impact that contem- 
plated program changes would have. Recommendations: The Secre- 
tary of Agriculture should take a variety of actions directed to 
obtaining and using better management data on actual and potential 
program participants and to improving the program's quality control 
system to help insure program integrity In addition, the Secretary, 
in consultation with appropriate congressional committees and the 
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, should revise the food 
stamp regulations to eliminate the inconsistencies in program income 
criteria to insure the equitable treatment of all people who wish to 
participate in the program. (SC) 



007 

[Delays in Reimbursements to Certain Schools Participating in the School 
Lunch Program], LCD-75-114; B-176994. June 3, 1975. 4 pp. 
Report to Rep. Charles A. Vanik; by Robert G. Rothwell (for Fred 
J. Shafer, Director, Logistics and Communications Div.). 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Congreiiionol Relevance: Rep Charles A Vanik, 

Because some State laws prohibit State aid to parochial schools, 
Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) headquarters in Washington, 
D.C, processes claims for School Lunch Program reimbursements to 
about 2,500 private schools. Six such schools in Cleveland, Ohio, 
claimed that they waited as much as three or four months for reim- 
bursement of their monthly claims, indicating that most of the delay 
was occurring at the FNS Washington Computer Center, fin- 
dings/Conclusions: A review of the processing time for claims re- 
ceived by the FNS from the private schools in Cleveland showed that 
the average total processing time for their claims in September, Octo- 
ber, and November 1974 were 34 days, 50 days, and 28 days respec- 
tively. This indicates that most of the delay was occuring elsewhere. 
An FNS analysis of the processing of claims submitted by the six 
schools for the prior school year showed that about 55% of the claims 
received by FNS were processed through the Computer Center 
within 20 days For several computer-rejected claims, the total time 
elapsed for FNS processing and reprocessing was 4 months or more. 
*NS is establishing time standards for each processing step and 
management reports to monitor compliance. They also hope to 
reduce the number of rejected claims through a continuing education 
program for the schools and for FNS personnel, (SC) 



Food 



Citation Section 



Oil 



008 

Legislative History of the Child Feeding Programs, January 26, 1976. 

29 pp, + 3 appendices (28 pp,). 

Report by Kathryn C. Michelman, Education and Public Welfare 

Div., Congressional Research Service. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396) Child Nutri- 
tion Act of 1966 (P,L. 89-642). Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 
(P L. 74-320). Agricultural Act of 1935. Agricultural Act of 1949. 
P.L. 78-129. P L. 79-52. P L. 78-367. P.L. 83-690. P.L. 85-478. P.L. 
87-823 P.L. 90-302. P.L. 91-207. P.L. 91-248, P.L. 91-395. P.L 
92-32. P.L. 92-35 P.L. 92-153. PL. 92-423. P.L. 93-13. P.L. 93-86. 
P.L. 93-150. P.L 93-326. P.L 93-347 P.L. 94-20. P.L. 94-28. P.L. 
94-105 

Federal aid for child feeding programs developed basically as the 
result of an agricultural policy which placed emphasis in the 1930's 
on the disposal of surplus commodities. By 1946, the school lunch 
program had not only proven itself to be useful in utilizing surplus 
commodities, but had gained acceptance as a way of providing food 
and nourishment for children. Changes have been made during the 
last 30 years to increase and expand the program, Payments to 
States, once based on matching and need requirements, are now 
based on the number of meals served. Although free and reduced- 
price lunches were authorized from the inception of the program, 
legislation throughout the years and as recently as 1975 has made 
both programs mandatory in participating schools with additional 
reimbursement funds. Assistance has been provided to the schools in 
order to enable them to have a more effective program and in some 
instances, any program at all, such as nonfood assistance and funds 
for State administrative expenses. Eligibility standards, which were 
once determined on a local basis, now meet a nationwide standard, 
The reduced-price standards have been revised to include more chil- 
dren in the program. An effort has been made through the years to 
increase benefits to low-income children. The Special Milk Program 
provides additional free milk to children eligible for a free lunch. The 
Child Care Food Program and the Summer Food Service Program 
for Children bring food programs to pre-school children and needy 
children during the summer. (Authar/SQ 



009 

GAO Food Stamp Seminar: A Transcript of the Proceedings. OSP-76- 

12. January 28, 1976, 65 pp, 

Report. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; Department of Agriculture; General Accounting Office. 
Authority: Social Security Act. H.R. 1 (94th Cong,). 

Five views of the food stamp program were presented at a I-day 
GAO seminar. Gilbert Steiner discussed defining the food stamp 
program as a welfare program, and the! political, social, and psycho- 
logical flaws of the program. Jodie Allen suggested parameters of the 
debate over food stamps and proposed a series of possible reform 
alternatives ranging from minor changes to elimination of the pro- 
gram. Bennett Moe discussed the Food stamp program in Los An- 
geles County and the implications for a national debate. Kenneth 
Clarkson raised questions of the program within the framework of a 
study he recently completed, classified the food stamp program as a 
transfer program, and suggested a methodology for analyzing trans- 
fer programs. Joe Richardson addressed reasons why Congress is 
willing to review the food stamp program, the range of congressional 
interests, and how GAO can help in the current congressional con- 
sideration of food stamps. (SW) 



010 

Identification of Food Stamp Issues. OSP-76- 10. January 28, 1976, 
,36 pp. 
Staff stuffy. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1 964 (7 U.S.C. 2000 et seqj. Agricul- 
tural Adjustment Act (7 U.S C. 602). Social Security Act (42 U.S C. 
301). P.L. 86-341 H.R 8145 (94th Cong,). H.R. 1024 (94th Cong.). 
S. 1993 (94th Cong.). S. 2451 (94th Cong.). S. 2537 (94th Cong.). 

The root causes of the food stamp program's expansion are rapid 
food inflation, increasing unemployment, and decreasing real in- 
come. Under current economic conditions, the food stamp program 
has become important to basic income security objectives The rela- 
tionship of the program to income security programs has caused the 
food stamp debate to become fuzzy and sidetracked into attempts to 
define the program's real purpose as income, food, or farmer mainte- 
nance. While all these objectives are related in varying ways to the 
program, the more important question is whether or not the program 
provides the low income consumer with an opportunity to receive 
adequate food supplies. Findings/Conclusions: Key issues related 
to major areas of debate and concern in the food stamp program 
include: (I) Who should get food stamps, and how should the benefits 
be determined? (2) Is the food stamp program effectively adminis- 
tered; and, if not, what areas need change and what changes should 
be considered? (3) Should food stamps serve as a nutrition program; 
and, if so, are current levels adequate and are benefits equitably 
determined? and (4) How is the food stamp program affected by 
other program benefits; and what should the balance be between 
different program applications? Any restructuring of the food stamp 
program would require systematic examination of these issues and 
careful evaluation of the possible alternatives. Alternatives would 
have to be carefully evaluated regarding the likely effect on program 
cost, participation levels, nutrition levels, horizontal and vertical 
equity of benefit levels, and work incentives/disincentives. (SQ 



Oil 

Processing Applications for Food Stamps; How Long Does It Take? 

RED-76-74; A-51604. February 27, 1976. 7 pp +21 enclosures 

(115pp.). 

Report to Rep. Thomas S. Foley, Chairman, House Committee on 

Agriculture; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Food and Nutrition Service. 
Congrestlonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture. 
Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S.C. 2011), 

A review of 3,241 applications for food stamps in 16 projects in 
seven States-California, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, 
Ohio, and Texas-showed that about a third of the applications were 
processed within 7 days; over half were processed within 14 days; 
and more than three-fourths were processed within 30 days. Fin' 
dings/Conclusions: Average processing time was much longer in the 
large projects-1 6.6 days for completed cases and 20.4 days for pend- 
ing cases-than it was in the small projects-8.S days for completed 
cases and 13.1 days for pending cases. Applicant failure to furnish, 
or to promptly furnish, required documentation was the most impor- 
tant cause of application processing delays. Other reasons for delays, 
in order of their importance, were: work backlogs due to large num- 
bers of applicants, problems with computer processing and issuance 
of authorization to purchase food stamps, suspension of authoriza- 
tion issuances during the last week of each month because there 
would not be adequate time for applicants to obtain stamps for the 
month, and rescheduling interviews for applicants' convenience. 
Changes in the bonuses resulting from verification were needed in 
more than half the cases, and the changes benefited the government 
in more than 70% of the cases. The changes in bonuses were due 



Food 



on 



Citation Section 



primarily to understatement of household income and overstatement 
of shelter expenses. (SC) 



012 

Student Participation in the Food Stamp Program at Six Selected 

Universities. RED-76-105; A-51604. April 29, 1976. 7 pp. + 12 

enclosures (19 pp.). 

Report to Rep Thomas S. Foley, Chairman, House Committee on 

Agriculture; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service; North Texas 
State Univ.; San Francisco State Univ.; University of Pennsylvania; 
University of Portland; University of Tampa, University of Wiscon- 
sin 

Congrastlona! Relevances House Committee on Agriculture. 
Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S.C. 2011). 

Data obtained on the number of college students receiving food 
stamps as heads of households at six selected universities-North 
Texas State University, San Francisco State University, University of 
Pennsylvania, University of Portland, University of Tampa, and Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin-showed that the percentage of full-time stu- 
dents from the selected schools receiving the stamps ranged from less 
than one-half of 1% for North Texas State to over 13% for San 
Francisco State. Findings/Conclusions: The rate of participation in 
the food stamp program was higher at the three larger schools than 
at the three smaller schools. The rate was also higher at the three 
State-supported, lower attendance-coat schools than at the three pri- 
vate, higher attendance-cost schools. The percentage of graduate 
students who participated was higher than the percentage of under- 
graduate students The average monthly food stamp bonus value was 
$50 for undergraduates and S53 for graduate students. Actual bonus 
values for individual households ranged from $12 to $218 a month. 
Of the 224 student food stamp recipients in the sample, 147 were 
single-member households, In each of 63 cases, the student and other 
family members formed the household. In the remaining 14 cases, 
the food stamp household comprised the student and either 1 or 2 
other students or friends. (SC) 



013 

Income Security for Persons with Limited Income: Program Summaries, 

Recipient and Expenditure Data. June 18, 1976. 83 pp 

Report by Vee Burke, Congressional Research Service, Library of 

Congress, 

Updated June 15, 1977. 

Orflanlxatlon Concerned] Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare. 

Authority Pension Amendments of 1976 (P.L. 94-432). Tax Reform 
Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-455). Health Revenue Sharing and Health 
Services Act of 1974, title V (P.L. 94-63). Comprehensive Employ- 
ment and Training Act (P.L. 93-203). Older Americans Act. Social 
Security Act. Food Stamp Act Economic Opportunity Act. Snyder 
Act. Educational Amendments of 1972, as amended. Higher Educa- 
tion Act of 1965, as amended. Vocational Education Amendments 
of 196S. P.L. 94-566. P.L, 94-105. 

Fifty-eight income security programs constitute the public wel- 
fare system benefiting persons of limited income. Fiscal Year 1975 
and 1 976 recipient data and Federal and State-local expenditures for 
each program are provided for the following food aid programs: food 
stamps; National School Lunch Program, nutrition program for the 
elderly; Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, 
and Chi!dren; special milk program; school breakfast program; sum- 
mer food service program for children; child care food program; and 
food distribution program for needy families. The funding formula, 



eligibility requirements, and benefits level of each of the programs 
are described. The total amounts of Federal funds spent in fiscal year 
1975 and 1976 on food aid programs were S6.439 billion and $7.769 
billion, respectively, ranging from $5.682 billion on the food stamp 
program to $14 million on the food distribution program for needy 
families in 1976. State and local contributions to the food stamp 
program, the National School Lunch Program, and the nutrition 
program for the elderly amounted to $559 million in fiscal year 1975 
and to $671 in fiscal year 1976. No State or local contributions were 
required in the other food aid programs The average monthly num- 
ber of recipients in the food stamp program was 17.1 million in 1975 
and 18.4 million in 1976 Both the costs and the number of recipients 
increased for all programs except the food distribution program for 
needy families (SC) 



014 

Operation of the Emergency Food and Medical Services Program. 
HRD-76-112; B- 16403 1(5). September 1, 1976 12 pp. -f- 3 appen- 
dices (28 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Warren G. Magnuson, Chairman, Senate Committee 
on Appropriations: Labor, Health, Education and Welfare Subcom- 
mittee; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Community Services Administration. 
Congrenlonol Relevance: SenafeCommittee on Appropriations La- 
bor, Health, Education and Welfare Subcommittee. 
Authority) Community Services Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-644). Eco- 
nomic Opportunity Act, as amended. P.L. 94-341. S. Rept. 92-1297. 
S. Rept. 

The Emergency Food and Medical Services Program was estab- 
lished to counteract starvation and malnutrition among those seg- 
ments of the poor difficult to reach through other Federal programs, 
including Indians, migrants, and seasonal farmworkers. Findings/ 
Conclusions; In recent years the administration has placed little em- 
phasis on the program, believing that it duplicates the services 
provided by other major food programs such as the Department of 
Agriculture Food Stamp and Commodity Programs. This attitude is 
reflected each year when the administration submits a zero budget 
request for the Emergency Food and Medical Services Program and 
does not extend the funding of program grants until an appropriation 
is forthcoming from the Congress, In 1974 and 1975 the Community 
Services Administration's policy emphasized program funding for 
projects that helped people find assistance through other programs, 
rather than direct emergency feeding, The projects were generally 
administered by independent local agencies, not by community ac- 
tion agencies. Recommendations; The Director of the Community 
Services Administration should; initiate actions to develop an infor- 
mation system that will provide more appropriate data on target 
populations served by local Emergency Food and Medical Services 
projects and operational data to show how they are being served; 
provide for selective on-site monitoring of the Emergency Food and 
Medical Service grantees at the local level, based on information 
provided through the information system realign program funding 
criteria and practices to emphasize food services for the needy; and, 
after the first year of operation, provide appropriate congressional 
committees with an assessment of how well the local organizations 
are providing emergency food services to migrants and seasonal 
farmworkers. (SC) 



015 

Federal Food Assistance Programs. September 2, 1976, 9 pp. 
Report by Kathy Michelman, Education and Public Welfare Div., 
Congressional Research Service. 



Food 



Citation Section 



016 



Organization Concerned: Community Services Administration; De- 
partment of Agriculture, Department of Health, Education, and Wel- 
fare. 

Authority! Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill [of] 
1977 (P.L. 94-351) Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended. Agricul- 
ture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 National School Lunch 
Act of 1946, as amended Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as amended. 
Agricultural Act of 1949. Older Americans Act, as amended. Eco- 
nomic Opportunity Act of 1964, as amended Elementary and Sec- 
ondary Education Act, as amended. Social Security Act. 

Programs which provide some type of food assistance to special 
target groups, such as children, the elderly, and the poor, include 
programs which provide meals, food subsidies, aid in food purchase, 
provision of food stuffs, and supportive food services, The following 
data are presented for Federal food assistance programs: the legisla- 
tion, a brief description, the State and locaE administering agencies, 
the eligibility requirements, the appropriations for fiscal year 1977, 
and the State matching fund requirements. These data are provided 
for the following programs administered by the Food and Nutrition 
Service of the Department of Agriculture; food stamps; food dona- 
tions program; school lunch; school breakfast; child care food pro- 
gram; summer food service program for children; special milk 
program; supplemental food program; commodities for schools, insti- 
tutions, and the elderly, nonfood assistance; State administrative 
expenses, nutritional training and surveys; and special developmen- 
tal projeets. The same data are also provided for these additional 
programs; the community food and nutrition program administered 
by the Community Services Administration; programs for education- 
ally disadvantaged children, migrant children, and handicapped chil- 
dren and school health and nutrition demonstration projects, 
administered by the Office of Education; the head start program 
administered by the Office of Child Development; the nutrition pro- 
gram for the elderly administered by the Administration on Aging; 
and social services administered by the Social and Rehabilitation 
Service. (SC) 



017 

Food Stamp Fact Sheet. December 30, 1976. 13pp. 

Report prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library 

of Congress. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Food and! Nu- 
trition Service. 

Authority! Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525). Agriculture and 
Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-86). F.L. 91-671. P.L. 
93-335. PL. 93-347. P.L. 94-4. P.L. 94-182. P.L. 94-204. P.L. 94- 
339. P.L 94-585. P.L 93-233. P.L. 94-364. PL. 94-379. 



The Food Stamp Program was enacted in 1964 to permit low- 
income households to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet and to 
expand the market for food products. Amendments have increased 
benefit levels, standardized eligibility standards, established work 
registration requirements, provided for free stamps for very low- 
income households, changed purchase requirements, expanded the 
program nationwide, required semiannual adjustments, increased the 
Federal share of costs, and made other adjustments in the program. 
Amendments to other laws also affected the program. Congressional 
responsibility for the program lies in the House Committee on 
Agriculture and the Senate Subcommittee on Agricultural Research 
and General Legislation. The Program is financed through open- 
ended Federal appropriations., with Federal funding covering 100% 
of benefit costs and Federal administrative costs and 50% of State 
and local administrative costs. Eligibility for benefits is determined 
on the basis of whether household members are welfare recipients; 
and for those who are not, on the basis of monthly net income, liquid 
assets, and registration for employment. Benefits are determined 
according to household size and net monthly income. Benefits are 
indexed semiannually to reflect changes in food prices. At the Fed- 
eral level, the program is administered mainly by the Food and 
Nutrition Service which establishes general regulations and guide- 
lines. (HTW) 



O16 

Analysis of Food Stamp Program Participation and Costs, 197Q-198Q. 
September 7, 1976. 37 pp. + 2 appendices (9 pp.). 
Report by Douglas L. Bendt; Warren E. Farb; Charles V. Ciccone. 
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Con- 
gress, 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture, 

The food stamp program was formally established in 1964. 
Households are eligible to participate in the program if their net 
income is less than the statutory limit and their liquid assets are less 
than $ 1,500. The difference between the face value of the stamps and 
the purchase requirement, the amount a household is required to pay, 
is the "bonus value" which is paid for by the Federal government. 
The largest factor in the growth of the program was the expansion 
to cover all geographic areas, including Puerto Rico. The chief fac- 
tors considered in a study to determine the percentage of a county's 
population receiving food stamps were: the overall unemployment 
rate in the county, the long-term unemployment rate in the nation, 
and the percentage of the county's population receiving welfare. 
There was a direct correlation between high levels of these variables 
with high levels of food stamp participation. Higher income was 
associated with a lower level of participation. There was a small 
positive effect of bonus value on participation. The control projection 
(viewed as being most likely to occur) showed the number of food 
stamp recipients declining in 1976 and 1977, rising slightly in 1978 
and 1979, and declining in 1980. However, expected higher food 
prices would drive the bonus value up steadily. These projections will 
not hold if there are changes in the rate of participation among those 
eligible for the program or if complex legislative or administrative 
changes in the program are instituted, (HTW) 



018 

The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch 
Program. CED-77-32; B-17&564. January 31, 1977. 43 pp. -f ap- 
pendices (20 pp.). 

Report to Rep, Carl D. Perkins, Chairman, House Committee on 
Education and Labor; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congretiional Relevant*; .House Committee on Education and La- 
bor. 

Authority* National School Lunch Act of 1946 (42 U.S.C. 1751 et 
seq.). Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1431). 7 U.S.C 6l2c, 

The Department of Agriculture's purchasing and distributing 
of commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 
five States (California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania) 
and 15 school districts to: assess the responsiveness of the Federal 
commodity program to the needs of school districts; evaluate the 
advantages and disadvantages of school districts receiving cash in 
lieu of Federal commodities under the school lunch program; and 
assess the reasons for plate waste (food served to the student but not 
eaten) in the school lunch program and identify possible solutions to 
the problem. Findings/Conclusions: The Department's surplus 
removal and price support programs go a long way toward meeting 
the needs of school districts. However, improvements are needed to 
make the school lunch program more effective and responsive to 
school district needs. The Department's Food and Nutrition Service 
has not taken adequate steps to make sure that the commodity pref- 
erences reported by the States are based on and reflect school district 
needs. Sometimes certain "traditional" items continue to be prov- 
ided without being accepted by the States, and Department corn- 



018 



Citation Section 



madity purchase policies sometimes result in commodity purchases 
not highly preferred by the States. Districts, consequently, were 
being offered goods (hat did not malch their needs or desires Rela- 
tive commodity costs are higher for smaller school districts than for 
the larger ones If most districts, as they want, receive cash in lieu 
of Federal commodities, small district food costs might increase. 
Recommendations: The Secretary of Agriculture should: establish 
procedures so that school districts views are reflected in preference 
reports and considered in the purchase and distribution of Federal 
commodities; require States to pass on to the school districts all 
available commodity options; expand the means of finding out from 
the States and school districts what commodities are acceptable; 
improve the timing of Federal commodity deliveries; review costs 
and benefits of providing commodities in more acceptable form and 
quality, undertake greater promotion of nutrition education in school 
health programs to help reduce plate waste; do more to encourage 
State and local school authorities to improve lunch facilities and 
atmosphere, require States to give districts more advance notice of 
commodity deliveries; and include a nutrient standard as an option 
to the Type A lunch pattern to provide greater flexibility in using 
commodities, (QM) 



019 

The Food Stamp Program: Income or Food Supjtfanenfation? January 

1977. 87 pp + appendix (2 pp.). 

Report by G. William Hoagland. 

Prepared by the Congressional Budget Office under the supervision 

of Stanley Wallack and C William Fischer. 

OrgoniiatJon Concerned; Department of Agriculture. 
Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (P,L. 88-525; 78 
Stat. 703-09). National Food Stamp Reform Act of 1976. Agricul- 
tural Adjustment Act of 1933. P.L. 91-671. P.L. 93-86, S. 3 1 36 (94th 
Cong.)- H.R. 13613 (94th Cong.). 

Federal outlays for the Food Stamp Program (FSP) have grown 
from less than $100 million in fiscal year (FY) 1965, serving fewer 
than a million persons, to nearly $5.5 billion in FY 1977, serving over 
17 million persons Stamps, redeemable for food purchases, may be 
purchased by households meeting eligibility requirements (an in- 
come test, an asset test, and a work requirement). The difference 
between the market value and the amount paid for the stamps repre- 
sents the federal transfer of benefits (bonus stamps). A key budgetary 
issue is whether the FSP should be redirected to emphasize either the 
goal of increased food consumption or of income supplementation or 
whether the current mix should be continued. Over one-quarter of 
recipients of the food stamp bonus are moved out of poverty by this 
benefit. The effects of the program on nutritional improvement have 
not been demonstrated. Future budget options are; current policy 
status quo which would result in Federal costs of approximately $5 4 
billion in FY 1978; legislative reform centered on modifying program 
parameters such as income definitions, income eligibility limits, de- 
ductions, and purchase requirements; food consumption emphasis 
which would reduce program costs by limiting participation to 
households below poverty and altering the proportion of bonus trans- 
fer which can be spent for non-food items; income support emphasis 
through elimination of the purchase requirement so that eligible 
households would receive only bonus food stamps; and cashing out 
food stamps by replacing bonus food stamps with an equivalent 
amount of cash. (HTW) , _ iwni 



020 

An Appraisal of the Special Summer Food Service Program /or 

Children. RED-75-336; B-178564 February 14, 1977. 34 pp. + 5 

appendices (7 pp.). 

Report to the Congress, by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller 

General. 

Organliatlon Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Food and Nu- 
trition Service 

Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: National School Lunch Act of 1946, as amended (P.L. 
90-302; 42 US.C 1751; 42 U.S.C. 1761). (P.L. 92-32; 85 Stnt 85). 
(P.L 92-433; 86 Stat 724) 

The Special Summer Food Service Program for Children, admin- 
istered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), is designed to feed, 
during summer vacation, children from areas having poor economic 
conditions or high concentrations of working mothers. It provides 
Federal assistance through State educational agencies or FNS re- 
gional offices for financing nonprofit food services operated by ap- 
proved service institutions at approved feeding sites. 
Findings/Conclusions: The program's effectiveness was difficult to 
assess because the FNS and State agencies have not identified the 
total number of children who were eligible nor their location. Refer- 
ence to the number of needy children participating in the National 
School Lunch Program indicated that the summer program achieved 
rather limited coverage, especially in areas other than the largest 
cities. Problems limiting coverage included: vagueness in the law and 
regulations concerning the extent of coverage, lack of strong support 
for an essentially voluntary program, and Federal and State funding 
limitations, Recommendationi: If the program is authorized past 
June 1975, the Secretary of Agriculture should have the FNS tnko 
the following actions; determine the target population to be served 
and establish program objectives; seek intensified promotional efforts 
to recruit sponsors in large and small communities not sufficiently 
reached in the past; seek the legislation necessary to institute A re- 
vised funding procedure and a formalized matching requirement for 
State administrative expense funds; and devise refined procedure* 
for estimating program costs to be incurred. ( Author ISC) 



021 

Information on a Department of Agriculture Claim agaimt the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. CED-77-40; A-51604. February 24, 
1977. /WH/March7, 1977. 4 pp. + appendices (23 pp). 
Report to Sen. James B. Allen; by Robert F, Keller, Acting Comp. 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture; Puerto Rico: 

Dept. of Social Services. 

Congrettlonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 

tion, and Forestry. Sen, James B. Allen. 

Authority! Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended, 416 (7 USC 

i' & 91 " 67 ' : 84 Stat 2048 >' (RL ' 93 * 86 = 87 St. 247) 7 
. 612c. 



A $2.5 million claim of the U.S. Government against the Depart- 
ment of Social Services of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico con- 
cerned losses through spoilage or infestation of Federally donated 
food during and after the phaseout of the needy family food donation 
program, Findings/Conclusions; The losses involved occurred dur- 
ing a period when: the amount of commodities donated reached a 

m P fl U H K a 1 d Sh T 6nt roblems were ^ountered; adequate 
information about warehouse facilities was not available- local Iran- 
sportauon was unreliable; and Commonwealth money and staff lo 

ET ^ Pr gram Were dwindli "8- Commonwealth officials knew 
hat the Department of Agriculture had increased the commodity 

sr I r e( J uisitioned for the n ^ famii y p**. A 

!nt aWesl ! ow . ing / uantities nd value, of commodity losses 
a primary basis for the claim. The Department of Social 
Semces held official destruction or other records on th? actual " | 



Food 



Citation Section 



025 



position of about 14%of thecommodity quantities listed in the claim. 
In 1976, the Commonwealth made a proposal disclaiming any re- 
sponsibility for the $2 5 million claim, but offered to settle the entire 
claim with the replacement in kind of $198,000 of cheese. As of 
January, 1977, claim settlement has been suspended pending com- 
pletion of an investigation to account for final disposition of all 
commodities. (RRS) 



rest of the State for supplemental security mailings Though benefits 
could be prorated by computer to prevent gaps in coverage, changing 
mailing dates would not be feasible for several reasons. An alterna- 
tive solution would involve the option of receiving one to four au- 
thorization cards monthly at the same time, with allotments 
proportionally reduced. This proposal should be tried before changes 
are made in the mailing schedules. Recommendations: An outreach 
effort should be conducted to advise recipients of this option. The 
plan should be evaluated after several months, and if unsuccessful, 
mailing schedules should be changed. (DJM) 



032 

The Summer Feeding Program; How to Feed the Children and Stop 
Program Abuses. CED-77-59; B-178564. April 15, 1977. 2 pp. + 2 
enclosures (25 pp). 

Report to Rep. Carl D. Perkins, Chairman, House Committee on 
Education and Labor; by Robert F. Keller, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevances House Committee on Education and La- 
bor. 

Authority: National School Lunch Act, as amended, 13 (42 U.S.C. 
1751 et seq). Child Nutrition Act of 1966. 

Various aspects of the summer food service program for children 
were reviewed in light of alleged abuses during program operations 
in major urban areas. Causes of abuses that had been detected by 
other groups, including the Departments of Agriculture and Justice, 
were investigated The review was conducted at the Food and Nutri- 
tion Service headquarters in Washington, D.C., and at the regional 
offices in Princeton, New Jersey, and San Francisco, California. 
Findings/Conclusions: Serious abuses-both criminal and adminis- 
trative-have occurred in the summer feeding program. Most of the 
abuses have involved private nonprofit organizations, which com- 
prised three-fourths of the program's sponsors. Public agency spon- 
sors, such as schools and park departments, operated programs 
relatively free of abuses. The Department of Agriculture has revised 
the program's regulations to try to prevent abuses. Recommenda- 
tions; Additional changes covering sponsor and site selection and 
termination, contracting procedures, state staffing and monitoring, 
sponsor record-keeping, and advances of funds should be included in 
the revised regulations, The program's authorizing legislation should 
be revised to authorize only schools and public agencies as sponsors. 
Additional legislative changes dealing with administrative funds for 
states and sponsors, definitions of eligible sponsors and children, the 
number of food services allowed each day, and the issuance of pro- 
gram regulations have been proposed. (Author/SQ 



024 

[Certain Food Aspects of the School Lunch Program in New York City]- 

CED-77-89, B-178564. June 15, 1977. 5 pp. + 3 enclosures (3 

pp.). 

Report to Secretary, Department of Agriculture, by Henry Esch- 

wege, Director, Community and Economic Development Div. 

Request of Rep. Frederick W. Richmond 

Congressional Relevances House Committee on Education and La- 
bor; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Rep. 
Frederick W. Richmond. 

Statistical sampling techniques were used to estimate the number 
of school lunches served in New York City that met or failed to meet 
type A requirements. Four types of lunches-cafeteria style, meal 
pack, basic (primarily soup and sandwiches), and bulk (prepared food 
frozen in bulk) were tested between January 10 and February 22, 
1977. Findings/Conclusions: Between 40% and 45% of the cafet- 
eria, meal pack, and bulk lunches and 27% of all basic lunches failed 
to meet the type A nutritional requirements. Many of the lunches 
were purchased from vendors and assembled into complete lunches 
by school employees. In such cases, it may be possible for the city 
to obtain refunds for noncompliance from the vendors. The State has 
never withheld program funds for noncompliance with type A lunch 
requirements. In the 1975-1976 school year, the total cost for the 
New York City lunch program was over S79.4 million, with the 
Federal Government paying $62 million, the State $2.8 million, and 
the city $14.6 million. Recommendations: The Food and Nutrition 
Service (Department of Agriculture) should assess the extent that 
this deficiency in New York City is a national problem; see that the 
state or city recovers from vendors; and take appropriate Federal 
action concerning reimbursement for nonconforming lunches 
(DJM) 



033 

[Review of Delays in Issuance of Food Stamp Authorization-to~Purchase 

Cards in Chicago, Illinois]. CED-77-65;,A-51604. May 9, 1977. 6 

pp. 

Report to Rep. Cardiss Collins; by Elmer B, Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service; Illinois: 

Dept. of Public Aid. 

Congressional Relevance: Rep. Cardiss Collins. 

Some elderly recipients in Chicago had received food stamp au- 
thorization-to-purchase cards later in the month than their Federal 
Supplemental Security Income checks. GAO was asked to determine 
whether these cards were being sent about the middle of the month, 
and if so, why, and whether these cards could arrive at the same time 
as the supplemental security checks. Findings/Conclusions: A ran- 
dom sample of 19 supplemental security/food stamp recipients dis- 
closed that the timing created hardships for 8 of these people. Illinois 
has 20 different mailing schedules for public assistance documents. 
For no particular reason, Chicago had a different schedule from the 



025 

Food Stamp Receipts: Who's Watching the Money? CED-77-76; A- 

51604. June 15, 1977. 54 pp. + 3 appendices (24 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned) Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry; Congress. 
Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U,S.C. 201 1 et 
seq.). Emergency Food Stamp Vendor Accountability Act of 1976. 

Misuses and mishandling of over $34 million in food stamp re- 
ceipts went undetected for extended periods because neither the 
Food and Nutrition Service nor the states were effectively monitor- 
ing the agents who sold food stamps. Findings/Conclusions: Known 
major weaknesses in the monitoring system at both the Federal and 
State levels were allowed to continue for years without adequate 
efforts to correct them. Reported deposits were not verified; agents' 
depositing patterns were not monitored; and there was no fotlowup 
when agents failed to submit required reports. The Service's comput- 
er-produced management reports, designed to identify problem 



Food 



025 



Citation Section 



agents, were not usable because they listed too many agents without 
problems, as well as agents with problems Although some improve- 
ments have been made, much more needs to be done. Recommenda- 
tions: Several changes should be made in the present accountability 
system in order to reduce the number of invalid exceptions on cash 
reconciliation and other reports and to improve the reports' reliabil- 
ity and usefulness for monitoring agent accountability Regardless of 
the changes made in the accountability system, the Secretary of 
Agriculture should require the Service to provide the states and its 
regional offices with their respective sections of any management 
reports and other accountability-related reports prepared by the Ser- 
vice or others; disseminate regulations on the respective responsibili- 
ties of the states and the Service; and provide special help to slates 
having the most senous problems in monitoring agent accountability. 
(Author/SQ 



026 

The Food Stamp Program: Overissued Benefits Not Recovered and Fraud 
Not Punished. CED-77-112, A-51604 July 18, 1977. 47 pp. + 2 
appendices (3 pp ) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 

of Justice. 

Congre**lonol Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, Congress. 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S C 201 1 et 

seq.). 

The Government is losing over half a billion dollars annually 
because of overissued food stamp benefits caused by errors, misre- 
presentation, and suspected fraud by recipients and by errors of local 
food stamp offices. Findings/Conclusions. For every $100 of the 
more than $5 billion annual benefits issued nationally, overissuances 
account for about $12, only about 12 cents of that $12 have been 
recovered. The eight local projects reviewed were doing little to 
identify and recover the value of these overissuances. At five of the 
eight projects, about half of the dollar value of the claims established 
for food stamp overissuances was classified as involving suspected 
fraud by recipients, but very few recipients were prosecuted or other- 
wise penalized. Recommendations: The Congress should authorize 
the Secretary of Agriculture to allow the States to keep some portion 
of the money recovered from recipients of overissued benefits and to 
increase from 50% to 75% the Federal share of the adminislrative 
costs associated with processing the suspected fraud cases. The Con- 
gress should also authorize Agriculture, in consultation with the 
Department of Justice, to handle most suspected recipient fraud 
cases administratively rather than referring them for criminal prose- 
cution. The Department of Agriculture should take a number of steps 
to make sure that States adequately identify and recover overissued 
food stamp benefits and punish people who engage in food stamp 
fraud. (Author/SQ 



027 

The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working? PAD-77-6- B- 
1 11810 July 26, 1977. 137 pp. + 3 appendices (28 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Congroulonal Relevance! House Committee on Education and La- 
bor; Se/wteComrnittee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Con- 
gress. 

Authority National School Lunch Act of 1946 (P L 79-396) 
Agricultural Act of 1949, 416 (7 U.S.C. 1431). Child Nutrition Act 
of 1966 (P.L. 89-642). Child Nutrition Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-433). 



P.L. 92-153. P.L 87-823, 11. P.L 74-320. P.L. 91-248. PL. 93- 
326. P.L 94-105 85 Stat. 419. 

The National School Lunch Program is designed to safeguard 
schoolchild health by improving and/or maintaining levels of nutri- 
tion and to strengthen the agricultural economy by stimulating food 
demand. Findings/Conclusions: The sciiool lunch program pro- 
vides adequately for the large-scale feeding of children, but it could 
be much more effective and efficient than it is. Although studies 
show that the school lunch, when paired with a nutritional supple- 
ment or with the school breakfast, can affect the nutritional levels of 
schoolchildren, their findings about how the lunch itself affects nutri- 
tionally deprived and nutritionally adequate participants are incon- 
clusive. There are consistent indications that the program has 
strengthened overall demand for farm products, although the possi- 
bility of a conflict between the program's agricultural and nutritional 
provisions was noted Shifting eating habits and needs over the past 
30 years suggest that the program's objectives should be reassessed. 
Recommendations: Congress should provide policy guidance in- 
dicating specifically what the purpose of the program should be and 
have the program evaluated accordingly, define the priority of each 
purpose and direct how the program is to be evaluated, require the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to assist the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in determining the program's contribution to 
children's health; review Agriculture's program evaluation plan to be 
sure it will support the needs of congressional oversight; and require 
Agriculture to report to the Congress the results of its evaluation. 
(SC) 



028 

Summary of a Report: The National School Lunch Program, Is It 

Working? PAD-77-7; B-111810. July 26, 1977. 16 pp 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Conareiiional Relevance: House Committee on Education and La- 
bor; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Con- 
gress. 
Authority! National School Lunch Act of 1946 (P.L. 79-396). 

There are shortcomings in both the evaluation and the perfor- 
mance of the School Lunch Program. Recommendations: The 
Secretary of Agriculture should require a formal, systematic evalua- 
tion of the National School Lunch Program's performance in meet- 
ing legislative objectives and should determine the nutritional 
standards needed for the program. The Congress should: require the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) to assist the 
US. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in evaluating the school 
lunch program's health impact on children; review USDA's program 
evaluation plan before implementation to make certain that it will 
provide adequate information for program oversight, that it uses the 
resources and expertise of USDA and HEW in a manner that benefits 
the evaluation, and that it is in keeping with the respective missions 
of each agency; require the Secretary of Agriculture, on completion 
of the school lunch program evaluation, to provide a comprehensive 
report of his findings, together with any recommendations he may 
have with respect to improving program effectiveness; and provide 
policy guidance indicating specifically what the goals of the program 
should be and what the priorities are, and have the program eva- 
luated accordingly. (SC) 



Food 



Citation Section 



032 



029 

[Review of Practices, Procedures, and Controls to Prevent Spoilage or 

Theft of Federal Commodities Donated to the Commonwealth of Puerto 

Rico jor Food Relief Programs]. CED-77-120; A-51604. August 18, 

1977. 12 pp. + 2 enclosures (2 pp.). 

Report to Sen, James B Allen; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organlxation Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Food and Nu- 
trition Service; Puerto Rico. 

Congressional Relevances House Committee on Education and La- 
bor; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Sen. 
James B. Allen 

Authority: Older Americans Act of 1965, title VII (42 U.S.C. 3045 
et seq.). (P.L. 74-320, 32; 7 U S.C. 612c). 7 U.S.C. 1431b. 

A review of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico's practices, proce- 
dures, and controls over Federally donated commodities for food 
relief programs did not disclose current instances of theft or exces- 
sive spoilage and indicated that the commodities were adequately 
accounted for at the time of the review. However, both the Common- 
wealth control over donated commodities and the Food and Nutri- 
tion Service monitoring of the commodity program in the 
Commonwealth need improvement to insure that the program there 
does not deteriorate in the future. Recommendations: The Secretary 
of Agriculture should have the Food and Nutrition Service improve 
the Federal'commodity distribution program in Puerto Rico by: re- 
viewing monthly and yearly Commonwealth receipt, distribution, 
and inventory reports more closely to insure accurate, timely report- 
ing and identification of both commodity losses and potential prob- 
lems; reconciling monthly Commonwealth reports with commodity 
shipment reports prepared by the Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service; conducting periodic evaluations and documented 
site inspections of the Commonwealth's receipt, storage, and distri- 
bution practices, procedures, and controls to insure their adequacy 
to account for donated commodities and minimize spoilage or theft; 
requiring the Department of Education to conduct more frequent, 
regularly scheduled warehouse inspections; and requiring the De- 
partment of Education to closely monitor the condition of donated 
commodities stored at temperatures above the suggested levels. (SC) 



030 

Supplement to Comptroller General's Report to the Congress, "The Food 
Stamp Program-Overissued Benefits Not Recovered and Fraud Not 
Punished" (CED-77-112 July 18, 1977). CED-77-1 12A; A- 
51604. August 31, 1977. 12 pp. + appendix (6 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congreitional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Congress, 

The Department of Agriculture did not dispute the basic thrust 
of an earlier GAO report on the food stamp program which Indicated 
that proper actions are not being taken to recover overissuances 
(estimated at S590 million a year) and to punish recipient fraud. 
However, some of Agriculture's comments tend to obscure and mini- 
mize the report's message. Findings/Conclusions: Agriculture 
stated that the Administration's proposal for overhauling food stamp 
legislation included most of the legislative changes recommended in 
the GAO report. The Department, however, strongly disagreed with 
the GAO recommendation that States should retain a portion of 
Federal dollars overissued due to the State's own errors. Agriculture 
also proposed that the legislation be revised to make it .easier to 
collect from States the value of food stamp benefits overissued be- 
cause of State negligence. There is some doubt whether it would be 
feasible to monitor the States closely enough to identify a significant 
proportion of all overissuances that occur so that U could be deter- 
mined whether States were negligent. It may not be reasonable to 
expect the States to expend the extra effort and money necessary to 



effectively identify and report overissuances to Agriculture if they 
will be required to repay the value of the overissuances. (SC) 



031 

Improvements Needed in the Department of Agriculture's Commodity 
Distribution Program, B-l 14824. September 18, 1977. 17 pp. + ap- 
pendix (1 pp.). 

Report to Secretary, Department of Agriculture; by Henry Esch- 
wege, Director, Resources and Economic Development Div. 

Congressional Relevance; House Committee on Government Oper- 
ations; Senate Committee on Government Operations. 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1949, 416, as amended (7 U.S C 
1431). National School Lunch Act, 6, as amended (42 U.S.C. 
1755). 7 U.S.C. 612c. 28 C.F.R. 51. 

In fiscal year 1971 the Department of Agriculture donated about 
2. 5 billion pounds under its commodity distribution program at a cost 
of about $560 million Findings/Conclusions; The Department had 
not taken full advantage of savings in transportation costs and other 
benefits available by shipping larger volumes. Although distributing 
agencies in 30 States were using facilities capable of receiving full 
carloads, about 70% of the shipments involved railcars using less than 
75% of their capacity. Shipping costs of about $2.2 million could have 
been reduced by about $287,000 by using full carloads. Distribution 
costs could have been reduced substantially by providing a lesser 
variety of food in the school lunch program. Recommendations; The 
Secretary of Agriculture should direct the responsible officials to 
revise minimum lot sizes for all food types to qualify for the most 
economic rail rates; develop guidelines to assist State distributing 
agencies in minimizing deliveries of small orders and orders requiring 
stopoff deliveries; periodically review distributing agency ordering 
practices; consider providing a lesser variety of foods for the school 
lunch program; see that the results of a Food and Nutrition Service 
study are adequately considered in determining the need for furture 
checkloading; direct that an inspector be present at all times when 
checkloading is required and that each unit be counted as it is loaded; 
provide the Agricultural Marketing Service with a means of evaluat- 
ing checkloading procedures; and evaluate unloading operations of 
consignees in States having frequent shortages. (SC) 



032 

Preliminary Report on the Special Supplemental Food Program. 
B-176994. September 28, 1977. 8 pp. + appendix (2 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Robert F. Keller, Deputy Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Congressional Relevance] Congress. 

Authority: Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (P.L. 92-433; 86 Stat. 724; 
42 U.S.C. 1771). 7 U.S.C. 612(c). H.R. 9639 (94th Congress). 

The Special Supplemental Food Program was a program of cash 
grants to the States, to be carried out during fiscal years 1973 and 
1 974, to provide supplemental foods through State and local agencies 
to pregnant or lactating women and to infants and children up to 4 
years of age determined by competent professionals to be nutritional 
risks because of inadequate nutrition and income. States and local 
agencies were required to maintain adequate medical records on the 
participants to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to determine and 
evaluate the benefits of the nutritional assistance provided, The pro- 
gram was administered by the Food and Nutrition Service. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: On August 3, 1973, the District Court of the 
United States for the District of Columbia ordered the Secretary of 
Agriculture to process and approve applications and program regula- 
tions until the $40 million legislated for the program was expended. 



Food 



032 



Citation Section 



Health services consultants advised lhat extending the feeding and 
evaluation period from 6 months to between 12 and 18 months would 
significantly improve the reliability of the evaluation conclusions 
Although the legislative history indicated that the medical evaluation 
of program participants should include a determination of the pro- 
gram's effects on mental as well as physical development of infants, 
there were serious questions as to whether any valid measurement of 
mental development was possible in this study. Recommendations; 
Allowing additional time for the preparation of preliminary evalua- 
tions of the program and of reports containing evaluations of the 
program and making recommendations concerning its continuation 
could be beneficial in terms of increased program participation and 
could allow development of more meaningful evaluation data on 
which to base recommendations. (SC) 



FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY 



033 

Consumer Protection Would Be Increased by Improving the Administra- 
tion of Intrastote Meat Plant Inspection Programs. B-163450. Novem- 
ber 2, 1973. 30 pp +7 appendices (18 pp.). 
Report to the Congress, by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Animal and 

Plant Health Inspection Service. 

Congreitionol Relevance: Congress, 

Authority: Wholesome Meat Act (P.L, 90-201; 81 Stat 584; 21 

U.SC.601 etseq.) 21US.C.661 H.R. 4141 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 

4646 (93rd Cong.) H,R 7156 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 8199 (93rd Cong.). 

S. 1021 (93rd Cong). S 1919 (93rd Cong,). 

The Wholesome Meat Act, designed to protect consumers from 
bad meat, allowed States up to 3 years to develop and implement 
laws and programs that imposed inspection and sanitation require- 
ments on mtrastate meat plants equal to those imposed on federally 
inspected meat plants. If a State developed a program, it was eligible 
for Federal assistance; otherwise, meat plants came under Federal 
jurisdiction. Findings/Conclusions; Since the implementation of 
the law. meat inspection programs have improved, with 40 States 
now having "equal to" Federal programs for 8,700 plants and the 
Federal Government having programs for 6,200 plants. The Animal 
and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) needs to improve its 
criteria for rating whether plant conditions comply with baste Fed- 
eral requirements. If any one of the seven basic requirements is not 
met, the plant is considered unacceptable, but inspectors are not 
consistent in what they consider acceptable. In several instances one 
plant would be considered unacceptable, but another, with the same 
condition, would pass APHIS criteria for determining if a State is 
maintaining an "equal to" program also needs to improve, A quar- 
terly random sample of plants within a State would provide the 
Service with adequate information, would be more cost effective, and 
would leave more time for correction than the present yearly inspec- 
tion. Recommendations: The APHIS administrator should; provide 
reviewers with improved plant rating criteria, establish and advise 
the States of the criteria that will be used in determining when a 
State s program is "equal to," and consider using quarterly random 
samples. (Author/SS) ' 



034 

{The Banning of DDT by the En vironmental Protection Agency and Its 

%?"*" ^ mcy Vse a S ainst tke Kmc* Moth}. B- 
February 26, 1974. 2 pp. 



Report to Rep. Mike McCormack, by Robert F. Keller, Deputy 
Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned! Environmental Protection Agency; Forest 

Service. 

Congressional Relevance: Rep, Mike McCormack. 

Authority: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 

1972 (7 U.S.C. 136). National Environmental Policy Act. 

On December 13, 1973, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District 
of Columbia upheld the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 
order banning DDT. The order was challenged on two points: (!) 
whether the EPA had based its order on substantial evidence, includ- 
ing the findings of its hearing examiner; and (2) whether EPA hflct 
complied with the legal requirement of preparing a detailed state- 
ment on the environmental impact of the proposed action. I-'iit- 
dings/Cottclusians: The court ruled that the EPA had based Els 
decision on substantial evidence and had provided the equivalent of 
a detailed environmental impact statement. DDT can be used in 
emergency situations, but has been used so only once. EPA refused 
its use against the tussock moth because of DDT's potential damage 
to the environment and because of the expected flareup of a vims 
which usually occurs and controls the infestation. Generally n tus- 
sock moth infestation is not detected until the second year, when ft 
is too late to spray. The Forest Service is looking for new ways to 
detect the Infestation earlier. (Author/SS) 



035 

Pesticides,- Actions Needed to Protect the Consumer from Defective 
Products. B-I33192. May 23, 1974. 46pp. + 3 appendices (8 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned! Environmental Protection Agency. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress, 

Authority: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodentictdc Act of 
1947 ( U.S.C. 1 35). Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 
1972 (7 U.S.C 136 (Supp, II)). Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970. 

Consumers have not been adequately protected from defective 
pesticides because of inadequate Environmental Protection Agency 
(EPA) efforts to determine whether registered pesticides were mnr- 
ketcd in accordance with provisions of the Federal Environmental 
Pesticide Control Act of 1972. Findings/Conclusions: EPA did iiol 
give its inspectors enough guidance for determining which registered 
pesticides to sample. Because of a lack of space, personnel, and 
equipment, EPA's biological laboratories could not test most samples 
for safety and effectiveness. Only 32% of the samples were tested for 
effectiveness and 19% were tested for safety. Recommendations: 
The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should: 
(1) devise a more effective sampling program to insure adequate 
coverage of pesticides being marketed; (2) expand the import market 
surveillance program; (3) initiate measures to obtain the additional 
personnel, space, and equipment necessary for conducting a suffi- 
ciently broad and thorough testing program; (4) take steps to deter- 
mine the effective life of decomposable pesticides; (5) require thai 
expiration dates be included on labels of decomposable pesticides; (6) 
establish procedures for testing, before registration, disinfectants, 
rodenticides, and any other pesticide categories which EPA hfrt 
found to have a high rate of biological defects; (7) request manufac- 
turers to recall production lots from which EPA has collected IneC' 
fectwe samples; (8) establish procedures for notifying manufacturers 
of all deficiencies found In samples of their pesticides; and (9) enter 
into cooperative agreements with the States to carry out EPA's mar- 
ket surveillance program and to help the States obtain necessary 
expertise. (SC) J 



Food 



039 



'aw Meat and Poultry: An Assessment oj the Problem. 
uily 22, 1974. 36 pp +6 appendices (15 pp.). 
ongress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General. 



correlative pathway from sugar to coronary heart disease does not 
appear to exist (SW) 



;oncerned: Department of Health, Education, and 
tment of Agriculture; Animal and Plant Health In- 
y. Food and Drug Administration 
Celevance: Congress. 

3 ral Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301). 
ispection Act (21 U S C 601). Poultry Products In- 
S amended; Wholesome Poultry Products Act (21 
U.S.C. 111. 



Imonel la-contaminated raw meat and poultry pro- 
ng the market, consumers have not been adequately 
roblem or to safeguards they must take to minimize 
his bacteria. Federal efforts have not had a major 
oiling human salmonellosis and have resulted in cer- 
gincnts being regulated for salmonella contamination 
; not. Although the Food and Drug Administration 

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service have 
io not regulate salmonella-contaminated products on 
et. Findings/Conclusions; FDA analyzed 100 raw 
w poultry samples for salmonella contamination. The 
urchased from retail stores in 10 metropolitan areas. 
mplea, or 17%., were contaminated. The National 
iences concluded that it was unreasonable to expect 

be eradicated in the near future. Although consumer 
iwed as an essential and practical safeguard against 
uch programs need to be improved. Recommenda- 
artments of Health, Education, and Welfare and 
Lild; implement recommendations of their task forces 
timely and effective control of the salmonella prob- 
[n a program to assess the extent of salmonella-con- 
neat and poultry products on the market; emphasize 
le serious potential health problems associated with 
eat and poultry, particularly chicken and pork, and 

to take in handling them; and periodically measure 
s of their consumer education programs. Considera- 
vcn to identifying target groups to which intensive 
ition should be directed. (Author/SC) 



038 

[Survey of FDA's Sanitation Program for Food Storage Warehouses], 
B-164031(2). July 30, 1974 7 pp. 

Report to Alexander M. Schmidt, Commissioner, Food and Drug 
Administration; by Morton A. Myers (for Albert B. Jojokian, Assist- 
ant Director, Manpower and Welfare Div.). 

Organization Concerned! Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; Department of Agriculture; Animal and Plant Health In- 
spection Service; Food and Drug Administration. 
Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301). 

A survey of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) sanita- 
tion program for food storage warehouses was conducted. Surveyors 
accompanied FDA and/or State inspectors on inspections of 22 food 
storage warehouses in the Seattle and Los Angeles Districts. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions; Although the sanitation conditions of the ware- 
houses in most cases were adequate, FDA inspectors detected rodent 
and bird infestations in two warehouses in Seattle that resulted En two 
of the largest food seizures in FDA history. Contaminated food lots 
were found in a warehouse routinely inspected by FDA and at a 
warehouse which the State was responsible for inspecting under 
FDA contract. FDA has not defined or provided adequate guidance 
to its inspectors as to the meaning of "significant" insanitary condi- 
tions. Such guidance would assist inspectors in determining whether 
a phase II inspection is warranted. FDA district office personnel 
must use considerable judgment and discretion in determining what 
insanitary conditions would warrant a phase II inspection and in 
determining when followup inspections would be performed. 
Recommendations: The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration should establish more specific criteria and guidelines for 
inspectors to follow in determining whether a phase II inspection is 
warranted in instances where inspection results indicate insanitary 
conditions having potential for causing, or liaving already caused 
product contamination. The Commissioner should: evaluate the 
adequacy of the training program for new inspec*" " IlK " "'-" 
toward redirecting such training efforts that n 



fion and Health Effects. August 1, 1977. 28 pp. 
B. Bresler, Congressional Research Service. 

oncorned: Food and Drug Administration; Federa- 
in Societies for Experimental Biology. 



L tly represents 25% of the calories in the national diet 
'n of caloric sweeteners or all of the so-called "sugars" 
as increased by about one-third since the beginning 
om about 1 55 to almost 2 1 grams per capita per day. 
urce of sugar (sucrose) is breakfast cereals. Approxi- 
\ of the sugar intake per year per capita in the United 
id by soft drinks according to a Dietary Goals study, 
ers of all baby foods still add sweeteners to many of 

"Consumer Reports," in a survey of these foods, 
' than one-third of the products have added sweeten- 
ir$ to be an important ingredient in the development 

Although specific evidence on sucrose engendering 
proven, a possible link between, sucrose and obesity 
a been suggested. The same indirect link between 
md heart disease has been noted even though a direct 



039 



Citation Section 



1933, as amended (21 U.S C 301} 

There is no consensus among researchers as to the safety of 
maleic hydrazide, a growth regulator and herbicide used on potatoes, 
onions, and tobacco. Some researchers have conclu<*ed that it is safe, 
while others have concluded that it may pose a health risk to exposed 
populations findings/Conclusions: The questions raised in several 
research papers about the potential health nsk of exposing individu- 
als to mafeic hydrazide indicate that such risk has not been evaluated 
sufficiently. Additional data are needed to determine if food contain- 
ing translocated maleic hydrazide has adverse effects on reproduc- 
tion and if maleic hydrazide is a mutagen in animals 
Recommendations: The Administrator of the Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency should determine, through additional testing and 
research, whether maleic hydrazide will adversely affect human 
health or the environment. The Secretary of the Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare should, through the Commissioner 
of the Food and Drug Administration, periodically test potatoes, 
potato products, and onions to make sure that established maleic 
hydrazide residue tolerances are not being exceeded. When residue 
tolerances are exceeded, action should be taken to remove these 
products from the market. (Author/SQ 



MO 

Answers to Questions on the Issuance of an Emergency Temporary 
Standard for Certain Chemicals Considered to Be Carcinogens. B- 
179768. January 6, 1975. 4 pp. + 4 appendices (26 pp.). 
Report to Rep. Bill Archer; Rep M. Caldwell Butler; Rep. George A. 
Goodlmg; Rep James F. Hastings; Rep. G. V. Montgomery; Rep. 
Steven D Symms; Rep. Joe D. Waggoner; Rep. Antonio Borja Won 
Pat; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 



041 

Need to Establish the Safety of Color Additive FD&C Red No. 2. 
MWD-76-40;B- 16403 1(2) October 20, 1975. 26 pp + 2 appen- 
dices (3 pp.) 

Report to Sen. Gaylord Nelson; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare; Food and Drug Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: Sell. Gaylord Nelson. 

Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 

USC 301). Color Additive Amendments (P.L. 86-618). 21 C F.R. 

8.4. 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has permitted the use 
of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Red No. 2, a color additive, in food, 
drugs, and cosmetics for 15 years without making a final determina- 
tion of its safety, despite the fact that the Federal Food, Drug, and 
Cosmetic Act requires that color additives used in such products be 
determined to be safe. During this period, scientific studies have 
raised questions about the safety of Red No. 2. Permitting continued 
use of the additive before resolving the safety questions exposes the 
public to unnecessary risks. Findings/Conclusions: When the Fed- 
eral Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in 1960, it contained 
provisions for color additives commercially established at that time, 
including Red No. 2, to continue in use on an interim basis for a 
reasonable period of tima pending completion of scientific investiga- 
tions to determine their safety. FDA has repeatedly extended the 
interim period for the dye on the basis of requests from manufacturer 
or industry associations to allow time to complete scientific investi- 
gations of its safety, although in some cases the investigations thai 
were being conducted were not identified. In July 1972, FDA issued 
a proposal to limit human exposure to the color additive, but no 
action to implement this proposal had been taken by September 1, 
1975. Recommendations: The Secretary of the Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare should direct the Commissioner of 
the FDA to promptly establish the safety of Red No. 2 or prevent 
its use in food, drugs, and cosmetics. (Author/SC) 



Organization Concerned: National Inst. for Occupational Safety 
and Health; Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 
Congressional Relevance; Rep. Bill Archer, Rep. M. Caldwell Butler; 
Rep. George A. Goodling; Rep. James F. Hastings; Rep. G. V. Mont- 
gomery; Rep Steven D. Symms; Rep. Joe D. Waggoner; Rep. Antonio 
Borja Won Pat. 

Authority: Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 US.C. 
651). National Environmental Policy Act. 

On May 3, 1973, the Occupational Safety and Health Adminis- 
tration (OSHA) published an emergency temporary standard to 
regulate employee exposure to 14 chemicals considered to be car- 
cinogens. The standard was revised on July 27, 1973, to provide more 
H * B " ..... ..... rols ^ workplaces and work operations and to require 



042 

Federal Pesticide Registration Program; Is It Protecting the Kittle and 
the Environment Adequately from Pesticide Hazards? RED-76-42; B- 
133192. December 4, 1975. 72 pp. -f 3 appendices (18 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Environmental Protection Agency; Food 

and Drug Administration, 

Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

?o U S /-! f yj^ dC , ml Insecticlde ' Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 

nf 1070 ^ ., c i ?;^ e l eral Envfron ment8l Pesticide Control Act 

of 1972 (7 US C 136). Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 

1938, as amended (21 US.C. 301). 

The American consumer has not been adequately protected from 
he potential hazards of pesticide use because of inadequate efforts 
to impement provisions of the Federal laws regulating pesticides. 
Federa law requires that only effective pesticides be registered 

heal S nn7 "? ause r ea , 8onflble adverse effects o" h"n 
health and he env ronment) and that residues of pesticides in food 

it fs q S;r ed ; ! hflt c r r ers are not exposed < IM 

evels, Findins/Conclusions: Review of the Federal pesticide resis- 
?'? 8afe * and efficac * data have not bn 

rketl W^ PeStlGidCS (includin * *"<* da 
on cancer, gerietic changes, birth defects, and rcoro- 
duction); safety and efficacy data are not required for the pest Scs 
as marketed, but rather only for the individual ^vf^lSl 
rev -tew o inert ingredients, sueh as vinyl chloride" ouSSld 
to the full range of safety testing; many labels do not comply S 
requirements; pesticide residue, tolerances are not monitored I 
viewed; the safety of pesticide residues in some 



Food 



Citation Section 



045 



determined; and statutory registration requirements are not earned 
out on a timely basis (Author/SC) 



043 

Federal Support for Restaurant Sanitation Found Largely Ineffective. 
MWD-76-42; 8-164031(2) December 8, 1975, 24 pp. + 7 appen- 
dices (12 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organ! lotion Concerned: Food and Drug Administration. 
Congressional Relevancei Congress. 

Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 301(k) (21 
U.S.C. 331(k)). Public Health Service Act, title III, as amended (42 
U.S.C. 241). 21 US.C. 342(a). 

A 1974 inspection of 185 restaurants selected at random from 
14,736 restaurants in 9 metropolitan areas indicated that about 90% 
of the restaurants were insanitary. Findings/Conclusions: Accord- 
ing to a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official, sanitation 
conditions in restaurants have not greatly improved since the survey. 
Earlier inspections by FDA and State or local health departments 
show that sanitation conditions of restaurants in the United States 
have been a persistent problem. FDA is responsible for administering 
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which prohibits the adul- 
teration of food shipped in interstate commerce, including food held 
in restaurants. The agency relies on State and local governments to 
regulate restaurants. The advisory and voluntary food service sanita- 
tion program that FDA has established to help State governments 
carry out their regulatory activities has not been effective. Local 
governments generally have been ineffective in regulating restaurant 
sanitation and, as a rule, the States' monitoring of these programs has 
been minimal. Recommendations; The Secretary of Health, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare should direct the Commissioner of FDA to 
strengthen the program to encourage States to improve their food 
service sanitation programs. If FDA determines that additional re- 
sources are needed to strengthen its program, it should bring the 
matter to the attention of the Congress. (Author/SC) 



044 

[ The Environmental Protection Agency's Determination of Pesticide Data 
Reliability]. RED-76-63. January 26, 1976. 10 pp. + enclosure (8 
pp.). 

Report to Russell E. Train, Administrator, Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency; by Henry Eschwcge, Director, Resources and Eco- 
nomic Development Div. 

Organliatlon Concerned! Food and Drug Administration. 
Authority! Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 
1947, as amended (7 U.S.C. 135). Federal Food Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act of 1938, as amended (21 U.S.C. 301). 

In accordance with legislation, the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) registers pesticides and establishes their tolerances. 
The pesticide safety and efficacy testing is generally performed by 
nongovernmental laboratories under contract to pesticide manufac- 
turers. Findings/Conclusions; EPA's review of safety and efficacy 
studies was generally restricted to reading test results and question- 
ing obvious shortcomings in test methods or conclusions at variance 
with raw data or unexpected for that class of chemicals. EPA review- 
ers differ in opinions of the reliability of nongovernmental laboratory 
data, and some reviewers have found inconsistencies, failures to 
follow prescribed test methods, results lacking statistical validity, 
and conflicting data. EPA has no program to inspect, license, or 
accredit these laboratories such as those of other agencies, including 
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). EPA's acceptance of 
studies which contain laboratory disclaimers regarding test results 



and which do not identify chemical composition prevents EPA from 
insuring that only safe and effective pesticides are registered. 
Recommendations: EPA should determine whether an accredita- 
tion or inspection program is necessary for nongovernmental 
laboratories and consider the following alternatives; a joint EPA- 
FDA program to avoid duplication of visits to laboratories serving 
both agencies, accreditation by private organizations, or a. combina- 
tion of these. EPA should not accept studies containing laboratory 
disclaimers and should consider requiring chemical analyses of pro- 
ducts being tested. (HTW) 



045 

Assessment of the National Grain Inspection System. RED-76-71; 
B-1114824. February 12, 1976. 95 pp. -I- 7 appendices (24 pp.). 
Report to Rep. Thomas S. Foley, Chairman, House Committee on 
Agriculture; Sen Hubert H. Humphrey, Chairman, Senate Commit- 
tee on Agriculture and Forestry: Foreign Agricultural Policy Sub- 
committee; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned; Agricultural Marketing Service; Depart- 
ment of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service; Foreign Agricul- 
tural Service. 

Congressional Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry: Foreign Agricultural Policy 
Subcommittee. 

Authority] Grain Standard Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 71). Ware- 
house Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 241). 

Serious problems exist in the national grain inspection system 
authorized by the Grain Standards Act. The Department of Agricul- 
ture's (USDA's) role as overall supervisor has serious inherent limita- 
tions. It has not been able to insure the integrity of a system operated 
by a widely dispersed group of over 100 State and private agencies 
and trade associations. Weaknesses in the national inspection system 
have led to extensive criminal abuses Findings/Conclusions; Al- 
though some inspection services have been satisfactory, the system 
generally has; operated without effective controls, procedures, or 
lines of authority; tolerated conflicts of interest between the grain 
inspection and merchandising operations; and not been responsive to 
the limited supervision provided by the Department's Agricultural 
Marketing Service (AMS). Inquiries in nine foreign countries re- 
vealed much dissatisfaction with U.S. grain sold abroad. Many cus- 
tomers believed they regularly received lower quality and weight 
than they paid for. Procedures for handling foreign complaints were 
poorly defined and generally ineffectual. No central coordinating 
agency was designed to Insure that all complaints were recorded, 
investigated, and responded to and analyzed for reexamination of 
Inspection procedures. Some respondents felt greater emphasis was 
needed on developing standards which stressed qualities relating to 
grain's end use, such as protein In wheat, and which provided incen- 
tives to farmers to produce higher quality grain. New equipment or 
inspection techniques must be developed to readily ascertain grade 
in accordance with the proposed standards. Recommendations: 
Congress should establish an essentially all Federal Inspection sys- 
tem incorporating sampling, grading, and weighing services which 
would be phased in gradually starting immediately at problem loca- 
tions, moving as soon as possible to port elevators, and after sufficient 
experience is gained, extending to major inland terminals. The Secre- 
tary of Agriculture should: direct AMS to determine the possible 
impact, particularly to U.S. exporters, of correcting original inspec- 
tion certificates found to be In error; require research to identify the 
type and extent of damage which can be expected to occur when 
handling and transporting grain, particularly export grain; designate 
the Foreign Agriculture Service as the central coordinating agency 
in USDA for handling foreign complaints; and develop written 
procedures for promptly investigating and responding to foreign 
complaints. The Secretary of Agriculture should intensify research 
and development on the U.S. grain standards and provide for greater 
coordination and cooperation among the USDA agencies with re- 
search and marketing responsibilities. (SW) 



Food 



13 



046 



Citation Section 



046 

Use of Cancer-Causing Drugs in Food-Producing Animals May Pose 
Public Health Hazard: The Case of Nttrofurans. MWD-76-85, B- 
164031 (2) February 25, 1976 50 pp + appendix (3 pp.). 
Report to Rep John E Moss, Chairman, House Committee on Inter- 
state and Foreign Commerce. Oversight and Investigations Subcom- 
mittee; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller Genera! 

Organization Concerned: Food and Drug Administration; Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 
U.S.C. 301 et seq.). Food Additive Amendments (P.L. 85-929). De- 
laney Clause: 21 U.S.C. 360. 21 C.FR. 514.1 et seq. 

Nitrofurans are a class of animal drugs used at low levels in feed 
for chickens, turkeys, swine, and other animals. Continued use of 
nitrofurans may pose a public health hazard where information is not 
available to demonstrate the absence in foods of residues of the drugs 
and of their metabolites The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 
has concluded that one of the four nitrofurans used in food-produc- 
ing animals is a carcinogen and that the other three are highly suspect 
as carcinogens. In addition, FDA officials have said that some ni- 
trofuran metabolites are suspect carcinogens. Accurate assessment of 
the health risk created by these animal drugs is particularly important 
since there is the possibility of long-term, low-level public exposure 
to residues of these drugs and/or their metabolites through consump- 
tion of meat, milk, or eggs from treated animals. Findings/Conclu~ 
sions; Although studies have demonstrated that nitrofuran residues 
may remain in food when the drugs are used in accordance with label 
directions, no tests have been performed to determine the extent of 
such residues in marketed food. FDA has also not obtained data on 
the extent of metabolite residues in food. Under the strict interpreta- 
tion of imminent hazard used by the FDA, the Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) said that continued use of 
nitridurans during the time required for administrative resolution of 
the nitrofuran safety question does not pose an imminent hazard to 
human health. Although the decision to suspend a product as an 
imminent hazard rests with the Secretary of HEW, GAO believes 
that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and recent court 
decisions support the use of an interpretation of imminent hazard 
that is more liberal than that stated by the Department. Recommen- 
dations: The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare should 
consider suspending the use of these four drugs where it has not been 
demonstrated that no residues of the drug or of their active metabo- 
lites remain in food. (Author/SC) 



047 

Regulation of the Food Additive Aspartame. MWD-76-111; B-16403I 
(2). AprilS, 1976. 15pp. 

Report to Sen. Gaylord Nelson; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Drug Administration; G, D. 
Searle and Co. 

Conditional Relevance: Sen, Gaylord Nelson. 
Authority: Food Additives Amendment of!958 (P.L. 85-929), Fed- 
eral Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 U.S.C 3481 21 
C.F.R. 121. J 

Under the Food Additives Amendment of 1958, the Food and 
Drug Administration (FDA) is required to establish regulations pre- 
scribing the conditions under which a food additive may be safely 
used. A food additive will be deemed unsafe and restricted from 
public use by FDA if available information fails to establish the safety 
of its proposed use or if it is found to induce cancer when ingested 
by man or animals. Aspartame is an artificial sweetner about 180 
times as sweet as sugar developed by G. D. Searle and Company in 
1965. Although the company arranged to market the sweetener 



jointly with the General Foods Corporation, as of February 1976, 
aspartame had not been marketed, and saccharin was the only ap- 
proved artificial sweetener on the market Findings/Conclusions: 
Since June 1969, Searle representatives met several times with FDA 
officials to discuss requirements for a food additive petition propos- 
ing issuance of a regulation allowing the use of aspartame in food. 
Following the submission of the petition and the results of scientific 
studies supporting the safety of aspartame for its proposed uses, FDA 
published a regulation approving the use of aspartame. Within 30 
days of the FDA's regulation approving restricted use of the additive, 
three statements of objection were filed. Before the questions raised 
in the objections were answered, preliminary results of an agency 
investigation indicated that discrepancies existed in the data submit- 
ted in support of aspartame's safety by Searle On Decembers, 1975, 
FDA stayed the regulations approving the use of aspartame. The 
additive will not be permitted to be marketed until all questions 
raised about its safety have been resolved. (Author/SC) 



048 

Federal Efforts to Protect the Public from Cancer-Causing Chemicals Are 

Not Very Effective. MWD-76-59; B-164031(2). June 16, 1976. 40 

pp. + 8 appendices (17 pp.) 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: Consumer Product Safety Commission; 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of La- 
bor; Environmental Protection Agency. 
Congrettlonal Relevance; Congress. 

Authority: National Cancer Act of 1971 (42 U.S.C. 282). Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 65 1). Federal Food, 
Drug, And Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C, 301). Federal Insecticide, Fun- 
gicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 135). Federal Water Pollution 
Control Act. Clean Air Act. Consumer Product Safety Act. Federal 
Hazardous Substances Act. 33 U.S.C. 1251. 42 U.S.C. 1857. IS 
U.S.C. 2051, 15 U.S.C. 1261. 

Although it is estimated that up to 90% of human cancer is 
environmentally caused and controllable, Federal efforts to protect 
the public from cancer-causing chemicals have not been too success- 
ful. While Federal agencies, including the Departments of Labor and 
Health, Education, and Welfare, the Environmental Protection 
Agency, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission generally 
have enough authority to regulate the chemicals, they have encoun- 
tered scientific problems relating the results of animal safety tests to 
humans. Findings/Conclusions; Federal agencies have trouble de- 
termining which chemicals that cause cancer in animals also pose n 
cancer threat to humans because: there are no generally accepted 
principles concerning environmental causes of cancer; there arc no 
minimum guidelines for testing; test data are not always complete or 
appropriate; and scientists cannot accurately predict human response 
to chemicals on the basis of animal test results. Recommendations; 
The Director of the National Cancer Institute, who is responsible for 
directing Federal efforts to protect the public from carcinogens, 
should, with the cooperation of other involved Federal agencies, 
develop a uniform Federal policy for identifying and regulating can- 
cer-causing chemicals. This policy should at least cover: the informa- 
tion needed to regulate carcinogens; which chemicals should be 
tested in animals; how tests should be conducted; how results should 
be evaluated; how human risks can be assessed from animal studies; 
and what factors other than public health agencies should consider. 
The Food and Drug Administration should have all approved and 
proposed food additives tested for their cancer-causing potential. 
The Congress should request the Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare to prepare a study showing the available options for 
regulating tobacco and tobacco products and the impact each option 
would have on the rising US. lung cancer rate and should then 
consider giving the Department or some other appropriate agency 
the specific authority to regulate tobacco and tobacco products, (Au- 
thor/SC) 



Food 



Citation Section 



052 



049 

Supplemental Information on Assessment of the National Grain Inspec- 
tion System. CED-76-132; B-114824. July 16, 1976. 4 pp. + 3 en- 
closures (94 pp ). 
Report to Sen. Dick Clark; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned; Department of Agriculture; Agricultural 

Marketing Service. 

Congressional Relevance: Sen. Dick Clark. 

Authority: Grain Standards Act. 

Supplemental information was requested on locations in the 
United States other than New Orleans in which evidence was Found 
of irregularities or improprieties in grain inspection and weighing 
procedures and where situations existed providing opportunities for 
such irregularities. Findings/Conclusions: Information supplied 
related to: (1) the need to tighten restrictions on conflict-of-interest 
situations; (2) improvements needed in obtaining and preserving 
representative samples; (3) the need to strengthen controls and 
supervision over grain weighing; (4) the need for improved uniform- 
ity and accuracy in grain grading; (5) duplication in inspections 
under the present system, (6) problems with stowage examinations; 
(7) problems in improving personnel administration; (8) limited ef- 
fectiveness of the Agricultural Marketing Service's administration 
and supervision; and (9) the Administration's proposal to strengthen 
the national grain inspection system. Lists were supplied of examples 
of irregularities and improprieties and situations leading to deficien- 
cies, and evidence used in GAO evaluations was included. (Au- 
thor/HTW) 



050 

Need to Resolve Safety Questions on Saccharin. HRD-76-156; D- 

164031 (2). August 18, 1976. 29 pp. + appendix (3 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Gaylord Nelson; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare; Food and Drug Administration. 

Congressional Relevance; Sen. Gaylord Nelson. 

Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended; 

Food Additives Amendment of 1958 (21 U.S.C. 348). 21 C.F.R. 121. 

21 C.F.R, 4000. 

Allowing a Federal interim food additive regulation permitting 
the use of an additive to remain in effect for about 6 years while 
safety questions concerning it are being resolved seems contrary to 
the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) intent of permitting 
use of such an additive for limited periods. Extended use of a food 
additive such as the artificial sweetener saccharin, whose safety has 
not been conclusively established, could expose the public to un- 
necessary risk. Findings/Conclusions; The interim food additive 
regulation for saccharin and its three salt forms was issued in Febru- 
ary 1972 because of the questions raised about their potential to 
cause cancer. Under the interim regulation, saccharin was permitted 
to be used in foods at the same low safety factor level as before. The 
level of O-toluenesulfonamide, an impurity in saccharin, was limited 
to 100 parts per million because of industrial capability factors. 
However, technological advancements have since made it possible to 
reduce the level to less than half this amount. Recommendations: 
Because saccharin has been used under an interim food additive 
regulation for about the past 4 years and because safety questions 
about it are not expected to be resolved for about 2 more years, the 
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare should direct the Com- 
missioner of the Food and Drug Administration to reevaluate the 
justification for saccharin's continued use pending resolution of the 
safety questions. If continued use under the interim regulation is 
justified, the Commissioner should consider the need to increase the 
safety factor to provide a higher margin of safety and to reduce the 



permissible levels of O-toluenesulfonamide in saccharin to the lowest 
level achievable under present manufacturing technology. (Au- 

thor/SC) 



051 

A Legislative History of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 
(Revised). April 1, 1977 32 pp 
Report by Jack B Bresler; Mary Nell Lehnhard. 
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Con- 
gress 

Organization Concerned: Food and Drug Administration 
Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended. 
Food and Drugs Act of 1906 Factory Inspection Amendments of 
1953. Food Standard Amendments of 1954. Pesticide Chemical 
Amendment of 1954 Orange Coloring Amendment of 1956. Food 
Additives Amendment of 1958. Drug Amendments of 1962 

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act provides authority 
for the regulation of food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices. It 
prohibits adulteration or misbranding of these products and, in the 
case of certain drugs and food additives, sets forth pre-marketing 
requirements The first Federal food and drug taw, the Food and 
Drugs Act of 1906, banned from interstate commerce any traffic in 
adulterated or misbranded food or drugs. Amendments which ex- 
panded the scope and strengthened the act were added in 1912, 
1938, 1941, 1948, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1968, 
1972, and 1976. These dealt with labeling requirements, insulin and 
antibiotic certification, prescription of drugs, factory inspection, food 
standards, pesticides, food additives, color additives, animal drugs, 
drug listings, health research and services, vitamins and minerals, 
and medical devices. (HTW) 



052 

Need for Regulating the Food Salvage Industry to Prevent Sales of 
Unwholesome and Misbranded Foods to the Public. MWD-75-64; B- 
164931(2). May 20, 1977. 28 pp. + 4 appendices (7 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- 
vice; Food and Drug Administration; Department of Agriculture; 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (15 U.S.C. 1451). Fed- 
eral Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301). Federal Meat 
Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601). Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 
U.S.C. 451). 21 C.F.R. 128. 

During distribution, some food produced in America becomes 
damaged or subjected to contamination due to mishandling, acci- 
dents, or disasters caused by fires, floods, or storms. This food is 
either salvaged and sold, often through salvage outlets, or destroyed. 
Neither the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) 
or the Department of Agriculture, which are responsible for regulat- 
ing salvaged food, know the total number of food salvage outlets in 
the nation. Information on salvaged food was solicited by question- 
naire from all 50 States and 93 of the 100 largest U.S. cities. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: About 75% of the salvage outlets are in cities, and 
about 50% are in low income areas. Salvage outlets in low income 
urban areas sell much salvaged food, and it is bought by social institu- 
tions and private organizations, such as nursing homes, orphanages, 
schools, restaurants, and bakeries. Of 30 food salvage outlets visited, 
23 were selling processed food products with misleading or incom- 
plete labels or without labels. Twenty-six outlets had food for sale 
which was insect infested or in containers which were leaking, rusted, 
stained by foreign substances, swollen, or badly damaged. Fifteen 



Food 



15 



052 



Citation Section 



outlets stored food products with harmful nonfood products. One 
salvage outlet voluntarily closed, and eight others were asked to 
destroy food products Regulatory actions were not taken against the 
17 remaining salvage outlets with similar conditions Four to 9 
months after the visits, most of the 17 outlets had been remspected 
or scheduled for remspection Recommendations: The Secretary of 
HEW should direct the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration to (1) develop and publish a Federal regulation estab- 
lishing a nationally uniform code for salvage outlets, including 
guidelines and criteria for transporting, sorting, reconditioning, re- 
packaging, and storing salvaged food, (2) establish a program for 
regulating salvage outlets through administration inspections; and 
(3) alert health agencies responsible for inspecting institutions in all 
States about the potential effects of allowing institutions to buy mis- 
branded or damaged salvaged food products (Author/SW) 



053 

Saccharin: A Review of Current Issues. June 1, 1977. 40 pp. + 6 
appendices (61 pp.). 

Report by Jack B. Bresler; Christopher H Dodge; Sandra Km's- 
bacher, Stephanie L. Forbes. 

Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Con- 
gress. 

Orficmlzatlon Concerned: Food and Drug Administration 
Authority: Federal Food, Drugs and Cosmetic Act; Food Additives 
Amendment of 1958, Delaney Anticancer Clause (21 U S.C. 321 et 
seq.). Drug Amendments of 1962. 

The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) decision to ban 
saccharin, announced on March 9, 1977, was based on the Delaney 
clause of the 1958 Food Additives Amendment. This clause states 
that no additive can be considered safe if it induces cancer in man 
or animal, but does not allow for any "tolerance level." Cyclamates 
had previously been banned on the same basis in 1 970, The National 
Academy of Science (NAS), in 1955, and again in 1968, concluded 
that saccharin in small quantities did not present significant hazards. 
In 1973 the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Institute re- 
ported bladder tumors in rats fed saccharin, but this study was criti- 
cized because of impurities in saccharin. A 1974 NAS study was 
inconclusive and recommended further studies. A GAO report ques- 
tioned the use of saccharin under interim FDA regulations and 
recommended consideration of issuance of a permanent regulation or 
adoption of a greater safety factor. The Canadian study which led to 
the proposed ban concluded that there were a significant number of 
malignant bladder tumors induced in rats by saccharin consumption. 
Questions were raised about tests because of high doses used, the 
presence of impurities, and the uncertainty of animal cancer data. 
Data on human carcinogeniclty are too ambiguous to determine 
safety of saccharin (HTW) 



054 

Food Testing and Inspection Program of the U.S. Department of 

Agriculture and the Food and Drag Administration. June 6, 1 977 1 8 

pp. 

Reportty Jack B. Bresler; Nancy L Smith. 
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Con- 
gress. 

Organization Concerned, Department of Agriculture; Food Safetv 
and QuaUty Service; Food and Drug Administration. 
Authority! Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Public Health 
?!?'; ^ Imp ? rtat A ion A L Fair Pa( *aging and Labeling Act. 
?8fi ^0?lT C w AC ' r f 19m A ricLta ' Marketing Act of 

Eif/ri I i . r ral Me - at nspection Act Wholesome Meat Act. 
Poultry Products Inspection Act. 

16 



The two Federal agencies responsible for most food standards are 
the Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Quality Service 
and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Their programs regu- 
late products from the raw state through manufacture and marketing 
to assure that established standards are met. Quality assurance pro- 
grams of FDA are in the categories of: Food Safety, including addi- 
tives, contaminants, nutrition, natural poisons, interstate travel, 
shellfish safety, and food service; and Food Economics. Department 
of Agriculture programs include inspection, grading, and standardi- 
zation of eggs and egg products, poultry, processed products, fresh 
fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products. Memoranda of un- 
derstanding are negotiated between the agencies to delineate func- 
tions and provide for coordination of activities. Joint administrative 
guidelines have been established for sharing responsibility and infor- 
mation. Summaries of 13 memoranda between the FDA and the 
Department of Agriculture identified understandings reached, dales 
of approval, and current food programs of each agency covered by 
the agreements. (HTW) 



055 

Federal Efforts to Protect Consumers from Polybromlnated Riphenyl 
Contaminated Food Products. HRD-77-96; B-164031(2). June 8, 
1977. Jbfeutt/June 27, 1977. 2 pp. + appendix (35 pp.), 
Report to Sen. Warren G. Magnuson, Chairman, Senate Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation; Sen. Adlal E. Steven- 
son, Chairman, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation: Science, Technology, nnd Space Subcommittee; Sen, 
Donald W. Riegle, Jr.; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Food and 
Drug Administration; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; 
Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Center; Michigan 
Chemical Corp., Saint Louis; Farm Bureau Services, Inc., Baltic 
Creek, MI; Michigan: Dept. of Agriculture. 

Congressional Relevaneei Senate Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation; Senate Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation: Science, Technology, and Space Sub- 
committee. Sen. Donald W. Riegle, Jr, 

Authority) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (2 1 U.S.C. 35 1 et 
seq.). 21 U.S.C. 335. 21 C.F.R. 225-226. 

In 1973, an industrial chemical containing polybrominatcd blphc- 
nyls (PPBs) was mistaken for magnesium oxide, a feed supplement, 
and mixed with animal feed in Michigan. The Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 
are responsible for protecting consumers from such contaminated 
foods. Findings/Conclusions; Manufacturers of drugs and animal 
feeds and animal feed components are subject to FDA inspections. 
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) is re- 
sponsible for administering the Federal Meat and Poultry Inspection 
Program. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is responsible for 
basic, applied, and developmental research in agricultural and related 
fields. APHIS and ARS were the two principal USDA agencies 
which were involved in the PBB incident in Michigan. Intrastale 
products that contained PBB in excess of applicable tolerance levels 
were recalled and voluntarily destroyed by the manufacturer or were 
seized by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA). Survey 
results showed no evidence that nine States sampled had received 
any contaminated feed, and it was concluded, that widespread con- 
tamination of livestock outside of Michigan had not occurred. USDA 
plans to continue its current practice of immediately notifying M DA 
when it finds meat that contains PBB residues above the tolerance 
level. At present, APHIS has no written guidelines or procedures for 
dealing with future problems such as the PBB contamination incident 
m Michigan. (SC) 

Food 



Citation Section 



058 



056 

Need to Establish Safety and Effectiveness of Antibiotics Used in Animal 
Feeds. HRD-77-81, B-t64031(2). June27, 1977. 47 pp. + 2 appen- 
dices (5 pp.). 

Report to Rep John E. Moss, Chairman, House Committee on Inter- 
state and Foreign Commerce: Oversight and Investigations Subcom- 
mittee; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Genera! 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; Food and Drug Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Interstate and Fo- 
reign Commerce: Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee. 
Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 
U.S.C 301etseq) Food Additive Amendments of 1958 (P.L 85- 
929). Drug Amendments of 1962 (P.L. 89-781). 21 U.S.C 360etseq. 
21 C.F.R. 514.1 et seq. 



the dissemination of information to consumers concerning programs 
for safety and wholesomeness of processed foods; direct a program 
for labeling and identification of packaged fresh produce; and exam- 
ine the potential for improving distribution costs of meat. Options for 
grading systems are' the private voluntary system with standards 
developed and adopted by industry; the voluntary/mandatory sys- 
tem with Federal Government grades adopted voluntarily by indus- 
try; and the mandatory system in which use of Federal grades would 
be required by law Concerns regarding nomenclature deal with the 
trade-off between meaningful and simple terminology and the im- 
plied rank of grade designations. (HTW) 



The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has permitted the 
continued use of low levels of several antibiotics in animal feeds. 
Findings/Conclusions: The safety and effectiveness of the con- 
tinued use in animal feeds of several antibiotics, particularly penicil- 
lin, tetracyclines, and sulfaquinoxaline, has not been established The 
possibility exists that antibiotic-resistant bacteria may develop, and 
that this resistance may be transferred from animal to man. On April 
15, 1977 the FDA decided to restrict the use of these drugs in animal 
feeds. Questions are raised concerning the use of the National Advi- 
sory Food and Drug Committee by the FDA, including insufficient 
expertise, conflict of interest, and improper involvement in regula- 
tory matters instead of policy only. Recommendations: FDA should 
determine the safety and effectiveness of antibiotics used in animal 
feeds based on available data,and withdraw approval of any not 
shown to be safe and effective. Policy advisory committees should be 
used only to review broad policy questions in accordance with FDA 
regulations, and their members made aware of their responsibilities 
with regard to and the restrictions of conflict-of-interest laws and 
regulations. (Author /DJM) 



057 

Perspectives on Federal Retail Food Grading. June 1977. 75 pp. -f 4 
appendices (11 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Edward M, Kennedy, Chairman, Office of Tech- 
nology Assessment: Technology Assessment Board; Sen. George 
McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and 
Human Needs; . 

Prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment under supervision 
of J, B, Cordaro, Food Program Manager, and Michael J. Phillips, 
Pooject Leader. 



NUTRITION EDUCATION 



058 

A Summary of a Report to the Congress on Food Labeling; Goals, 

Shortcomings, arid Proposed Changes, MWD-75-19A; B- 

164031. January 29, 1975 20pp. 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Drug Administration; Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Agriculture; 
Department of Commerce. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. Federal Food, Drug, 
and Cosmetic Act. S. 1451 (93rd Cong). S. 2373 (93rd Cong.) H.R. 
5642 (93rd Cong.). 

The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act states that food packages 
and their labels should tell consumers clearly what the contents are 
and help them compare values. Products exempted or permitted to 
have a generalized ingredient listing may not provide consumers- 
especially those on special diets because of illness, allergies, or other 
reasons-the information needed to choose those products best suited 
to their specific needs or preferences. Findings/Conclusions: An 
education program is needed to explain to consumers the purpose 
and best use of nutritional labeling and to help them understand the 
new Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling format. Labels 
frequently lack information concerning the amount of characterizing 
ingredients in the product, for instance, the amount of beef in beef 
stew. Revising existing grade designations to make them uniform and 
easy to understand could assist consumers in using the S' -*- '"-- 



Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Food and 

Drug Administration. 

Congreislonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 203 (7 U.S.C. 

1621-27). Food Production Act of 1917. 

Policy issues involved in changing the present food grading sys- 
tem to a consumer-oriented system are: the criteria used for grades, 
whether or not retail grades should be mandatory, and the nomencla- 
ture used for grades. Current Federal programs related to consumer 
information requirements are: inspection and regulation of foods to 
assure wholesomeness and safety, nutritional labeling of processed 
foods, and Federal food grading to provide information about sen- 
sory characteristics. Since there is sometimes an inverse relationship 
between sensory and nutritional characteristics, it would not be 
meaningful for grade criteria to reflect a combination of these factors. 
Options available to Congress for grade criteria are to: direct the 
adoption of a voluntary /mandatory nutritional labeling program for 
meats; support incentives for nutritional education programs; direct 



Food 



059 



Citation Sort ion 



059 

Food Labeling: Goals, Shortcomings, and Proposed Changes. MWD-75- 

19, B-164031(2) January 29, 1977. 92 pp. + 10 appendices (38 

PP) 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

OrgantiaHon Concerned: Food and Drug Administration; Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of Agriculture; 
Department of Commerce 
Congressional Relevance: Congress, 

Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (2 1 
USC 301) Federal Meat Inspection Act (2 1 US.C 601) Federal 
Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C.451) Fair Packaging and 
Labeling Act (15 USC. 1451). Federal Trade Commission Act 
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 U.S. Grain Standards Act. 7 
USC 1621 7USC 71 15US.C.58.S 1451 (93rd Cong.). S 2373 
(93rd Cong). S 322 (93rd Cong.). S. 1197 (93rd Cong.). S. 2110 
(93rd Cong.). H R 1652 (93rd Cong.) H.R 1653 (93rd Cong.) H R. 
3702 (93rd Cong.) 

The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act requires that food packages 
and their labels should inform consumers of the contents and help 
them to compare values. Products exempted or permitted to have a 
generalized ingredient listing may not provide consumers-especially 
those on special diets because of illness, allergies, or other reasons- 
the information needed to choose those products best suited to their 
specific needs or preferences Findings/Conclusions; An education 
program is needed to explain to consumers the purpose and best use 
of nutritional labeling and to help them understand the new Food and 
Drug Administration (FDA) labeling format. Labels frequently lack 
information concerning the amount of characterizing ingredients in 
the product, for instance, the amount of beef in beef stew. Revising 
existing grade designations to make them uniform and easy to under- 
stand could assist consumers in using the system The variety of dates 
(pull date, packed date, expiration date) used in open dating systems 
and the general misunderstanding of the meaning of the open dates 
have resulted in limited consumer use of the dates Consumers still 
find it difficult to make accurate price comparisons. Although unit 
pricing is available in about 50% of the chain-operated supermarkets 
and in 25% of the independent supermarkets, retailers have not al- 
ways presented unit pricing in a manner that is readily usable and 
easily understandable. Recommendations: The Secretary of HEW 
should direct the Commissioner of FDA to: issue regulations requir- 
ing labels of food products to identify the specific vegetable oils used; 
monitor the effectiveness of public service announcements of FDA's 
consumer education program, and if appropriate develop more effec- 
tive means of presenting the information to consumers; and identify 
foods that would be appropriate for percentage of characterizing 
ingredient labeling and require such foods to include this information 
on their labels The Secretary of Agriculture should revise existing 
regulations to make grade designations uniform and easier for con- 
sumers and industry to understand. Congress should consider 
amending legislation to require full disclosure of all ingredients on 
packaged food products; enacting legislation to establish a uniform 
open dating system for perishable and semiperishable foods; and 
enacting legislation to establish a unit pricing program. (Author/SW) 



NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE 



060 



Evaluation of Efforts to Determine Nutritional Health of the US 

m Novwber 20> I973 - 24 pp - + 2 



Report lo Sen. George McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Com- 
>uer General! "* HUman N " dS; by E ' mer B ' Stflats ' 



Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs 

Authority: Partnership for Health Amendments of 1967 (P.L. 90- 

174). National Health Survey Act of 1956 (42 U.S.C. 242c). 

A July 1972 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 
(HEW) report contained the results of a 10-State survey of the inci- 
dence of real hunger and malnutrition among poor people. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: The survey, which had many administrative 
problems, was designed to gather data on membeis of snnipEc 
households through interviews and clinical examinations HEW am- 
ticipated that the survey results would describe the nutritional status 
of the target population in each State and would be indicative of alt 
low-income families. The survey results should not be considered so 
because: the scope of the survey population was too limited; an 
unknown number of sample family members did not participate in 
interviews or clinical examinations, volunteers were often used in- 
stead of sample household members; and income data for a large 
number of interviewed households were not available. The Health 
and Nutrition Examination Survey, designed to provide scientifically 
reliable estimates of the nutritional status and prevalence of malnu- 
trition in the continental United States, is proving to be more reliable 
and has overcome the nonresponse problem of the earlier survey. 
(Author/SS) 



061 

Hunger and Malnutrition in the United States: How Much? May I, 

1977. 22 pp. 

Report by Freeman H. Quimby, Congressional Research Service, 

Library of Congress. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Center for 
Disease Control; National Center for Health Statistics. 

No reliable data exist on the extent of hunger in the United Stales 
or any of its States or regions, although it is known that long-term 
inadequate food consumption can lead to a negative caloric balance 
and nutritional deficiency. There have been a number of Federal 
family and child feeding programs, most of which were initiated En 
part as a result of a surplus of food commodities and in part as n result 
of an obvious or assumed requirement for food among needy popula- 
tions, A ten-state nutrition survey was conducted over the yeorfl 
1968-1970 and included clinical, dietary, and biochemical studies. 
While 86,000 persons were studied, the findings cither cannot or 
have not been extrapolated to populations under similar nutritional 
risk in other parts of the United States. Dietary and specific nutrient 
problems and risks were found in a significant proportion of the 
populations studied. A Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is 
being conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics using 
a design which permits estimates to be made for the total population. 
There appear to be few nutrition experts who feel that eligibility and 
certification for food stamps consititutes a measure of the magnitude 
of hunger and malnutrition. Recent nutritional surveillance pro- 
grams, based upon data gathered from five States, indicate that there 
are many children in the surveyed populations with obesity, stunting, 
or both. Malnutrition means that past food assistance programs, if 
they existed in the surveillance area, did not reach such children or 
their mothers until the damage was done. The majority of American 
Indians surveyed showed broad, moderately severe nutritional depri- 
vation, (SW) y 



Food 



Citation Section 



065 



FOOD PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 



FARM STRUCTURE 



062 

Federal Assistance to Quechan Indian Tribe for Controlled Environment 
Agricultural Program, B- 1305 15. May 13, 1974. 12 pp, 
Report to Rep. Victor V. Veysey; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Commerce; Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of the Interior; Depart- 
ment of Labor. 
Congressional Relevance: Rep, Victor V. Veysey. 

The Quechan Indian Tribe's Controlled Environment Agricul- 
tural Program was designed to provide permanent employment for 
30 tribal members and $96,000 in annual income for the tribe. The 
project included two greenhouses covering 5 acres for growing 
tomatoes, a plant germination nursery, a packaging and storing build- 
ing, and a lake for thermal storage and water recycling. A million 
dollars was requested from the Federal Government as assistance for 
construction and first-year operation costs, after which time the pro- 
ject would be self-sustaining. Findings/Conclusions: No tomato 
growers in the area grow winter crops because of the danger of frost 
and ihe stiff competition from Mexican importers; however, consult- 
ants to the Tribe felt that the greenhouse tomatoes were of better 
quality and would command a higher price. Several Federal agencies 
and departments supplied money for the project and the Tribe sup- 
plied the land. Total costs have been $1,305,162, a cost overrun of 
$304,912. The project was not self-sufficient after the first year be- 
cause of delays. Most of the cost overrun was due to construction 
cost variants. The employment goal has almost been achieved, but 
the profit estimate has not, and will not be achieved for a while. The 
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), which provided most of the 
funds, approved the project on the basis of outside and inhouse 
technical studies, but the project did not receive the required evalua- 
tion by the OEO Project Review Board. The grant agreement made 
no stipulation for the use of proceeds during the time Federal money 
was being used and required no accounting of proceeds Some of the 
proceeds were used by the Tribe for other purposes, but since then 
safeguards have been established to prevent such use. (SS) 



063 

National Rural Development Efforts and the Impact of Federal Programs 
on a 12-County Rural Area in South Dakota, RED-75-288; B- 
114873. January 8, 1975. 99 pp. + 16 appendices (39 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

Authority: Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970, title VII 
(42 U.S.C. 4501). Agricultural Act of 1970 (42 U S.C 3122(a)). 
Housing Act of 1954, as amended (40 U.S.C. 461). Agriculture and 
Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (87 Stat. 22 1). Rural Development 
Act of 1972. 

The Federal Government has, for many years, carried out pro- 
grams designed to make rural America a better place to live and 
work. The Rural Development Act of 1972 committed the Nation to 
revitalizing and developing rural areas as a means of achieving a 
balanced national growth. Although the statutory commitment to 
rural development is impressive, it has not been fully supported by 
Government actions. Federal assistance to South Dakota's Planning 
and Development District III, comprising 12 counties, was examined 
in an effort to evaluate how the 1972 act was being carried out atid 
the impact of Federal assistance on the problems concerning the 



residents affected. Recommendations: In order to make the rural 
development effort more effective, the Secretary of Agriculture 
should: establish quantified rural development goals for matters 
specified in the 1972 act, using available information, on both a 
national and a regional basis; develop a national rural development 
plan describing how and when established goaJs would be met and 
the resources needed to meet them; and ascertain the desirability of 
having key Federal departments and agencies establish rural deve- 
lopment offices In working toward the solution of the rural develop- 
ment problems noted in the South Dakota district, the Secretary of 
Agriculture should encourage State and local extension agencies to 
allocate a higher proportion of their efforts to lower income farmers 
and arrange for Federal and State research capabilities to be made 
available to assist Agriculture staff in determining which businesses 
and industries have the greatest potential In a specific region or 
district. (Author/SC) 



064 

Some Problems Impeding Economic Improvement of Small-Farm Opera- 
tions: Wliat the Department of Agriculture Could Do. RED-76-7; B- 
133192. August 15, 1975. 27 pp. + 2 appendices (4 pp.) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress, 

Authority: Rural Development Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 1921 (Supp. 
II)). Organic Act of 1862 <7 U.S.C. 2201). Hatch Act of 1887, as 
amended (7 U.S.C. 361a). Smith-Lever Act of 1914, as amended (7 
U.S.C. 341) Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. 7 U.S.C. 1623-24, 
7 U.S.C. 2661 et seq. (Supp. II). 

Many small farm operators may be helped to increase their in- 
comes through more intensive and specifically directed extension 
and research programs sponsored or financed by the Department of 
Agriculture. Findings/Conclusions: Although various factors con- 
tribute to small-farm operators' having relatively low volumes of 
farm sales, failure to use available technology and efficient manage- 
ment practices effectively is a primary reason many have lower 
volumes of farm sales than they might have and is a major factor in 
limiting improvements in their farming operations. The Department 
of Agriculture and the land grant colleges have not made a concerted 
effort to solve problems impeding development of small farm opera- 
tions. Recommendations: The Department of Agriculture should: 
(1) identify small-farm operators in their productive years who de- 
pend on the farm as their primary source of income and categorize 
them according to their resources, abilities, educational experiences, 
and willingness to improve their operations by using available tech- 
nology and efficient management practices; (2) estimate the costs 
and benefits of programs needed to extend training and technical 
assistance to small-farm operators having the potential for improve- 
ment and present the information to the Congress for its considera- 
tion; (3) examine the potential for research uniquely designed to 
improve the economic position of small-farm operators and, if such 
potential exists, consider the priority of such research in relation to 
other federally funded agricultural research; and (4) establish proce- 
dures for evaluating the economic and social impacts of future re- 
search and for determining the assistance small-farm operators 
would need to plan for and adjust to the resulting changes. (SC) 



065 

Personnel Management Improvements Initiated or Needed to Help 
Farmers Home Administration Meet Its Expanded Missions. RED-76- 
16; B-l 14873. September 10, 1975. 37 pp. + 6 appendices (60 pp.). 
Report to Sen. Dick Ctark, Chairman, Senate Committee on Agricul- 
ture and Forestry: Rural Development Subcommittee; by Elmer B. 
Staats, Comptroller General, 



Food 



19 



065 



Citation Section 



Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Farmers 

Home Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry: Rural' Development Subcommittee 

Authority: Rural Development Act of 1972. 

The Farmers Home Administration has grown from a credit 
agency for low income farmers to a major financial agency providing 
assistance for agricultural and rural development. A review was con- 
ducted to determine whether the agency has enough employees with 
adequately diverse background and abilities to carry out its missions 
and whether its services are being delivered to the public in a cost 
effective way. Findings/Conclusions: Although the agency was us- 
ing a work measurement system to calculate the average times taken 
to make and service loans, the system did not make sure that the data 
were representative of all its offices, nor did it obtain information on 
local factors which could cause variances from national averages. 
Factors which affected the productivity of the agency's county of- 
fices included- the availability of clerical assistance, the income and 
education levels of applicants, and the skills available or needed at 
the local offices The hiring efforts of the agency have not succeeded 
in acquiring enough employees with backgrounds other than agricul- 
ture. Some State offices have not hired the technical specialists 
needed to fully implement some of the newer programs such as 
multifamily housing and business and industrial loans. About 93,000 
fiscal year 1 974 borrowers paid unnecessary interest of $ 1 4,8 million 
on idle funds during that year, and the agency incurred an additional 
$4 9 million in interest costs. Increased use of commercial lenders in 
the agency's joint financing and loan guarantee programs would be 
beneficial. Recommendations: The Secretary of Agriculture should 
direct the Administrator of the Farmers Home Administration to: 
continue emphasizing to the State offices the benefits of hiring em- 
ployees with educational and technical backgrounds necessary to 
meet the specialized needs under the agency's expanding missions; 
develop national training standards which will stipulate minimum 
training requirements for each agency position on the basis of the 
duties which the position requires; and take steps to insure that these 
standards are met. The Administrator should initiate a training and 
publicity program providing information to agency employees and to 
commercial lenders on the benefits of joint and guaranteed financing. 
The Administrator should also evaluate the effectiveness of the re- 
vised loan-packaging instructions in reducing delinquency rates and 
take whatever additional actions may be indicated to achieve further 
reductions. (Author/SW) 



066 

An Analysis of (he Subcommittee's Public Opinion Survey of the Farmers 
Home Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture. OPA-76- 
10. December 9, 1975. 56 pp. + appendix (14 pp.). 
Staff paper prepared for the Senate Committee on Agriculture 
and Forestry: Rural Development Subcommittee. 

Organization Concerned! Farmers Home Administration. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry; Rural Development Subcommittee, 
Authority; Farmers Home Administration Act of 1946, 

A public opinion survey was conducted to determine how a sam- 
pling of rural people perceived the programs and services of the 
Farmers Home Administration (FmHA). Programs included in the 
survey were: water, sewer and solid waste; rural housing; essential 
community facilities; business, industrial and job development; site 
preparation for business and industry; and farm ownership and oper- 
ation. Findings/Conclusions; Of 1,335 respondents to question- 
naires, 886 had, not had previous FmHA loan or grant experience 
and 449 had experience in at least one program area. Respondents 
Indicated that they know more about FmHA than about other Fed- 
eral programs in the same areas, FmHA and its programs were rated 
highly in their importance to contributions to rural development. A 
majority of each occupational group perceived FmHA as serving 

20 



persons with incomes up to $12,000. Most respondents did not ex- 
perience problems with personnel in relation to cooperation, obtain- 
ing unbiased treatment, 1 and receiving necessary forms. Survey 
results indicated that only a small percentage of applications were 
disapproved The requirements most frequently mentioned as hin- 
dering improvement in rural development were eligibility require- 
ments. (HTW) 



067 

Appraisal Procedures and Solutions to Problems Involving the 160-Acre 
Limitation Provision of Reclamation Law. RED-76-119; B- 
169126. June 3, 1976 24 pp. 

Report to Sen. Gaylord Nelson, Chairman, Senate Select Committee 
on Small Business; Sen. Floyd K. Haskell, Acting Chairman for 
Westlands Hearings, Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Af- 
fairs; by Elmer, B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: Bureau of Reclamation. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Small Busi- 
ness; Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. 
Authority: Reclamation Act of 1902, as amended (43 U S.C. 371 el 
seq,). Reclamation Extension Act of 1914 (43U.SC. 418) Omnibus 
Adjustment Act of 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e). 

According to reclamation law, owners of land in the Westlands 
Water District may receive water on land in excess of 160 acres from 
the Bureau of Reclamation's Central Valley Project if they sign re- 
cordable contracts agreeing to sell such excess lands within 10 years 
at prices based on actual value without reference to project benefits. 
Findings/Conclusions; The bureau needs to improve its appraisal 
techniques since it does not: adequately support its basis for estab- 
lishing land values; consider the usefulness to the purchaser of farm 
facilities and equipment fn estimating their value; and adequately 
document the basis for its independent evaluations. There is a need 
for written Bureau guidelines and periodic internal reviews related to 
the appraisal activity, Proposed solutions to problems affecting pur- 
chase and ownership of land by small family farmers involve: rein- 
stituting a residency requirement, establishing a commission to 
insure that family farmers are given priority in the purchase of excess 
land, and establishing a system for purchase by the Government for 
resale to family farmers. The last proposal offers the greatest poten- 
tial, especially if the owner is also required to be the farm operator. 
Because of the lack of basic data and the subjective considerations 
involved, the Federal cost of such a solution is unknown, Recom- 
mendations: The Bureau should be required to: undertake a formal 
study in the Westland Water District to ascertain the value of excess 
lands without project enhancement, giving consideration to the de- 
creasing ground water supply that would have resulted without the 
Federal project; obtain supporting data from the seller and document 
in the sates file the basis for appraiser's valuations; and issue detailed 
Bureau guidelines setting forth criteria and procedures for evaluating 
excess land sales, The Secretary of the Interior should have his 
internal audit staff schedule reviews of the appraisal activity in Bu- 
reau regional offices, (Author/HTW) 



FOOD PRODUCTION-RESOURCES 



068 

The Impact of Oil Price Decontrol on Food and Agriculture. August 
1975. 9 P p. 

Report to Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey; Sen. Henry M, Jackson; by Leo 
V, Mayer, Congressional Research Service. 

Food 



Citation Section 



071 



Congressional Relevance: Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey, Sen. Henry M. 
Jackson. 

The rise in fuel prices since 1 97 1 has added $ 1 billion to the cost 
of fuel for fanning The President's proposal to decontrol oil prices 
would allow the price of old oil to rise from $5.25 per barrel to $ 1 3.50 
per barrel assuming the $2 tariff remains in effect. Costs would rise 
in all segments of the food chain especially for the middleman Invali- 
dation by the courts of the $2 tariff surcharge on imported crude oil 
may result in some reduction in foreign oil costs which could par- 
tially offset effects of decontrol. The decontrol of oil prices is sup- 
posed to have three major effects: increased domestic production, 
reduction of oil imports, and reduced consumption of oil products. 
An analysis of costs versus benefits indicated that increased domestic 
production of 181,000 barrels per day would cost the public $190 72 
per barrel, a high-cost /low-benefit ratio. The lower consumption 
would affect mostly lower income groups. Farm equipment does not 
lend itself to lower fuel consumption so farmers would pass on higher 
costs of fuel which would be reflected in higher food prices. (HTW) 



069 

Regulations for the Business and Industrial and Community Facility 
Assistance Programs Authorized by the Rural Development Act of 1972. 
B-114873. April 15, 1973. 32 pp. 

Report to Sen. Dick Clark, Chairman, Senate Committee on Agricul- 
ture and Forestry: Rural Development Subcommittee; Sen. George 
S. McGovern, Chairman, Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry: Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrification Subcommit- 
tee; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Farmers Home Administration. 
Congressional Relevance! Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry: Rural Development Subcommittee; Senate Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestry: Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrifica- 
tion Subcommittee. 

Authority: Rural Development Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-419; U.S.C. 
1 921 (Supp. II)). Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 
1 96 1 , as amended (7 U.S.C. 1 92 1 et seq.). Agriculture and consumer 
Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-86; 87 Stat. 221). Intergovernmental 
Cooperation Act of 1968, 40I(a) (42 U.S.C. 4231(a)). 7 U.S.C. 
2661 etseq. (Supp. II). 16U.S.C 590 (Supp. II). OMB Circular A-95. 
H. Rept. 92-835. H. Rept. 92-1129. H.R. 12931 (92nd Cong.). S. 
3462 (92nd Cong.). S. Rept. 92-734. 38 Fed. Reg. 29025. 38 Fed. 
Reg. 29036. 38 Fed. Reg. 29047. 

The Rural Development Act of 1972 amended the Consolidated 
Farm and Rural Development Act to authorize the Secretary of 
Agriculture to make business and industrial loans for improving, 
developing, or financing business, industry, and employment, and for 
improving the economic and environmental climate in rural com- 
munities. The 1972 act also authorized the Secretary to make busi- 
ness and industrial grants to facilitate the development of private 
business enterprises and community facility loans to provide rural 
areas with essential community facilities. Findings/Conclusions: 
The Farmers Home Administration (FHA) has not issued regula- 
tions to implement two small business loan programs authorized by 
the act, and their community facility loan regulations give public 
bodies preference for available loan funds, although such preference 
is not provided for by law. Recommendations,- The Agricultural and 
Forestry Subcommittees on Rural Development and on Agricultural 
Credit and Rural Electrification may wish to: insure that FHA's 
regulations are amended to specify the requirements and conditions 
for jointly financing businesses with other Federal and State agencies 
and private and quasi-public financial institutions; specify the condi- 
tions for financing the acquisitions of existing enterprises; provide for 
a maximum 5% interest rate on loans to nonprofit associations and 



Indian tribes, and give veterans preference for business and industrial 
loans. (SC) 



070 

[Allegations concerning Administration of the Farm Labor Housing 
Program in Palm Beach County, Florida]. B-177486. January 31, 
1974. 9 pp. 

Report to Rep. William D. Ford, Chairman, House Committee on 
Education and Labor: Agricultural Labor Subcommittee; by Elmer 
B Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Farmers Home Administration; Range- 
line Labor Foundation, Inc.; Florida Rural Legal Services, Inc.; 
American Friends Service Committee, Inc.; Palm Beach County, FL: 
Housing Authority. 

Congreiclonal Relevance: House Committee or) Education and La- 
bor. Agricultural Labor Subcommittee, 
Authority: Housing Act of 1949, as amended. 7 C.F.R 1822.68(d). 

Allegations were made concerning administration of the Farm 
Labor Housing Program in Palm Beach County, Florida, by the 
Farmers Home Administration (FHA). The allegations involved a 
housing project provided by the Rangeline Labor Foundation, Inc. 
Findings/Conclusions: It was alleged that FHA's proposed transfer 
of a Rangeline project to the Palm Beach County Housing Authority 
(PBCHA) was an attempt to cover up possible losses. There was no 
evidence to support this allegation. According to the former FHA 
county supervisor, the project was offered to PBCHA because it 
would never be economically feasible without a grant. It was also 
alleged that Rangeline skimmed rental profits without adequately 
maintaining the projects. There was evidence of poor maintenance, 
but income and expenses could not be verified because of lack of 
records. As alleged, nonfarmworkers had occupied a Rangeline pro- 
ject without authorization for the period before the summer of 1972. 
It was also alleged that housing funds were used to increase labor 
contractors' control over farmworkers and that contractors were 
permitted to block-lease apartments. FHA regulations prohibiting 
block: leasing were applicable to the Rangeline projects for a 7-month 
period, but are no longer applicable. (HTW) 



071 

[Bureau of Reclamation's Cost of Constructing the Garrison Diversion 
Unit]. B-164570. May 15, 1974. 7 pp. 

Report to Rep. Henry S. Reuss, Chairman, House Committee on 
Government Operations: Conservation, Energy and Natural Re- 
sources Subcommittee; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned: Bureau of Reclamation 
Congressional Relevance; House Committee on Government Oper- 
ations: Conservation, Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee. 
Authority: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 
852). Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition 
Policies Act (84 Stat. 894). P.L. 89-106. P.L. 87-874. 

The Bureau of Reclamation has not followed its procedures for 
controlling and estimating total Federal obligations for the Garrison 
diversion unit, a multipurpose water resources development project 
being constructed in North Dakota, As a result, the Bureau has 
probably underestimated from about $42,1 million to about $66,1 
million the total Federal obligations to be incurred. In addition, 
alternatives being considered to settle the water quality dispute with 
Canada, if adopted, will further increase the estimated cost of the 
Garrison unit by $5 million to $31 million. Findings/Conclusions: 
Bureau instructions state that an authorized appropriation ceiling 
should be updated annually to serve as a control for total Federal 



Food 



21 



071 



Citation Si 



obligations. Since the instructions also state that total project costs 
should show the most current information available, these costs 
should include' the costs for features actually planned for construc- 
tion; the unit costs representative of costs actually incurred in the 
construction area and equivalent to costs on which the authorized 
appropriation ceiling was based; allowances for the cost of items not 
generally included until final designs are drawn; and increased costs 
for items affected by general legislation and changed construction 
standards. Recommendations; The Bureau should update the es- 
timated total Federal obligations for these costs, If the estimated total 
Federal obligations exceed the ceiling, the Bureau should advise the 
Congress promptly. The Bureau should also formally inform the 
Congress about the water quality dispute with Canada and its possi- 
ble effect on project costs. (SC) 



072 

Need for a National Weather Modification Research Program. B- 

133202. August 23, 1974. 30 pp. + 9 appendices (38 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of the Interior; Department 
of Agriculture, Department of Commerce; Department of Defense; 
Department of Transportation; National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration; National Science Foundation; Office of Management 
and Budget. 

Congressional Relevances Congress. 

Authority: (P.L. 92-125; 85 Stat. 344). P.L. 83-256. P.L. 85-510. 
P.L. 92-205. OMB Circular A-62. 

During fiscal year 1 974 seven Federal departments and agencies- 
the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, the Interior, Defense, 
and Transportation, the National Science Foundation, and the Na- 
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration-conducted weather 
modification research. Findings/Conclusions: For nearly a decade, 
studies of the administration of Federal weather modification re- 
search have identified common problems hindering progress: no cen- 
tral authority to direct Federal departments 1 efforts; ineffective 
coordination; and insufficient resources to achieve timely, effective 
results. A national weather modification research program, adminis- 
tered and maintained by a lead agency, is needed to effectively 
administer the fragmented Federal weather modification research 
activities Recommendations; The Office of Management and 
Budget should, in cooperation with the Federal departments and 
agencies involved in weather modification research: develop a na- 
tional program with goals, objectives, priorities, and milestones, 
designating one of the agencies, which would have a major program 
responsibility, to administer and maintain the national program; 
develop a plan to define and reassign, if appropriate, the responsibili- 
ties of Federal departments and agencies providing support or con- 
ducting weather modification research; and develop a plan to allocate 
resources to the national program elements. (Author/SC) 



073 

[Sales of Corn Stored in Commodity Credit Corporation Bins in Iowa and 
Nebraska and Wheat Stored in Commercial Warehouses]. B- 
114824. September \\ t 1974. 6 pp. 

Report to Sen. James G. Abourezk; by Robert F. Keller, Acting 
Comptroller General, 

Organliatlon Concerned: Commodity Credit Corp. 
Congressional Relevance; Sen. James G. Abourezk. 

On January 1, 1973, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCQ 
had 26.1 million bushels of corn in its bins; 13.3 million bushels were 
in Iowa and 8.3 million bushels were in Nebraska. Under sales terms 
outlined by the Praire Village commodity office of the Agricultural 



Stablization and Conservation Service (ASCS) in January 1 973, 
ers of CCC bin-site corn had to pay at least market price 3"^ 
lo make a 25% advance payment and remove the corn from the 
within 60 business days after the sale; after this period the b 
were to be charged storage fees on corn not removed from the 
Sale terms offered were subsequently modified several tim es ' 
dings/Conclusions: Buyers of the bin-site corn sold by ASCS c< 
offices during the 15-month period which ended in April 1^74 
not charged storage until after ASCS officials had determine 
rail transportation was available. The 25% advance was not rec 
until 5 days after transportation was available. No interes 
charged. The ASCS required final settlement on each lot as i 
taken over by the buyer. County offices in both Iowa and Net 
considered only rail transportation in determining when to 
charging the storage fee. About 25 million bushels of wheat i 
in commercial warehouses and sold by the Prairie Village comn 
office on "to arrive" contracts in the early part of 1973 rerr 
undelivered as of April 1974. Review of several extended-si 
payments, which could only be made after evidence was subi 
showing that transportation was unavailable, indicated that tlv 
ments were proper Corn sold during the period investigated wi 
at market prices For grain sold in the warehouse where it was s 
sales prices were at least equal to current market prices < 
inventory of unsold gram on May 31, 1974, was 73 million bi 
pratically all feed grains. (SC) 



074 

Improvements Needed in Making Benefit-Cost Analyses for Federal 

Resources Projects. B-167941. September 20, 1974. 50 pp. + 

pendices (18 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Go 

Organization Concerned: Department of the Army; Departm 
the Interior; Department of Agriculture; Tennessee Valle; 
thority; Water Resources Council. 
Congrestional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Rood Control Act of 1936 (33 U.S.C 701a). Wat 
sources Planning Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 1962). Area Rede 
ment Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 47). Public Works and Eco 
Development Act of 1965, as amended (42 U.S.C. 3121 et 
Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933, as amended. Federal 
Project Recreation Act Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act ol 
16 U S.C. 831. 16 U.S.C. 4602-12 et seq. 16 U.S.C. 661 ct s 

Executive branch policies, standards, and procedures for il 
mutation, evaluation, and review of individual project plans for 
loping water resources were issued in May 1962 and prin 
Senate Document 97. Findings/Conclusions; A review of 
projects showed that: benefits were not computed in a coni 
manner; benefits were not based on analysis of conditions wj 
without the project; benefit computations were not adequatel 
ported; and project costs and induced costs were not fully cons 
in the benefit-cost determinations. Recommendations; The 
taries of Agriculture, the Army, and the Interior and the Ch( 
of the Board of the Tennesses Valley Authority should havt 
agencies: revise or develop, as necessary, their detailed proci 
for making benefit-cost analyses and submit them to the Wat 
sources Council; periodically evaluate their detailed procedi 
recognize changed objectives, needs, and conditions and imi 
methods and procedures; and strengthen their internal manai 
procedures for assessing benefit-cost determinations for c 
mance to the governing principles and standards, implement!! 
detailed procedures, and the completeness and adequacy of su 
ing documentation. The Chairman of the Water Resources C 
should have the Council review the agencies' detailed procedu 
uniformity and consistency with the principles and standards 



22 



Citation Section 



078 



075 

Congress Needs More Information on Plans jar Constructing the Garrison 
Diversion Unit in North Dakota. B-164570 November 23, 1974. 39 
pp. -1- appendix (8 pp.) 

Report to Rep. Henry S Reuss, Chairman, House Committee on 
Government Operations: Conservation, Energy and Natural Re- 
sources Subcommittee, by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Bureau of Reclamation. 
Congresilonal Relevance: House Committee on Government Oper- 
ations* Conservation, Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee. 
Authority: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 
852). (PL 89-103; 79 Stat. 433) 

The Garrison Diversion Unit project, a multipurpose water re- 
sources development project in North Dakota, was authorized in 
August 1965. The authorizing legislation provided for irrigating 250,- 
000 acres, supplying municipal and industrial water for 14 towns and 
cities, and developing 36 major and several minor fish and wildlife 
areas and 9 major recreational areas. The act established a cost 
ceiling for the project of S207 million, plus or minus any increases 
or decreases justified by ordinary fluctuations in construction costs. 
Findings/Conclusions: The Bureau of Reclamation's estimated 
project cost was understated by about S72 6 million. The total es- 
timated Garrison project cost was understated because: estimated 
costs representative of those actually incurred in the construction 
area were not consistently included; an allowance for the cost of 
items not generally included until final designs are drawn was also 
not consistently included; and the estimated cost of land to be ac- 
quired was not based on recent land purchases in the construction 
area. Recommendations; The Secretary of the Interior should re- 
quire the Bureau of Reclamation to update the total estimated cost 
of the Garrison project to include; estimated costs representative of 
costs actually being incurred in the construction area; allowances for 
costs of items not generally included until final designs are drawn; 
estimated costs for additional requirements established by general 
legislation and new construction standards; and estimated costs for 
changes to the authorized project plan. (SC) 



076 

Department of Labor's Practice of Obtaining Labor Union Commentsin 
Making Certifications Required by the Consolidated Farm and Rural 
Development Act, B-114873. December 16, 1974. 13 pp. + 3 appen- 
dices (19 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Clifford P. Hansen; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned; Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Labor; Farmers Home Administration; American Federation of 
Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. 
Congressional Relevance; Sen, Clifford P. Hansen. 
Authority! Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 
U.S.C. 9121 (Supp.II)). Rural Development Act of 1972, 310B (7 
U.S.C. 1932 (Supp.II)). 18 U.S.C. 1905. 38 Fed. Reg. 16375. 38 Fed. 
Reg. 29036. 39 Fed. Reg. 37650. 

A review was conducted of the Department of Labor's practice 
of obtaining labor union comments in making certifications required 
by the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act. Under the 
act, Labor is required to certify that assistance under the Department 
of Agriculture's Farmers Home Administration business and indus- 
trial loan and grant programs will not result in: transfer of employ- 
ment or business activity from one area to another; overproduction 
of goods, materials, or commodities; or the overavailability of ser- 
vices or facilities in an area. Findings/Conclusions: The Rural 
Development Act's legislative history is silent on whether the Con- 
gress intended the Secretary of Labor to obtain labor union com- 
ments when making certifications; the practice was initiated in 
February 1974 at AFL-CIO's request. Union comments were used 



as an information source and union approval was not a prerequisite 
to certification. Through July 10, 1974, the Department of Labor had 
sent AFL-CIO information on 679 businesses and industries on 
which certification was requested. As of July 31, 1974, unions had 
commented negatively on 22 of these businesses Labor suspended 
its practice of soliciting union comments in August 1974 pending 
implementation of its proposed new certification procedures. The 
Department proposes to publish weekly in the Federal Register a list 
of applicants, businesses, and industries pending certification. Labor 
has not been able to process all certification requests within the 
60-day statutory limit. Requests requiring over 60 days to process 
have included ones with and without union comments. To expedite 
processing, the Department of Labor has proposed new certification 
procedures which should help expedite the process. Officials did not 
believe that confidential proprietary information about companies 
had been disclosed Recommendations: The Department of Labor 
should communicate all negative comments which could lead to the 
denial of certification directly to the applicant or business for its 
response. (SW) 



077 

[Farmers Home Administration's Practices with Regard to Credit Reports 
for Mortgage and Agricultural Loans]. B-114873 December 24, 
1974. 4 pp. + 2 enclosures (6 pp.). 

Report to Sen William Proxmire; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned: Farmers Home Administration. 
Congressional Relevance: Sen. William Proxmire. 

The Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) instructions author- 
ize county and assistant county supervisors to obtain credit reports 
from credit reporting companies for both mortgage (housing) loans 
and agricultural (farm operating) loans. FmHA headquarters office 
records on loan repayment delinquencies showed that, as of June 30, 
1974, about 8% of FmHA's housing loans and about 15% of its farm 
operating loans were in a delinquent status. Findings/Conclusions: 
FmHA uses credit reports from credit reporting companies selected 
by the Department of Housing and Urban Development each year 
on a bid basis. The credit reports for housing loans are generally 
obtained from these companies, while FmHA county supervisors, 
who receive training in making credit analyses, generally make credit 
analyses for farm operating loans themselves since they must deter- 
mine whether the enterprises will be profitable and produce enough 
income to repay the loans as well as obtain information on the appli- 
cants' credit histories. According to FmHA officials, the difference 
between the delinquency rates of the two types of loans is not neces- 
sarily attributable to the difference sources of credit analyses, but to 
the differences in loan purposes and the degree of risk involved. (SC) 



078 

Emergency Temporary Standards on Organophosphorous Pesticides. 

MWD-75-55;B-179768. February 24, 1975. 2pp. + appendix (13 

pp.). 

Report to Rep. Bill Archer; Rep. M. Caldwell Butler; Rep. George A. 

Goodling; Rep. James F. Hastings; Rep. G. V. Montgomery; Rep. 

Steven D. Symms; Rep. Joe D. Waggonner, Jr.; Rep. Antonio Borja 

Won Pat; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Environmental Protection Agency; Na- 
tional Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Safety 
and Health Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: Rep. Bill Archer; Rep, M. Caldwell Butler; 
Rep. George A. Goodling; Rep, James F. Hastings; Rep. G. V. Mont- 
gomery; Rep, Steven D. Symms; Rep, Joe D. Waggonner, Jr.; Rep. 
Antonio Borja Won Pat. 



Food 



23 



078 



Citation Section 



Authority! Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 6 (29 
U.SC 6S5) S. Rept. 91-1282. 

Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) issued two emergency temporary standards for pesticides, 
neither was ever in effect. The first was withdrawn before its effective 
date and was revised because of objections by affected parties, The 
second revised standard was stayed by the the U S Court of Appeals 
for the Fifth Circuit before its effective date and was subsequently 
voided by that court OSHA took no further action after the court's 
decision About 1 year after OSHA issued the Grst emergency tem- 
porary standard, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is- 
sued regulations establishing a general standard for all agricultural 
pesticides and specific reentry intervals for 12 pesticides. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: The court decision to vacate the emergency tem- 
porary standard for organophosphorous pesticides was based on its 
finding that OSHA did not present sufficient data to show that the 
standard was needed to protect farmworkers from grave danger, the 
basic criterion in the law for issuing emergency temporary standards. 
The absence of such data was also the principal reason for a resolu- 
tion, which was issued before OSH A's standard, by an OSHA stand- 
ards advisory committee that an emergency temporary standard 
should not be issued At the time the emergency temporary standards 
were issued, OSHA did not have a written definition of grave danger. 
The data OSHA used in issuing the emergency temporary standards 
on pesticides would not have met the grave danger criteria developed 
since the pesticide litigation. (SC) 



079 

Action Needed to Discourage Removal of Trees That Shelter Cropland in 

the Great Plains. RED-75-375; B-l 14833. June 20, 1975. 26pp. + 

2 appendices (5 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Steals, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Agricultural 
Stabilization and Conservation Service; Soil Conservation Service. 
Congraiilonal Relavance; Congress. 

Authority: Timber Culture Act f 17 Stat. 605). Soil Conservation and 
Domestic Allotment Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 590). Agriculture 
and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1501-08; 16 U.S.C, 
1510). Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended (7 U.S.C. 
1334). Agricultural Act of 1970 P.L. 84-1201. P.L. 91-118. 70 Stat. 
1115. 83 Stat. 194. 

Unless actions are taken to encourage farmers to renovate and 
preserve existing windbreaks rather than remove them, an important 
resource which has taken many years to develop could be lost and 
adjacent croplands could erode and become less productive. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions; A survey of information on 16 counties in Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma showed that, although tree removals 
in these counties do not represent a serious problem at the present 
time, the removal rates in some counties warrant concern. Most field 
windbreaks were being removed to make more land available for 
production or to install and use irrigation systems. Properly planned 
and maintained windbreaks remain a permanent protection against 
wind erosion even during periods of drought when most other con- 
servation practices become less effective. During severe drought 
periods, windbreaks could be the only source of protection against 
wind erosion. Although some Federal programs encourage planting 
and routine maintenance of windbreaks, no Federal or State program 
exists which is specifically designed to discourage windbreak remo- 
vals or to assist farmers on a wide scale to renovate old field wind- 
breaks. Recommendations: The Secretary of Agriculture should 
have the appropriate departmental agencies; survey, especially in the 
Great Plains, the extent of windbreak removals and the renovation 
needed to preserve existing windbreaks; encourage counties to carry 
out a cost-sharing windbreak renovation program; and initiate an 
educational program supporting efforts to preserve and renovate 
existing windbreaks. (Author/SC) 

24 



060 

[An Experiment to Determine Whether It Was Technically and Opera- 
tionally Feasible to Eradicate the Boll Weevil}. RED-75-381; B- 

133192. June 23, 1975. 3.pp 

Report to Secretary, Department of Agriculture; by Henry Esch- 

wege, Director, Resources and Economic Development Div 

Organization Concerned: National Cotton Council, Cotton, Inc. 
Authority: Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (7 
US.C. 1305). 

The boll weevil is a major pest of cotton causing crop losses and 
control costs of almost $300 million a year. During fiscal year 1972, 
a 2-year experiment to determine whether it was technically and 
operationally feasible to eradicate the boll weevil was undertaken 
cooperatively by the Department of Agriculture, the States of Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas, the National Cotton Council, 
and Cotton, Incorporated. The location of the experiment was in an 
area centered in southern Mississippi and extending into southwest- 
ern Alabama and southeastern Louisiana. The experiment was comp- 
leted in August 1973. Findings/Conclusions.- One of the greatest 
obstacles to developing and demonstrating effective suppression 
techniques in past boll weevil research was the lack of adequate 
isolation of experimental areas to prevent migration of boll weevils 
from surrounding areas. Because only $4 million of the estimated 
needed $5 million was available, the Department of Agriculture fal- 
tered its initial plans for insuring that boll weevils would not migrate 
into the experimental area. Consequently, prevention of migration 
could not be assured, making it impossible to establish whether boll 
weevils found in the area after the experiment were migrants or 
survivors of the eradication treatments. Department officials ac- 
knowledged that with adequate funding they might have been able 
to prove the boll weevils could have been eradicated. The Depart- 
ment is committed to a goal of assessing the costs and benefits of 
eradicating the boll weevil through a trial program ss soon as eco- 
nomic and fiscal conditions permit. (Author/SW) 



081 

What the Department of Agriculture Has Done and Needs to Do To 
Improve Agricultural Commodity Forecasting and Reports. RBD-76-6; 
B-114824. August 27, 1975. 41 pp. + 4 appendices (13 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture. 

Congretsional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority! Agricultural Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-524; 84 Stat. 1362). 

Department of Agriculture forecasts of wheat and corn acres 
harvested, yields, domestic demands, exports, carryovers, and prices 
have not been sufficiently accurate in recent years, Findings/Con- 
clusions; Off-target forecasts and misjudgments of farmers' re- 
sponses to cropland set-aside programs contributed to decisions 
which resulted in higher price support payments than would liave 
been incurred otherwise and to land held out of production that 
should have been planted to meet full production needs. Recontwen~ 
dations; The Secretary of Agriculture should activate a committee: 
to establish documentation requirements for forecasts and for fore- 
casting methodologies, procedures, and assumptions; to systemati- 
cally and periodically evaluate the accuracy of forecasts; and to 
recommend changes in data requirements and improvements in me- 
thodologies, procedures, and assumptions. The Secretary should also 
require: that all official forecasts made before the beginning of the 
marketing year be published; that forecast reports provide a point 
estimate of the most likely outcome when forecast amounts are 
stated in ranges; disclosing in forecast reports important assumptions 
and procedures underlying the forecast amounts; and that periodic 
evaluation be made of forecast users' information needs and, where 

Food 



Citation Section 



085 



practicable, change forecast reporting to accommodate these needs. 
(Aulhor/SC) 



083 

The Fertilizer Situation: Past, Present, and Future. RED-76-14; B- 
180849 September 5, 1975 15 pp. + appendix (1 pp.). 
Staff paper, 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 

During the past 25 years, the fertilizer industry has gone through 
several cycles In 1974 the United States did not have enough nitro- 
gen and phosphate fertilizer to meet domestic demand, although 
industry and Government estimates of the level of shortage differed 
Factors contributing to the shortage were: increased domestic de- 
mand, increased exports, transportation problems, plant expansion 
problems, and curtailment of natural gas. Alternative considerations 
indicated that there are drawbacks to the widespread use of animal 
wastes, and restricting the nonagricultural use of fertilizer would 
have little impact on the shortage. Efforts to alleviate the shortage 
were establishment of a Government interagency panel; reduction of 
exports; and an increase in production capacity. In 1975 consump- 
tion of fertilizer materials was 16% less for a 9-month period than for 
the same period the year before and supplies for nitrogen and phos- 
phate fertilizer increased. Future shortages will depend on weather 
and relative crop and fertilizer prices. Anticipated capacity was ex- 
pected to be adequate to supply demand for phosphate and nitrogen 
fertilizers in 1975 and 1978, respectively. Potash supplies are tight 
but adequate to at least 1980. Limited supplies of natural gas will 
continue to be a problem. The Interagency Fertilizer Task Force 
seems to be a good mechanism for monitoring and alleviating fertil- 
izer problems. (Author/HTW) 



083 

[The Farmers Home Administration's Emergency Loan Program], 
RED-76-24; B-114873. September 12, 1975. 2 pp. + enclosure (10 
pp.). 

Report to Rep. Bill Alexander; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Gen- 
eral. 

Organization Concerned: Farmers Home Administration; Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Congressional Relevance: Rep. Bill Alexander. 
Authority: Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as 
amended (7 U.S.C. 1961 (Supp. III)). (PX. 94-68; 89 Stat. 381). 

Before enactment of P.L. 94-68, the Secretary of Agriculture was 
required to designate any area of the United States, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgin Islands as an emergency area if he found that there existed 
a general need for agricultural credit and the need resulted from a 
natural disaster. When such a designation was made, the Farmers 
Home Administration (FmHA) could make emergency agricultural 
loans in that area for property damage or severe production losses 
caused by the disaster. Questions were raised about the disaster 
designations for counties in Arkansas' first congressional district 
early in 1975. Findings/Conclusions: The counties were designated 
as disaster areas in March 1975 as the result of drought, excessive 
rainfall, and a freeze which occurred during the 1 974 growing season. 
FmHA county supervisors do not need specific instructions from 
higher level officials to initiate requests for disaster designations. In 
some cases, the supervisors triggered the process by compiling neces- 
sary information, submitting reports through the county governing 
body, the Governor, and finally the Secretary of Agriculture. The 
FmHA national office gives disaster designations top priority, but the 
Department of Agriculture gives its employees wide latitude in mak- 
ing: judgments about priority to be given to the types of disasters 



which cause losses FmHA employees were directed to consider the 
need for disaster designation by gathering necessary information, 
and there was no pressure to delay the process Before enactment of 
P.L. 94-68, a general need for credit resulting from the disaster was 
required; therefore, county supervisors waited until the harvest was 
in before making required estimates in the Arkansas counties 
(HTW) 



084 

Land Satellite Project. PSAD-76-74; B-183134 January 30, 1976 
42pp. 
Staff study by Richard W. Gutmann, Director 

Organization Concerned: National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration. 

The Land Satellite (LANDSAT) is a National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA) experimental project to determine 
the utility of satellite-acquired earth resources data for the manage- 
ment of our environment and natural resources. Two LANDSATSs 
have been launched and a third ("C") was planned for launch in 
September 1977. Findings/Conclusions; NASA's March ,1975 
planning estimate for LANDSAT-C project costs was $35.7 million, 
and its current estimate, including payload costs, is $42.7 million. 
The estimate should be $47.2 million based on inclusion of payload 
costs and the Goddard Space Flight Center's October 1975 es- 
timated increases. The project budget does not include an amount for 
the principal investigator program. Federal agencies involved in the 
project have not developed a long-range plan including user require- 
ments to assist in deciding if and when LANDSAT should become 
operational. Potential users have expressed a need for training pro- 
grams in the use of LANDSAT data. Cost benefit studies performed 
by the Department of the Interior and NASA for an operational 
program reported widely divergent results. The contrast between the 
U.S. open data dissemination policy and the attitudes of some other 
countries raises questions as to which type of system (national, re- 
gional or global) will best serve U.S. interests. Recommendations: 
NASA should: include costs for the principal investigator program 
in its LANDSAT-C estimates; take the lead in developing a plan for 
training LANDSAT data users; and lead other participating agencies 
in developing a plan for evaluating progress toward deciding if and 
when there should be an operational earth resources satellite system. 
(HTW) 



085 

Action Is Needed Now to Protect Our Fishery Resources, GGD-76-34; 
B-145099. February 18, 1976. 38 pp. + 7 appendices (17 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- 
ministration: National Marine Fisheries Service; Commission on 
Marine Science, Engineering and Resources; National Advisory 
Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority! Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (P.L. 84-1024; 16 U.S.C. 
742c). Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act of 1966 
(P.L. 89-454). H.R. 200 (94th Cong.). 

Many fish species of importance to the U.S. fishing industry are 
being depleted or threatened with depletion through overfishing by 
domestic and foreign fishermen and the alteration of coastal areas. 
In addition, many U.S. fisheries have excess harvesting capacity 
which often leads to overfishing. Difficulties in management of U.S. 
fisheries center around: the common property nature of the resource; 
fragmented jurisdiction involving foreign governments as well as 
Federal, State, and local entities; and lack of precise biological data. 



Food 



25 



035 



Citation Serf! on 



'Coaclmtom: Large, modern foreign fishing fleets operat- 
ing nfi the I- S coasts have contributed to overfishing and depletion 
i-f nurij species especially valuable to U S. fishermen Fish stocks 
rur-.estcil almost exclusively by U S fishermen becoming depleted 
or threatened by depletion include the inshore American lobster, 
northern shrimp, and surf clam The National Marine Fisheries Ser- 
vice established the State-Federal Fisheries Management Program in 
1971 tu achieve coordinated management Although some improve- 
ments have been made, progress has been slow The basic problem 
is the difficulty in obtaining Stales' agreements to put necessary 
controls in effect In 1972 over 3 million tons of fish were caught by 
foreign fishermen! off U S shorea at a distance of 12 to 200 miles; 
bj comparison, U S fishermen caught only about 0.3 million tons of 
fish in this area About two-thirds of the foreign catch was made by 
Japan and the Soviet Union The Law of the Sea Conference has 
addressed extending the fishing zone to 200 miles from the shores 
of costal nations but has not reached a solution A bill introduced in 
the 94th Congress proposed to extend the contiguous zone from 1 2 
to 200 miles off the U S coast Recommendations: The Secretary of 
Commerce should direct the Administrator of the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Adrmnis [ration to accelerate fisheries research, 
giving priority to the data needs of fisheries management, including 
the State-Federal Fisheries Management Program, issue and imple- 
ment criteria for the furture selection of species to be included in the 
program, and establish for each selected species a timetable for im- 
plementing appropriate conservation measures. (Author/SW) 



066 

Agricultural Raearch: lu Organization and Management. RED-76- 

92 April 9, 1976 50 pp + 12 appendices (70 pp.) 

Staff studyby Henry Eschwege, Director, Resources and Economic 

Pevelopment Div 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Authority: Organic Act of 1862 (7 US.C 2201; 7 U.SC 301-08) 
Hatch Act of 1887. as amended (7 US.C. 36 la). McSweeney- 
McNary Forestry Research Act of 1928, as amended (16 U S C 
581) Mclntire-Stcnnis Act of 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a). Organic Act 
of 1890. Research and Marketing Act of 1947, as amended. Rural 

'- USC323 ' ' 



The Federal-State agricultural research system is a large, com- 
plex, and dynam,c system with many independent decisionmakers. 
U involves six Department of Agriculture agencies, 55 State agricul- 

!t T[Tl Stati T' " sch ls f forestry> 16 land -e rant i- 

lejjes, and Tuskegee Institute. The Department of Agriculture 
agencies involved m research include the Agricultural Research Ser- 
vice, the Cooperatwe State Research Service; the Forest Service the 

SZ- rr* h S T e ' thC Fatmer C rat - Service 'an 
he Statical Reporting Service. During fiscal year 1 974, t 

cies spent over S70C .million and over 10,000 scientific 



r 
research projects involving, biological 



n rand * 

inciting farm and forest products; consumer health and nutrition- 

=": 



087 

Opportunities for More Effective Use of Animal Man UFA RED-76-tfll; 
B-166506 June 14, 1976 27 pp. + 5 appendices (13 pp.). 
Report to the Congress, by Elmer B. Slants, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Energy Re' 

search and Development Administration, Environ mental Proteeltoi 

Agency. 

Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Manure is a valuable economic asset which can be used as fertil- 
izer or from which by-products can be recovered. Findings/Conel* 
sions: About half of the 2 billion tons of animal mnninc generated 
annually in the United States is generated in feedlots or other con- 
finement operations. Disposal of this manure can cause sulid wiHtt 
disposal and water pollution problems, but the manure 1ms a grcal 
resource potential from which both energy Jiiul material ciin be 
recovered or which can be used in producing food. Using ajiinml 
manure as a fertilizer has not been effective. Many farmers not fully 
aware of the value of manure's fertilizer elements applied excessive 
amounts of manure or did not properly i educe the amount of com- 
mercial fertilizer used with it. To effectively use immure ill n fwlil- 
izer, the farmer must know both its value anti the needs of the land 
Animal manure can be used or processed to produce energy a net 
certain industrial products or to aid in the production of food, Must 
of these processes are not yet sufficiently developed for widespread 
use, but offer an opportunity which should be explored fwilicr 
Recommendations; The Secretary of Agriculture .should explore 
various alternatives for standardizing laboratory soil and immure 
testing, including the feasibility of a laboratory certification system, 
so that the agricultural community can use such testing to ns-mi in 
operating in a more productive and economic manner. The mtinimV 
trators of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Energy 
Research and Development Administration and the Secretary of the 
Department of Agriculture should enter into & joint agreement deli- 
neating the responsibilities for the disposal and utilitizntion of animal 
manure and provide for adequate coordination of activities The 
agreement should provide assurance that innovative research jiro 
jects will be given adequate consideration for development to a singe 
where economic and technical viability of the technology van be 
determined. (Author/SC) 



088 

Better Federal Coordination Needetl to Promote More litfictent Farm 

/rrfeflrKW.RED-76.1 16; B-l 14885. June 22, 1976. 39pp. I 4 ap- 
pendices (10 pp.). ' 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 



Concerned: Department of the Interior; Dcparlmcni 
of Agnculture; Env.ronmental Protection Agency; Bureau of Rccln- 
matton,. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service; 
Service Agnculturei ^mion Service; Soil Conservation 

Congreulonal Relevance: Congress. 

Water'pni, ^ clamation Act of 1902 (43 U.S.C. 39 1 ct scq,). Fcclcwl 
Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500). 

Reclflmation delivered 8,541.6 billion 



26 



ar 

in y 
ty 



: increasing farming costs by in- 

and $*"? >^* 

by WaShing salts from tl)C soil il 
tream 



often and to what extent they shoiilJ 

Food 



Citation Section 



091 



irrigate, and they overuse low-cost water in lieu of additional labor 
or system improvements. Federal agencies do not have compreshcn- 
sive data to measure the severity of damages from overirrigating or 
to identify to what extent low-cost water is overused, inaccurate 
estimates of when and how much water to use are made, or other 
factors that contribute to the problem The major Federal effort to 
encourage irrigation scheduling on Federal projects is through the 
Bureau of Reclamation program, Irrigation Management Services, 
which has a computerized irrigation scheduling service to help farm- 
ers determine when and in what amounts to irrigate their croplands. 
The success of these services depends on the voluntary response and 
cooperation of farmers who have not been convinced of the pro- 
gram's economic or technical reliability Although first demon- 
strated in 1969, the program has not been widely accepted; the 
Bureau has not adequately demonstrated the benefits of the program. 
Recommendations: The Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture 
and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency 
should: undertake a coordinated effort to determine the causes for 
inefficient irrigation practices, develop more complete data on the 
adverse effects of such practices, and determine what Federal actions 
and which agencies could best alleviate the practices. The Secretary 
of the Interior should direct the Bureau of Reclamation to: review the 
Irrigation Management Services program to develop a more flexible, 
comprehensive program; direct greater attention to setting objectives 
and benchmarks in Irrigation Management Services demonstration 
projects so that benefits of the program can be clearly measured and 
shown to farmers; increase the frequency of field visits to demonstra- 
tion projects so that Bureau irrigation technicians can work more 
closely with selected farmers testing the usefulness of program tech- 
niques; and require the use of more carefully tailored approaches to 
demonstrating Irrigation Management Services benefits (Au- 
thor/SW) 



089 

The U.S. Fishing Industry; Present Condition and Future of Marine 
Fisheries, Volume 1. CED-76-130; B-177024. December 23, 1976. 

129 pp. 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Commerce; Department of 
State. 

Congrenlonal Relevance: House Committee on Merchant Marine 
and Fisheries; .Senate Committee on Commerce; Congress. 
Authority: Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 
(P.L. 94-265). Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (P.L. 84-1024). Marine 
Resources and Engineering Development Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-454). 
Merchant Marine Act of 1970, as amended; Jones Act (46 U.S.C. 
68 8). 

A study of the U.S. commercial fishing industry was performed 
to delineate policy issues, options, and costs of revitalizing the indus- 
try. The United States has almost one-fifth of the world's marine fish 
resources within 200 miles of its coastline. Findings/Conclusions: 
In spite of the abundance of resources, the U.S. fishing industry is not 
as strong and prosperous as would be expected. Domestic landings 
of edible fish have remained constant since 1960 and some segments 
of the harvesting sector are in a chronically depressed state. The 
demand for fish has increased but U.S. landings have supplied a 
declining share of the domestic market while imports of edible spe- 
cies have increased sharply to a point where it represents 62% of the 
total demand for edible fish products. This resulted in a fish trade 
deficit of $1.4 billion in 1974. Opportunities exist to strengthen and 
expand the industry by increasing the harvest and the efficiency of 
harvesting operations and overcoming barriers in processing, mar- 
keting, and distributing fish and fish products. Recommendations: 
Some of the solutions offered include: (1) limiting fishing; (2) ex- 
panding Government's authority; (3) encouraging cooperation 
among states, universities, and industry; (4) technical assistance; (5) 
improved financing; and (6) research and development programs. 
(Author/ HTW) 



090 

Tlie U.S. Fishing Industry' Present Condition anil Future of Marine 
Fisheries, Volume 2. CED-76-130-A. December 23, 1976. 477 pp. 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer D. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Commerce; Department of 
State, 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Merchant Marine 
and Fisheries; Senate Committee on Commerce; Congress 
Authority: Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 
(P.L 94-265), 16 U.S.C. 742d 16 U.S.C. 744. 16 U.S.C 760. 16 
U.S.C. 1202. 16 U.S.C. 758a, 14 U.S.C. 94 33 U.S.C. 1441, 1442. 
16 U.S.C. 755, 756. 16 U.S.C. 1221 etseq. 16 U.S.C 777 16 U.S.C 
1361 etseq. 16 U.S.C. 916 et seq 16U.SC 661-64. 

Appendices to a study of the U.S. fishing industry include: a 
compilation and analysis of Federal laws affecting the U.S. commer- 
cial fishing industry; profiles of important U.S. fisheries; profiles of 
the fishing industry in selected foreign nations; and statistics of the 
U.S. and foreign catch of fish off the U,S. coastline. It also includes 
a University of Washington study, prepared under contract to GAO, 
on "The Effect of Extended Fishery Jurisdiction by the United States 
on International Fisheries Conventions and Agreements". (Au- 
thor/HTW) 



091 

[Review of Effectiveness of Lend Treatment Agreements in Watershed 
Areas]. CED-77-13; B-114833. December 27, 1976 10 pp + en- 
closure (2 pp.), 

Report to Rep. Don. H. Clausen, Ranking Minority Member, House 
Committee on Public Works and Transportation: Water Resources 
Subcommittee; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Soil Conservation Service. 
Congretilonal Relevance: House Committee on Public Works and 
Transportation: Water Resources Subcommittee. 
Authority! Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (1954), 
as amended (P.L. 83-566; 16 U.S.C. IGOI-OS, 4(5)). 

Representative Don H. Clausen requested a review to determine 
if the Soil Conservation Service was properly administering section 
4(5) of the amended Watershed Protection and Flood ' 



Food 



092 



Citation Section 



092 

To Protect Tomorrow's Food Supply, Soil Conservation Needs Priority 
Attention. CED-77-30, B-l 14833. February 14, 1977 59 pp. 
Report to the Congress, by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Soil Conser- 
vation Service; Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. 
Congretilonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture, Senate 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Congress. 
Authority: 16USC 590 el seq. 

There are three major Department of Agriculture programs to 
assist farmers in establishing enduring soil conservation practices to 
control erosion and preserve the topsoil necessary for crop produc- 
tion. The Conservation Operations Program provides technical as- 
sistance to help farmers develop conservation plans and apply 
conservation measures. The Agricultural Conservation Program 
channels Federal money to farmers and ranchers lo share the costs 
of carrying out conservation practices on their land The Great Plains 
program is a special Federal effort to help combat the unique climatic 
hazards in the Great Plains by technically and financially helping 
farmers and ranchers to change crop systems and land uses to con- 
serve soil and water. Findings/Conclusions: Much of the money is 
not being spent on critically needed soil conservation practices hav- 
ing the best payoffs for reducing erosion In addition, the programs 
tend to be onented to individual farmers who seek advice or volun- 
teer to participate in programs Recommendations: The Department 
of Agriculture should seek out and offer assistance to farmers who 
have the most severe erosion problems, and should give assistance 
priority to erosion control measures that provide critically needed, 
enduring soil conservation benefits. (SQ 



093 

Ground Water An Overview. CED-77-69, B-l 14885 June21,1977. 

37 pp. + 2 appendices (9 pp.) t 

Report lo the Congress, by Elmer B Steals, Comptroller General. 

Orgonliallon Concerned: Department of the Interior; Environmen- 
tal Protection Agency; Department of Agriculture; Geological Sur- 
vey. 

Congressional Relevance; House Committee on Interior and Insular 
Affairs; Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources; Con- 
gress. 

Ground water presently supplies aboul 20% of fresh water used 
in the United Slates, and although it is plentiful, little more than one 
quarler of it is available for use with present extraction techniques. 
Dependence on ground water varies according to locality, with 2% 
of Montana's water and 62% of Arizona's coming from ground water. 
Findings/Conclusions: In many areas, ground water is being used 
faster than it is being replenished, and to some extent, soil subsidence 
and saltwater seepage are occurring. The problem is most acute in the 
High Plains region of western Texas and eastern New Mexico. 
Ground water management by local and State governments in West- 
ern States has emphasized administering and protecting water rights. 
State water rights laws and lack of sufficient geological data have 
prevented more intensive management. The Federal Government's 
contributions arc data gathering, research, technical assistance, and 
water resources development. The Geological Survey has provided 
data on aquifer systems to managers through its Federal/State coop- 
erative program, but more data are needed The President indicated 
that he was recommending major policy reforms in water conserva- 
tion Questions posed related to the role of the Government in 
ground water management, water rights, priorities for Federal assist- 
ance, unified management of ground and surface waters, transfer of 
water from one river basin to another, and possible incentives for 
decreasing irrigation. These questions warrant consideration by Con- 
gress, Federal and State agencies, and private institutions when deve- 

28 



loping major policy reform for better ground water management. 
(HTW) 



094 

Organizing and Financing Basic Research to Increase Food Production. 
June 1977 21 pp. + appendix (17 pp.). 

Report to Sen Edward M. Kennedy, Chairman, Office of Tech- 
nology Assessment: Technology Assessment Board; Rep Olin E. 
Teague, Chairman, House Committee on Science and Technology; 
.Sen. Hubert H Humphrey, 
Prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; National 
Science Foundation 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Science and Tech- 
nology. Sen Hubert H Humphrey- 

Allhough basic research offers opportunities for discovery of 
knowledge vital to the understanding of biological processes, appro- 
priations in basic research to increase food production have not kept 
up with research cosis Past research programs have led to increased 
agricultural productivity, and it was projected that an investment of 
$300 million to $500 million over a 10-year period would probably 
yield returns of $1 billion to $2 billion over the next 20 years. Ad- 
ministration of basic research could be assigned to either the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture (USDA) or ihe National Science Foundation 
(NSF) Expanded research has been recommended for the 117 most 
important problems identified at a conference on research to meet 
food needs An advisory panel found that about $15.6 million annu- 
ally is being spent in the high-priority areas of photosysnlhesis, bio- 
logical nitrogen fixation, and cell culture studies and that an 
expanded basic research program in these areas would be cost benefi- 
cial Options for Congress are to: continue funding research at the 
current level; appropriate funds for basic research to be administered 
by the Secretary of Agriculture under P.L. 89-106; mandate the 
creation in USDA of an office of competitive grants and authorize 
a long-term program of basic research; and authorize and finance an 
NSF program for expanded basic research. (HTW) 



095 

Restrictions on Using More Fertilizer far Food Crops in Developing 
Countries, ID-77-6; B-159652. July 5, 1977 35 pp. + 11 appen- 
dices (30 pp ). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for Internationa! Development; 
Department of Agriculture; Department of State; Department of the 
Treasury. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Congress. 
Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, I03(b). 

Developing countries could produce more food by using more 
fertilizer. Although steps have been taken to produce more fertilizer, 
its use is often hindered by the individual countries' policies and 
institutional constraints. Findings/Conclusions: Farmers in many 
developing countries find it difficult to use more fertilizer due to such 
governmental policies as the maintenance of artificially low food 
prices for urban populations which discourage farmers from \islng 
high cost agricultural products. Fertilizer use should be considered 
along with other methods of increasing crop yield and as part of a 
needed effort to increase food crops in developing countries. 
Recommendations: The Secretaries of State, Agriculture, and the 
Treasury and the Administrator of the Agency for International 
Development should work for concerted action by all countries and 
institutions that provide fertilizer assistance to: (1) induce recipient 

Food 



Citation Section 



096 



governments to revise policies which act as constraints and to adopt 
a strategy to increase the use of fertilizer on food crops; and (2) 
incorporate, where appropriate, a requirement in new agreements 
with recipient countries for food, financial, and technical assistance 
that affirmative action be taken by developing countries to remove 
constraints to greater agricultural production, including constraints 
to increasing the use of fertilizer. (Author/SC) 



096 

Management of Agricultural Research: Need and Opportunities for 
Improvement. CED-77-121; B-133192. August 23, 1977. Released 
August 25, 1977 40 pp. + 4 appendices (17 pp.). 
Report to Rep. Richard Boiling, Chairman, Joint Economic Commit- 
tee; by Elmer B. Steals, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Joint Economic 
Committee. 

Authority: Organic Act of 1862 (7 US C 2201, et seq.}- Hatch Act 
of 1 887, as amended (7 U.S C. 36 la). McSweeney-McNary Forestry 
Research Act of 1 928, as amended (1 6 U.S.C. 581). Mclntire-Stennis 
Act of 1962 (16 U S.C. 582a). 7 U.S.C. 450i. H.R. 78 (95th Cong.). 
H.R. 2223 (95th Cong.) H.R. 4863 (95th Cong.). H.R. 7171 (95th 
Cong.)- S. 248 (95th Cong.). 

Although the extremely complex and highly diversified agricul- 
tural research system in the United States has made notable contribu- 
tions to the Nation's well-being, there is an increasing realization that 
an up-to-date national plan needs to be developed and maintained if 
the system is to be responsive to future critical problems and needs 
and if limited public dollars are to be wisely used. The Agricultural 
Research Service, the largest organization in the Federal-State re- 
search system, could improve its research through better planning, 
project selection, and review of ongoing work, Findings/Conclu- 
sions: Until recently, the Service placed most of its emphasis on 
short-range planning In fiscal year 1977, the Service recognized the 
need for long-range planning by categorizing research under national 
and ipecial research programs and developing a long-range planning 
document for each program area. Much of the technical and adminis- 
trative data needed for developing strategies was unavailable, inac- 
curate, or fragmented. Recommendations: The Secretary of 
Agriculture should direct the Agricultural Research Service to: iden- 
tify and document the relative priorities of each national research 
program and of each problem and research need within the program 
areas; develop agencywide criteria and peer review procedures for 
assessing the scientific and technical merits of all research proposals; 
and require that the annual unit reports and plans better document 
the technical aspects of active research projects and be reviewed by 
technical advisors. The Secretary should also take the necessary 
steps to have a national agricultural research plan developed and 
maintained. (Author/SC) 



097 

Stronger Controls Needed over the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers 

Association Programs in North Carolina. HRD-77-84; B- 

177486. September 8, 1977. Released September 11, 1977. 27 pp. 

+ 2 appendices (15 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Robert Morgan; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Labor; Migrant and Sea- 
sonal Farmworkers Association, Inc. 
Congressional Relevance: Sen. Robert Morgan. 



Authority! Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, 
title III, as amended (29 U S.C. 873 (Supp. V. 

The Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Association operates 
programs that provide employment and training services to farm- 
workers in North Carolina Although most of the program goals have 
been met, many job placements lasted only a short time. In addition, 
the association's administrative costs in 1975 exceeded the 20% limit 
imposed by the Department of Labor's regulations. Recommenda- 
tions: The Secretary of Labor should- provide technical assistance to 
the association to make sure that administrative costs are properly 
classified; take corrective action regarding administrative costs that 
exceed the 20% limit and money paid to the training contractor that 
exceeds allowable training costs; and closely monitor association 
activities to make sure that only allowable costs are incurred under 
the grant The Secretary should require the association to: work with 
vocational training contractors to improve attendance -certification 
practices; adhere to prescribed followup procedures for training par- 
ticipants; adhere to prescribed authorization and documentation re- 
quirements for employee travel reimbursement; provide that 
followup records be detailed enough to show why people did not stay 
in jobs found through the association; and provide that people re- 
ferred to pubHc assistance programs be recorded only if they are not 
already served by such programs. {Author/SC) 



098 

Food Waste; An Opportunity to Improve Resource Use. CED-77-118; 
B-114824. September 16, 1977. 51 pp. + 4 appendices (24 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B, Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Congress, 
Authority: Tax Reform Act of 1969. Tax Reform Act of 1976, 

About 20% of all food produced in the United States is lost or 
wasted in a year, amounting to about $3 1 billion. Losses occur during 
harvest, storage, transportation, processing, at the wholesale /re tail 
level, and at restaurants, institutions, and households. Findings/ 
Conclusions; Large losses occurred at the consumption level, both 
institutional and household. Uneaten food thrown away (plate waste) 
is a problem in the National School Lunch Programs, and similar 
waste has been reported in all group feeding situations. The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture's food stamp program contains an allowance for 
some food to be discarded. It was estimated that, for 1977, 1% of 
waste would result In a food loss of $50 million. The Department has 
given only limited financial support to research to make reduction of 
loss economically feasible. Households discarded the most edible 
food, worth $ 11.7 billion. Research on loss showed that households 
with good knowledge of food safety have less waste. Reducing food 
loss would: improve the productivity and efficiency of the food sys- 
tem; increase food production for a given level of land, fertilizer, 
energy, and related factors; and provide an opportunity for feeding 
the hungry. Changes in tax laws have eliminated some incentives to 
donations of food. Recommendations; The Secretary of Agriculture 
should: undertake a comprehensive study of the magnitude and 
causes of loss and focus research attention in promising areas; deter- 
mine the extent and causes of waste among food stamp recipients and 
in Department-supported feeding programs and take remedial action 
as appropriate; review priorities given to research activities devoted 
to loss reduction; undertake educational efforts that are found to be 
related to elimination of household waste; and review opportunities 
for encouraging charitable donations of food by extending tax bene- 
fits or by other programs. (HTW) 



Food 



29 



099 



Citation Sadler 



099 

Ttte US. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Industry-Past, Present, and 

Potential. CED-77-96; B-177024, September 30, 1977. 58 pp +8 

appendices (40 pp) 

Report to the Congress, by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of the Interior; Department 
of Agriculture, Department of Commerce; Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare; Department of Slate; Department of Tran- 
sportation, Environmental Protection Agency; Small Business Ad- 
ministration 

Congressional Relevance; House Committee on Merchant Marine 
and Fisheries; Senate Committee on Commerce; Congress 
Authority! Submerged Lands Act of 1953 (43 U.S.C. 1301). Black 
Bass Act (16 USC. 851-56) Environmental Contaminants Act 
Toxic Substances Control Act Fish Restoration Act of 1950. Din- 
gell-Johnson Act Commercial Fisheries Research and Development 
Act of 1964 Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956. Merchant Marine Act 
[of] 1936, as amended Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967. 

Overfishmg, predators, contaminants, and increasingly restric- 
tive State regulations have reduced the U.S, Great Lakes commercial 
fishing industry to a mere shadow of its former prominence. At this 
time, there is little chance that the number of commercial fishermen 
or the commercial harvest from the Great Lakes will increase. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: Fish farming is not considered a viable alternative 
to traditional fishing in Great Lakes waters. Knowledge from con- 
tinued research on harvesting and using less desirable or low-value 
species may encourage commercial fishermen to expand their har- 
vest. The future of Great Lakes commercial fishing depends on the 
extent to which the Great Lakes States want to develop and maintain 
a viable commercial fishery. The State and Federal Governments 
have stocked the Great Lakes with hatchery-raised fish, which have 
not^ reproduced as much as expected. The States have allowed only 
limited harvest of these fish. Procedures for determining the availa- 
bility of fish for harvest have been inadequate Federal assistance 
geared to meet the requirements of State commercial fishery pro- 
grams will help to improve the fishery However, because the States 
have exclusive authority to manage the Great Lakes fishing industry 
in their respective waters, the Federal role is limited and it alone 
cannot direct the course or future of commercial fishing (Au- 
thor/Sq e * 



keting activities such as distribution and setting prices of commodi- 
ties Findings/Conclusions: Programs with this objective are 
administered by 12 Federal agencies, comprising 3 1 administrations, 
agencies, authorities, bureaus, commissions, corporations, divisions, 
and services. Price controls have been imposed by the President 
under the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970. Government activi- 
ties may be classified as either public service or regulatory, Public 
service activities involve research (including economic analyses, 
market studies, transportation of commodities, and production re- 
search), a market news service, grade classification, production con- 
trol, and professional services. Regulatory activities involve setting 
minimum standards for production and marketing and preventing 
the system from impeding competition. Examples of these activities 
are plant and animal disease and pest control, regulation of use of 
pesticides, meat inspection, control of labeling and standards, and 
regulation of trading practices. (HTW) 



101 

[Investigation of Rail Shipping Kates between Specified Points], 

B-179218. April 4, 1974. 2 pp. + enclosure (2 pp.). 

Report to Rep. E. (Kika) de la Garza; by Robert F. Keller, Deputy 

Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Congressional Relevance: Rep, E. (Kika) de la Garza 

Analysis of the comparative domestic and import rates for manu- 
factured products, agricultural commodities, and raw materials 
shipped from Brownsville and Harlingen, Texas, and Miami, Florida, 
to various destinations showed that there was no consistent pattern 
to the rates from the Texas and Florida origins to the same destina- 
tions. Findings/Conclusions; Rates from Florida were lower or 
higher than rates from Texas depending on the commodity and desti- 
nation and were not necessarily related to distance, usually a major 
factor in rate levels. When summarized by State of origin, domestic 
rates were lower from Florida in 25 instances and lower from Texas 
in 10 instances. Import rates were lower from Florida in 24 instances 
and lower from Texas in 1 1 instances. The carriers' fully allocated 
costs (the sum of the variable and fixed costs) were computed for 
each shipment included in the study by using data and methodology 
in a 1969 Interstate Commerce Commission publication which was 
updated to 1972 costs and productivity statistics furnished by the 
Association of American Railroads, (SC) 



FARM MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION 

100 

Information on Federal Agencies Having an Impact on Production and 
Marketing of Meat. B-136888. March 25, 1974. 91 pp. + 3 annen- 
dices (5 pp.). 

Report to Rep, Thomas S. Foley, Chairman, House Committee on 
Agriculture: Livestock and Grains Subcommittee; by Elmer B 
Steals, Comptroller General. 

Organliallon Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Commerce; Department of Defense; Food and Drug Administra- 
tion; Department of the Interior; Department of Justice; Department 
of Labor; Department of State; Environmental Protection Agency; 
Federal Trade Commission *' 

Congresslonol Relevance: to* Committee on Agriculture: Lives- 
tock and Grains Subcommittee. 
Authority: Economic Stabilization Act of 1970 



and 11 ! ? deral P. ro rams h^e been directed toward 
ll-functioning livestock marketing system. This 

and converting it into meat and meat products; and mar- 



30 



102 

Interim Report on the Commodity Exchange Authority and on Com- 
modity Futures Trading. B-146770. May 3, 1974. 45 pp. + 2appen- 
dices (7 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Commodity 

Exchange Authority. 

Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

Authority: Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1), 49 

U.S.C. 1654. H.R. 11955 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 13113 (93rd Cong.). 

The Commodity Exchange Act, which authorized the Secretary 
ot Agriculture to regulate trading in contracts for future delivery of 
specified agricultural commodities, is administered by the Com- 
modity Exchange Authority (CEA). Bills introduced in Congress in 
1*73 were concerned with where regulation of futures trading be- 
iong m the Federal bureaucracy and the need to expand the Govern- 
ment s authority to regulate this trading. Findings/Conclusions Of 
several organizational alternatives considered, the one most favored 
was to create an independent agency, separate from the Department 
ol Agriculture, m order to avoid potential conflicts of interest and lo 

Food 



Citation Section 



105 



include regulation of commodities other than agricultural. CEA 
should be given authority to regulate all futures trading including 
commodities now unregulated, restrict trading by floor brokers for 
their own accounts, obtain injunctions and administer fines, establish 
margin requirements, and designate delivery points if exchanges do 
not do so. The Commodity Exchange Act should be amended to 
require registration of all people who handle commodity customer 
accounts. Shortcomings noted in CEA organization and operations 
included: inadequate staffing, need for more aggressive enforcement 
of rules, inadequate investigations and reviews of trade practices, and 
too much time spent on routine audits Recommendations: The Ad- 
ministrator of CEA should give exchanges a time limit for imple- 
menting CEA's regulation on self-enforcement of trading rules, list 
penalties, and monitor enforcement; establish standards for ex- 
changes 1 enforcement of financial requirements and state penalties 
for failure to comply; investigate abusive trade practices; regularly 
review adequacy of speculative trading and position limits; consoli- 
date guidance documents on price manipulation investigations; and 
consider giving exchanges primary responsibility for audits of Fu- 
tures Commission Merchants. (HTW) 



1 03 

[Activities of the Market News Service, Statistics and Market News 

Division, of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration], 

B-177024. May 31, 1974. 3 pp. 

Report to Secretary, Department of Commerce; by Victor L. Lowe, 

Director, General Government Div. 

Organization Concerned: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- 
ministration. National Marine Fisheries Service. 
Authority: Independent Offices Appropriation Act of 1952, title V; 
User Charge Act (31 U.S.C. 483a). OMB Circular A-25. 

The Market News Service, Statistics and Market News Division, 
of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), provides market 
news reports free to subscribers to aid in the orderly marketing offish 
and fish products. For fiscal year 1974, NMFS budgeted about 
$600,000 to provide the news service to about 11,000 subscribers. 
The budget did not include annual mailing costs of about $126,000. 
Findings/Conclusions: Although NMFS has not charged for this 
service on the premise that it is provided in the public interest, review 
of the program indicates that benefits accrue to certain subscribers 
but that few benefits accrue to the general public. Accordingly, cer- 
tain subscribers should be charged fees for the market news service 
to recover the full costs of providing such service. The primary report 
users are fishermen, wholesalers, processors, importers, buyers, gov- 
ernment officials, and brokers and exporters. Subscribers generally 
use the data En the reports for making individual management deci- 
sions. Recommendations: The Secretary of Commerce should direct 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to establish 
fees for the service the market news reports render to fishermen, 
wholesalers, processors, and others engaged in marketing fish and 
fish products. Such fees should conform to the Government's general 
policy concerning user charges. (SC) 



104 

Allegetl Discriminations and Concessions in the Allocation ofBailcars to 
Grain Shippers. B-l 14824, December 30, 1974. 8 pp. + 9 appen- 
dices (16 pp.). 

Report to Rep. John Melcher; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Gen- 
eral, 

Organization Concerned: Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Congressional Relevance: Rep. John Melcher. 



Authority: Interstate Commerce Act (49 U.S C. 1). Elkins Act (49 
US.C. 41). Interstate Commerce Commission Order 1120, 1121. 
Interstate Commerce Commission Order 1117. 

An investigation was conducted to determine whether companies 
that have control of covered hopper cars were able to buy grain at 
substantial discounts because they had available transportation. Pub- 
lished railroad tariffs applicable to grain shipments and Interstate 
Commerce Commission (ICC) attempts to insure equitable distribu- 
tion of railroad equipment were reviewed Contact was made with 
eight elevators in Iowa and Minnesota that were experiencing dif- 
ficulties in marketing and shipping grain and with nine railroad com- 
panies to determine how many cars they had available for grain 
shipments, how they provide cars under multiple-car grain tariffs, 
and how the tariffs affect car allocations. Findings/Conclusions; 
Grain companies having available rail transportation were able to 
buy grain from independent elevators at prices below those quoted 
in some markets. Several railroads have published tariffs allowing 
rate reductions when multiple-car units from 3 to 100 cars are used. 
Several tariffs appear to allow grain companies to control covered 
hopper cars for extended periods. The ICC issued Order No 1120 
in order to distribute hopper cars more widely. The order is appar- 
ently ineffective because of tariffs which permit unit-grain-train allo- 
cations of fewer than 50 cars Individual grain companies can control 
large numbers of hopper cars for extended periods under the tariffs 
without violating ICC regulations. There are different transportation 
problems for elevators with tracksiding adequate to load unit trains 
and those without such facilities. There were adverse conditions 
which might be attributed to multiple-car tariffs. (SW) 



105 

Information on the California Anchovy, GGD-75-43; B- 
177024. December 31, 1974. 2 pp. + appendix (24 pp.). 
Report to Sen. Warren G. Magnuson, Chairman, Senate Committee 
on Commerce; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- 
ministration; Department of Commerce. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Commerce. 

The disappearance of the Peruvian anehoveta, which was the 
principal raw stock of fishmeal imported by the United States, re- 
sulted in a shortage of fishmeal in 1973. Fishmenl producers and 
anchovy fishermen have expressed considerable interest in expand- 
ing their facilities to support a larger anchovy fishery, depending on 
the increase on the harvesting limit for the California anchovy, the 
condition of the fishmeal market, and the potential return on invest- 
ment, Findings/Conclusions; Marine biologists generally agree that 
the northern California anchovy could sustain an annual harvest of 
50% of its population without endangering the maximum sustainable 
yield of the resource. National Marine Fisheries Service biologists 
believe that a substantially increased anchovy harvest would have 
little impact on sports fishing, whereas the California Department of 
Fish and Game biologists believe that such an increase could! have 
a serious impact. Representatives of the sports fishing industry op- 
pose any increase in the harvest, based on the belief that the anchovy 
is the last forage for game fish in the California Current. A substantial 
increase in the U.S. supply of fishmeal could have a beneficial effect 
on our International balance of payments and reduce our dependence 
on foreign countries for fishmeal. Another benefit of an increased 
anchovy harvest, according to some biologists, would be the creation 
of a more favorable environment for the possible return of the Pacific 
sardine. (SC) 



Food 



31 



1O6 



Citation 



106 

Improvements ,\'&x!id itt ftfguiation of Commodity Futatti Trading, 

RED-75-370. B-146770 June 24, 1975 66 pp V 5 *rr*n-iuc, i' 

PP) 

Report 10 the Congress, by Elmer B Stasis, Comptroller Go.ci.il 

Organization Concam&d: Commodity Futures Trading Concus- 
sion. 

Congrestlonal Relavante: Congress 

Authority: Commodity Exchange Aci, as amended <7 L" S C Ij 
Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 (P L 93-463) 

Because of the concern of the Congress and of I he key rule 
commodity futures markets play m establishing cominoJuy pru.cs. 
there is a need for the newly established Commodity Futures 
Commission to improve the regulation of commodity fut 

fincfings/Conclusicm' Trade practice investigations at fi%e torn- 
modi ty exchanges showed that trading abuses were occurring, im- 
provements in exchange records were needed, and a modified 
marketwide surveillance program using computers was needed 
Recommendations: To improve ihe regulation of commodity ex- 
changes and commodity futures trading, the Commission should 
improve the effectiveness of trade practice investigations bj requir- 
ing accurate and useful trade records, instituting a modified market- 
wide surveillance program using computers, and acting quickly on 
violations and publicizing penalties imposed, complete complaint 
investigations promptly to increase public confidence in the futures 
market and to deter trading abuses, woik with the Administrator of 
the Agricultural Marketing Service and with other Federal agencies 
to insure that adequate cash-price information will be provided for 
ail commodities traded in futures markets, redirect the Commission's 
audil function to a strong oversight role and transfer the primary 
responsibility for enforcing ihe required financial provisions and 
regulations to the exchanges; and implement a formal research pro- 
gram for commodity futures trading and consider such areas as fo- 
reign and trader influence on the futures markets when establishing 
priorities (AuthorVSQ 



107 

Marketing Meat: Are There Any tmpediments to Free Trade? CED-77- 
81; B-13688S. June 6, 1977. Released June 10, 1977. 6 pp. + 3 
appendices (39 PP->- 

Report to Rep. Alvm Baldus; Rep. Berkley Bedell; Rep. Glenn ting* 
tisK; Rep. Charles E. Grassley; Rep. Jack Hightower; Rep. James P. 
Johnson; Rep Charles Thone, Sen John Melcher; by Elmer B. 
Slaats, Comptroller General 

Organisation Conern*dt Depafiment of Agriculture; Internal 
Revenue Service; Department of Agriculture: Packers and Stock- 
yards Administration. , 

ConflreiBlonal Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Rep. Alvin Bal- 
dus; Rep. Berkley Bedell; Rep Glenn English; Rep, Charles E. Grass- 
ley; Rep. Jack Higrnower, Rep James P Johnson; Rep. Charles 
Thane; Sen. John Melctier. 

Authority! Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, as amended (V 
USC, 181 et seq.) (P.L. 94-4 lOj 90 Slat. 1249), Federal Trade 
Commission Act. 10(15 U.S.C. 50). National Stolen Property Act, 
nara 2 (18 U.S.C. 2314). 18 U.S.C. 1952. 18 U.S.C. 1341. 1& U.S.C. 
1 343. Internal Revenue Code, 61030(3). H-R, 23 11 <95th Cong.). 
S. 181 (95th Cong.). 

Union /management agreements in some cities, commercial brib- 

ery In the meat industry, and manipulation and fixing of meat prices 

present impediments to free trade in the marketing of meat J7n- 

dings/Condusions: Union /management collective bargaining agree- 

i&nts In some cities, mostly in (he Midwest, restrict the sale oi 

arious forms of fabricated meat by meat packers lo merchants and 



f-'l* 

trjitw 

erring 

ducui 

o! t>* 

ad-ni 

admm 



I: -.,uinromi>> sell meat to consumers The 
I,' N i[r"r to be on the decline, were cj- 
(ll in of ihe population. Commercial biib- 
. . ,-t iii'Ujsuj When it occins, competition 
r-, in. liUl> to pay more for meat. Several 
ltv L..le producers allege manipulation and 
h, ..tnam slaughterhouses, principal food 
it puce reporting service Secoatmrnda- 
-\nruuluirt should provide increased assm- 

'-* - ltlt a ^" c and desist rder by '^ clu( ) in8 a 
- ri ; ,,f thL pour's planned corrective action in the 
t'^'i^ u-e.l by ihe Packers and Stockyards AdminEs- 
'li'.iiMrJin-n should also formalize procedures for ref- 
.,", u- ihe Internal Revenue Service and Col 
v .t. tofarah and their final disposition The Secretary 
iK"iU h ^e the Internal Revenue Service advise tlie 
,.f (he awtion taken on bribery cases referred by the 
Miiith.'idi,dhriKr> nutters involving meat packing firms thai 
lo their atwnium in the course of income tax investig aliens 



PRICE SUPPORTS, SET ASIDES, MARKETING 
ORDERS, TARGET PRICES 

108 

[Dtparrment of Agriculture Payments \fade in Connection with the J97J 

H'ttiat Program]. B-176943 April 3, 1974. 5 pp 

Report to Rep Gterm M Anderson; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Cengf8(*ional RsUvanee: Rep Glenn M. Anderson. 
Authority: Food and Agriculture Act of 1962 (P.L. 87-703; 76 Slat. 
626) Agricultural Ac< of 1970 (P L. 91-524; 84 Stat. 1362). Agrieiil- 
tureandConsumerProtectionActofl973(PL 93-86; 87 Sinl 2J6J. 
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (7 U.S.C. 1379b). National 
Environmental Policy Act 

Certain payments the Department of Agriculture made in con- 
nection ivith the 1973 wheat program were questioned. Of llie S4H 
milfjou questioned, S375 2 million represented advance payment* 10 
wheat producers under the wheat marketing certificate progiam 
These payments were made in accordance with the law, and the 
Government could not require repayment. Findings/CanciiuiMt: 
Wheat marketing certificate authorizing legislation was designed ID 
help wheat farmers in the event that wheat prices were disaslroiw^ 
low in a given year About 1.3 million farms were eligible far panki- 
pation during each of crop years 1971, 1972, and 1973, and tttfri 
payments for the three years were $878,078,000, $723,3 1 2,000, ifiJ 
5375,226,000 respectively. To determine the advance pnymcnls, tiw 
Department analyzed prices on the Kansas City wheat futures mir- 
fcel and then adjusted Ihe average futures to account for diiTcrcnwi 
between futures prices and cash and farm prices. About T$% of iht 
estimated value of the certificates to participating farmers WBI paid 
Wheat prices rose after the payments were made, primarily bciae 
of unexpected foreign demand. Payments determined to be flirty 
ihe Secretary of Agriculture are made to wheat producers who ta 
aside cropland for approved conservation uses. These 
which are final, lolaled $98,821,000 for 1973. (SS) 



12 



Citation Section 



109 

Administration of Marketing Orders for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. 
B-177170 December 11, 1974. 39 pp. + 4 appendices {8 pp.). 
Report to Sen. Frank E. Moss, Chairman, Senate Committee on 
Commerce: Consumer Subcommittee; by Elmer B. Staats, Comp- 
troller General 

Organization Concerned: Agricultural Marketing Service 
Congreiilonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Commerce: Con- 
sumer Subcommittee 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as 
amended (7 U.S.C, 601 et seq) 

The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 authorizes 
the Secretary of Agriculture to: issue, and from time to time amend, 
marketing orders regulating the handling of specified agricultural 
commodities in order to establish and maintain such orderly market- 
ing conditions as will establish parity prices to farmers; protect the 
interest of the consumer by prohibiting any marketing order action 
which would keep prices to farmers above parity; and provide an 
orderly flow to the market of the commodity being regulated to avoid 
unreasonable fluctuation in supplies and prices. Findings/Conclu- 
sions: The Department of Agriculture (USDA) has published rule- 
making notices in the Federal Register during marketing seasons in 
formulating and issuing amendments to shipment regulations in only 
a few cases. Most USDA research on the price effects of marketing 
order actions has been directed at their effects on farm-level prices. 
Neither USDA nor other organizations have done any research or 
studies to determine whether there are alternatives to marketing 
orders which could be used to meet the act's objectives and which 
would increase the consumers' benefits without seriously jeopardiz- 
ing producers' interests. Investigation of the Florida tomato market- 
ing order indicated that, although considerable research has been 
done, the results are conflicting as to whether tomatoes harvested at 
the vine-ripe-breaker stage are much better in terms of vitamin con- 
tent and flavor than mature-green-harvcsted tomatoes. (Author/SC) 



in 

Marketing Order Program: An Assessment of Its Effects on Selet 
Commodities, ID-76-26; B-f 14824. April 23, 1976 35 pp + 3 ; 
pendices (19 pp ) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller Genen 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Departmi 

of State. 

Congretxlonal Relevance: Congress 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, 

amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.}. Trade Act of 1974. 

The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 authon: 
the use of marketing orders to regulate the handling and market 
of domestically produced fresh vegetables, fresh and dried fruits, s 
nuts The act allows producers and handlers to regulate the shipmi 
and marketing of certain agricultural commodities subject to : 
r proval by the Secretary of Agriculture-actions that otherwise woi 
be subject to antitrust and other types of legislative control, i 
dings/Conclusions: The potato, onion, and raisin marketing ord 
have benefited some producers and handlers by enhancing farm-le 
prices and have played a major role in developing the industri 
abilities to organize, exchange ideas, and evaluate marketing con 
tions, However, consumers have had to pay higher retail prices 
commodities regulated by marketing orders. Recomtrtendatioi 
The Secretary of Agriculture should. (1) develop policy guidehi 
for domestic fruit, vegetables, and specialty crop industries and , 
vise the Congress on which commodities should have domestic m 
keting assistance, what criteria should be used to control 
authorization of regulatory privileges granted to growers and h 
dlers, and how more equitable assistance might be accorded to grc 
ers and handlers of varied commodities produced in dive 
locations; (2) recommend to the Congress a more realistic gauge tl 
presently used for measuring producer's economic well-being; E 
(3) develop consistent and comparable marketing order imp 
standards to give exporting countries a more logical set of standa 
to follow. (Amhor/SC) 



110 

Reduction in Federal Expenditures Possible through Commodity Credit 
Corporation's Assumption of Insured Warehousing Risks, RED-75-320; 
B-114824. January 10, 1975. 33 pp. + 2 appendices (5 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Commodity Credit Corp. 

Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority! United States Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 241). 

The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) procures insurance 
directly, or pays for insurance indirectly, in connection with the 
storage of grain, beans, and rice under its price-support programs. 

Findings/Conclusions; The CCC pays storage charges, which in- 
clude factors for insurance against loss by fire and other hazards, on 
its grain stored in commercial warehouses and on farmer-owned 
grain stored in warehouses or on farms and serving as collateral for 
price-support loans extended beyond initial maturity dates. The CCC 
also carries a blanket insurance policy for protection against short- 
ages of warehouse-stored grain which it owns or which is serving as 
collateral for price-support loans. If the Corporation had assumed its 
own insurable risks during the 5 years ended June 30, 1972, it would 
have saved about $17.1 milIion-$7.7 million on warehouse-stored 
grain, $8.2 million on farm-stored grain, and $1.2 million on insur- 
ance against warehouse shortages. Recommendations: The Secre- 
tary of Agriculture should have the CCC eliminate hazard insurance 
coverage on grain for which it pays storage charges and obtain com- 
mensurate reductions in storage rates. The Secretary should also 
have the Corporation terminate the blanket insurance coverage for 
warehouse shortages at the earliest opportunity and assume the risks 
and the responsibility for collecting from warehousemen and their 
sureties. (Author/SC) 



112 

Agricultural Price Support Programs: A Layman's Guide. April 19" 

14 pp. 

Report prepared by the Congressional Budget Office of the U 

Congress. 

Organiiation Concerned: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser.- 
tion Service. 

Authority: Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938. Commodity Credit 
Corporation Charter Act. Agricultural Act of 1949. National Wool 
Act of 1954. Agricultural Act of 1970. Agriculture and Consumer 
Protection Act of 1973. Rice Production Act of 1975. 

For more than 80 years the Federal Government has used a 
variety of techniques to support farm prices and stabilize the income 
of farmers. The Department of Agriculture now relies on five meth- 
ods to support commodity prices and stabilize farmer incomes: pro- 
duction controls, nonrecourse loans, payments, purchases of 
commodities, and marketing orders. For most crops, production con- 
trols are reinforced by a payment, loan, or purchase program. Pro- 
grams administered by the Agricultural Stabilization and 
Conservation Service of the Department of Agriculture currently 
provide floor prices for wheat, corn, barley, soybeans, cotton, pea- 
nuts, tobacco, rice, milk, wool, and several other agricultural pro- 
ducts. Prices of wheat, upland cotton, and feed grains are supported 
by a combination of deficiency payments, nonrecourse loans, and 
cropland set-asides. Peanut prices are supported by marketing quotas 
and by nonrecourse loans. The prices of fluid milk and other dairy 
products are supported by direct purchases and marketing quotas. 
Federal marketing orders for a variety of fruits and vegetables influ- 



Food 



33 



112 



Citation S action 



ence prices indirectly by controlling the supply reaching the con- 
sumer. Wool and mohair prices are supported through payments to 
the producers. The price of cotton is supported through use of a 
combination of nonrecourse loans and supplementary payments. 
Price support loans are used to support soybean prices A system of 
deficiency payments, nonrecourse loans, disaster payments, and set- 
asides is used to support nee prices. (SC) 



crops if current legislation is extended. For cotton, deficiency pay- 
ments are specifically based on planted acreage within the allotment, 
so the same situation could not occur. Recommendations; If the 
target price concept is continued beyond the 1977 crops, the Con- 
gress should adopt legislation that will preclude deficiency payments 
on crops not grown. (Author/SC) 



INTERNATIONAL FOOD 



113 

New Approach Needed to Control Production of Major Crops if Surpluses 
Again Occur. CED-77-57; B-l 14824 April 25, 1977 21 pp 
Report to the Congress, by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Commodity 
Credit Corp 

Congre**ional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Congress 
Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (87 
Stat. 221) Agricultural Act of 1970 (84 Slat 1358). 

The effects of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) pro- 
grams to prevent the accumulation of excess agricultural commodi- 
ties are the focus of this report Findings/Conclusions: During the 
197 1-1973 crop years, the CCC paid farmers $7 6 billion to set aside 
cropland When all-out agricultural production was called for, the 
amount of planted cropland fell short by about 2 1 million acres of the 
amount paid for. Most of this difference was in land normally set 
aside by farmers in their cropland rotation pattern (summer fallow). 
Smaller portions of the 21 million acres represented cropland re- 
lamed for grazing or converted to nonagncultural uses. Payments for 
summer fallow occurred primarily m the wheat programs About 
$800 million of the total wheat set-aside payments did not result in 
a reduction of planted acreage. Surpluses of major crops could occur 
again, and future programs should avoid these excess payments 

Recommendations: The Secretary of Agriculture should develop a 
legislative and administrative proposal designed to control crop pro- 
duction with appropriate recognition of the summer-fallow factor. 
(HTW) 



114 

Federal Deficiency Payments Should Not Be Made for Crops Not Grown. 

CED-77-77; B-114824. May 24, 1977. 9 pp. 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General. 

OrganUotlon Concerned: Department of Agriculture 
Congwulonol Relevances House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Congress. 
Authority! Rice Production Act of 1975 (P.L 94-214; 90 Stat. 181). 
Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-86; 87 
Stat. 221) H R. 5994 (95th Cong.). 

The Commodity Credit Corporation is making an estimated $ 1 35 
million in deficiency payments to rice farmers for the 1976 rice crop. 
These payments are based on the extent that the national average 
market price received by rice farmers was below a target price estab- 
lished by law Findings/Conclusions; About 55 million of the defi- 
ciency payments will be paid to farmers who had rice acreage 
allotments, but did not plant rice on some or all of their allotments, 
and thus did not have rice to market from such acreage. Similar 
deficiency payments based on the target price concept have been 
authorized for wheat, feed grains, and cotton since the 1974 crop 
year, but because market prices have been above their target prices 
for these crops so far, no deficiency payments have been necessary. 
However, ihe situation in which payments would be made on un- 
planted and unmarketed crops could arise under the 1977 rice, 
wheat, and feed grain programs and under future programs for these 

34 



FOOD AID AND DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE 



115 

U.S. Assistance for the Economic Development of the Republic of Korea. 
B-164264. July 12, 1973. 74 pp +3 appendices (26 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 

Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense; Department of 

State; Export-Import Bank of the United States 

Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

(P.L. [83J-480) 

During fiscal years 1968 through 1972, U.S. direct bilateral eco- 
nomic assistance to Korea totaled $1,194 million, including $246 
million by the Agency for International Development, $717 million 
by the Food for Peace (Public Law 480) program, and $209 million 
by the Export-Import Bank of the United States Direct military 
assistance totaled $2,635 million. Findings/Conclusions: Although 
U S assistance undoubtedly stimulated Korea's economic expansion, 
it may also have contributed to its economic problems. For example, 
U.S. concessional aid has helped to make it possible for Korea to get 
large amounts of nonconcessional credit, but this has caused Korea's 
external debt situation to worsen. Subsidization of food and fiber 
programs has built up Korean demand for imported products, thus 
adding to its trade gap. The Public Law 480 concessional commodity 
sales program has increased significantly and has been used directly 
and indirectly to offset cutbacks in other U.S. assistance programs. 
Although the United States has needed large amounts of local cur- 
rencies for its own purchases in Korea, for a period of time it allowed 
the percentage of local currency generated from commodity sales 
allocated for U.S. uses to decline. The United States has incurred 
financial losses totaling $404,000 due to late Korean Government 
deposits of local currencies generated from the sales. Recommenda- 
tions; Congress should inquire further into the reasons for the in- 
creased Public Law 480 program in Korea and the uses to which the 
sales proceeds are being put. (SC) 



116 

Selection and Use of SS Manhattan as a Floating Silo during the 
Bangladesh Food Crisis. B-177521. October 17, 1973. 18 pp. 
Report to Sen. William Proxmire; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 

United Nations. 

Congressional Relevance: Sen. William Proxmire. 

In order to bypass the Bangladesh ports that had been clogged by 
wrecked ships during the civil turmoil of 1971, the U.N. Relief Oper- 
ation/Bangladesh (UNROB) requested a silo ship from the Agency 
for International Development (AID). The silo ship could store grain 
brought by oceangoing vessels until smaller ships could take the grain 
to shore, U.N. officials preferred two smaller ships because these 
could operate in shallow water and would be less affected by storms, 

Food 



dilation Section 



119 



Findings/Conclusions: AID chartered the SS Manhattan, largest of 
the U S merchant marine ships, to transport 66,000 tons of wheat 
and to serve as a floating silo because it was the only ship offered that 
was in a position to load at Gulf Coast ports. The Manhattan's use 
was hampered by its ice armor against which several small ships were 
damaged during rough seas. About 110,000 tons in total were dis- 
charged, considerably less than originally expected. AID officials 
soon discovered that the ship was an expensive silo and tried to find 
another ship. AID finally decided to end the contract early. As of 
May 1973, AID had spent $3 million on the charter, but final pay- 
ments were subject to negotiation. Because the United States fi- 
nanced the Manhattan, AID should have more directly monitored its 
operation (Author/SS) 



117 

United States Programs in Ghana. B- 17942 1. February 12, 1974. 55 

pp. + 4 appendices (21 pp). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
ACTION: Peace Corps; Department of State; Department of Com- 
merce. 

Congretilonal Relevance: Congress. 
Authority: P.L. [83}-480. 

United States assistance to Ghana for the 5-year period through 
fiscal year (FY) 1971 averaged $31 million a year and for FY 1972 
was $15.1 million. Assistance was primarily directed to balance-of- 
payments support through loans to finance import of commodities 
and sales of agricultural commodities. Reduced assistance during 
1972 was attributable to concern with resolving Ghana's debt prob- 
lems. Findings/Conclusions: External public debts totaled almost 
$1 billion in 1972. Payments on these debts and trade deficit prob- 
lems have resulted in a shortage of foreign exchange which has 
hampered Ghana's economic development. The U.S. share of this 
debt was small and most loans to Ghana were long-term low-interest 
loans. The United States has tried to persuade Western creditors to 
furnish debt relief. Most of this relief has been in the form of re- 
scheduling interest and principal payments for a few years. Since 
export earnings did not expand as anticipated, the reschedulings did 
not provide lasting relief and debt payments from 1967 to 1971 
amounted to about $150 million. The U.S. assistance program oper- 
ates within a multilateral group led by the World Bank, and this 
approach has improved coordination of aid. Questions have been 
raised about priorities given to further Ghanian development and 
U.S. trade interests in situations where conflicts exist, such as assist- 
ance given to a textile manufacturer. Recommendations: The Secre- 
tary of State, in cooperation with the Department of Commerce and 
the Agency for International Development, should consider develop- 
ing more definitive criteria to help resolve conflicting U.S. interests. 
Criteria for determining eligibility for a loan should specify such 
matters as: the permissible percentage of production that could be 
exported to the United States; how much displacement of U.S. trade 
should be permitted; and benefits to third-country interests. (Au- 
thor/ HTW) 



118 

Information concerning Voluntary Foreign Aid Programs. June 6, 
1974. 14 pp. + 3 appendices (6 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Walter F. Mondale, Chairman, Senate Committee on 
Labor and Public Welfare; Children and Youth Subcommittee; by 
Robert F, Keller, Acting Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid. 



Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Labor and Public 
Welfare: Children and Youth Subcommittee 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. Agricul- 
tural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1 954 P L. [83J-480, 
title II. 22 C.F.R. 203. 

The Agency for International Development (AID) financially 
supports the work of voluntary agencies (VOLAGs) involved in 
humanitarian and human development programs abroad. To receive 
registration benefits from AID such as P L 480 commodities, ocean 
freight reimbursement for supplies shipped, and the use of U.S. Gov- 
ernment excess property, a VOLAG must be registered with the 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid. Findings/Conclu- 
sions: During fiscal years (FYs) ending in 1971 or 1972, registered 
VOLAGs obtained about $22 1 million from the U.S. Government to 
support their programs, with about $196 million in the form of regis- 
tration benefits. Registration criteria provide that a VOLAG must be 
a U.S. organization primarily engaged in voluntary nonreligious fo- 
reign aid, controlled by a responsible body, with records indicating 
financial stability. Reports furnished to the Advisory Committee did 
not show compliance with all criteria. The Committee has developed 
guidelines for maximum fundraismg costs, but not for costs of ad- 
ministration, promotion, and publicity. Since JuJy 1, 1948, 26 agen- 
cies have been removed from registration, some at their request, and 
eight were denied registration. VOLAGs have been evaluated and 
monitored by the Committee, AID, the Department of Agriculture, 
and the Inspector General of Foreign Assistance. During FYs 
1971-73 the AID Auditor General performed 255 audits of Volags. 
(HTW) 



119 

Increasing World Food Supplies; Crisis and Challenge. B-I59652. Sep- 
tember 6, 1974. 68 pp. + 2 appendices (4 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of State. 
Congretilonal Relevance: Congress. 
Authority: P.L. [83]-480. 

The current rapid population increase requires an equivalent in- 
crease of about 24 million tons in grain production each year just to 
keep pace. There is much concern about whether a continuous rapid 
rate of population increase can be matched by a corresponding rate 
of increase in food production. The challenges are to mobilize the 
resources of the earth, to provide the food available to those in need, 
and to help those in need attain the capability either to produce or 
to buy the food they need. The crucial issue of controlling population 
growth is an inherent part of this challenge. Substantial resources are 
being applied by the United States and by international agencies to 
improve agricultural development. Findings/Conclusions: In 1973, 
the United States, through bilateral assistance programs, provided 
$196 million for agricultural development and $863 million in 
agricultural commodities as concessional sales and grants. Through 
Peace Corps volunteers, it also participated in agricultural and rural 
development programs in 54 countries. The Department of Agricul- 
ture also aided by performing research activities and by providing 
needed information on the world agricultural situation. International 
agencies also committed or expended substantial resources. The 
United States now faces the challenges of generating international 
cooperation to meet immediate food needs and expand agricultural 
production and of motivating developing countries to improve their 
capability for providing food adequate for their population growth. 
(Autrior/SC) 



Food 



35 



120 



Citation Section 



120 

Bolivia-An Assessment of U.S Policies and Programs. ID-75-16, B- 
133271. January 30, 1975 46 pp + 10 appendices (15 pp.) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Department of Defense, Department of State, Overseas Private In- 
vestment Corp.; United Stales Information Agency 
Congressional Relevance: Congress 

The United States has provided about S650 million to support 
Bolivia's social, economic, and military advancement in the past 20 
years. During fiscal years 1972 through 1974, U.S. assistance totaled 
nearly S150 million, an exceptionally high sum considering that 
Bolivia has only 5 million inhabitants. Recommendations: The 
Secretary of State and the Administrator of the Agency for Interna- 
tional Development should condition future U.S. assistance levels 
and fund releases to specific measurable development planning and 
self-help efforts the Bolivian Government should take to increase 
growth; take positive steps necessary with other external donors to 
insure that coordination measures for Bolivian development pro- 
grams are effectively implemented, and carefully consider any future 
programs whereby U S. funds are used to finance a host govern- 
ment's local contributions in an essentially externally financed pro- 
ject. The Secretary of the Treasury should stress to the U S. 
representatives of the international lending agencies the need for 
greater coordination of all economic assistance programs to Bolivia 
The Secretaries of State and Defense should reassess the need for 
continuing the U.S. military assistance grant-aid materiel program 
and include assistance furnished by the Inter-American Geodetic 
Survey to Bolivia and other Latin American countries in the Presi- 
dent's Annual Report to the Congress (Author/SC) 



121 

The Overseas Food Donation Program: Its Constraints and Problems. 
ID-75-48; B-159652. April 21, 1975. 41 pp. + 6 appendices (16 

PP). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organ! lotion Concerned: Agency for International Development, 
Agricultural Marketing Service; Commodity Credit Corp.; Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 
Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

Authority) Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(PX. [84]-480). Agncultural Act of 1949. Foreign Assistance Act of 
1973. 

U.S overseas food donation legislation stipulates that no com- 
modity will be available for food donation programs if its disposition 
would reduce the available supply below that needed to meet domes- 
tic requirements, adequate carryover, and anticipated dollar exports. 
A proposed amendment by the administration would provide the 
food donation programs & larger share of the exportable supply of 
agricultural commodities, but the authority will be used only for 
national interest or humanitanan objectives of the highest priority. 

Findings/Conclusions; Exhaustion of surplus agricultural com- 
modities, expanding commercial export demands, and poor grain 
harvests in iccent years have adversely affected the overseas food 
donation program. Uncertainly over availability of U.S. grain sup- 
plies to support the program has been the most crucial problem. The 
Department of Agriculture procured processed grain commodities 
cosling S159 million for the overseas donation program in 1973. 
Procurement costs could be reduced by: (1) planning and scheduling 
monthly commodity procurements over a longer time-at least quar- 
terly rather than monthly-to allow consideration of opportunities to 
reduce costs; and (2) relying more on existing supplier quality control 
systems rather than duplicate inspection of commodities by the De- 
partment of Agriculture. Congress may wish to consider whether 

36 



legislation beyond that proposed by the administration is needed 
because of uncertainty over commodities available for the food dona- 
tion program. Recommendations: The Secretary of Agriculture 
should: revise the inspection policy for commodities donated over- 
seas to rely more on existing supplier quality control systems; adopt 
a graduated scale of liquidated damages charges for late shipments; 
and intensify efforts to promote greater supplier competition for the 
Department of Agriculture's procurement and to insure that prices 
paid are reasonable. The Secretary of Agriculture and the Adminis- 
trator of the Agency for International Development should jointly 
establish a procurement information and planning system that would 
enable the Department of Agriculture to take advantage of oppor- 
tunities for reducing procurement costs. (Author/SW) 



122 

Problems in Managing U.S. Food Aid to Chad. 1D-75-67; B- 

152554. June S, 1975. 1 pp. + 2 appendices (17 pp.). 

Report to Sen William V. Roth, Jr.; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of State; Agency for Interna- 
tional Development 
Congressional Relevance: Sen, William V. Roth, Jr 

Since late 1972 the United States has donated more than 22,000 
metric tons of food grains worth an estimated S4.67 million (includ- 
ing freight) to Chad to help alleviate the ravages of a drought which 
began in 1968 Other donors have also contributed thousands. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions; Weaknesses and attitudes of the Chad Govern- 
ment have hindered food distribution and relief efforts. Inadequacy 
of data has made it difficult to determine the real impact of the 
drought on all parts of the country, and there has been no general 
plan of relief action. General security problems exist in the areas 
considered the worst affected; all official relief ground convoys must 
be accompanied by military escort, A lack of trucking capacity and 
such related problems as fuel have hindered the distribution of donor 
relief food. In some cases, donor offers of assistance apparently have 
not been acted upon in a timely manner by the Chad Government. 
The drought does not appear to be the Chad Government's top 
priority. There is no indication that Chad Government officials di- 
rectly participated in profiteering from U.S. assistance, but a trucking 
cooperative charged donors a rate substantially higher than that 
charged by Nigerian truckers. The need for the 1974 food airlift was 
questionable. (SW) 



123 

U.S. Policy for (he East Asia Regional Economic Development Program: 
What Should It Be? ID-76-l6iK-im5\. October 2g, 1975. 27pp. 
4- 2 appendices (10 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Generai. 

Organization Concerned; Agency for International Development; 
Department of State. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

The East Asia Regional Economic Development Program is one 
of many programs capable of responding to Asian initiatives and 
regional development requirements. However, program momentum 
in supporting regionalism has diminished and its efforts now center 
on monitoring existing programs and participating in spinoff projects 
that involve minimial Asian initiative. Findings/Conclusions: The 
regional program has been implemented through the Regional De- 
velopment Office of the Agency for International Development 
(AID) in Washington and its Regional Economic Development Of- 
fice in Bangkok, Thailand. The Regional Program has outlived Its 
usefulness and no longer constitutes a prudent use of U.S. fund* 

Food 



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126 



because: there is a decreasing need for a separate entity of this nature; 
the political climate in Indochina is changing; and program goals can 
be achieved through other means, particularly through multilateral 
organizations and private foundations. Financial management prob- 
lems have occurred because the Regional Program did not comply 
fully with policies, procedures, and guidelines established and geared 
specifically to the requirements of a regional assistance program 
Recommendations: The Secretary of State and the Administrator of 
AID should develop and implement an orderly plan to phase out the 
program. (Author/SC) 



124 

U.S. Assistance to Pakistan Should Be Reassessed. ID-76-36; B- 
173651. February 6, 1976. 52 pp. + 5 appendices (22 pp) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned! Department of State; Agency for Interna- 
tional Development. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress 
Authority! P.L. [83]-480. 

The United States provides Pakistan with substantial amounts of 
economic assistance, an estimated $174 million for fiscal year 1976, 
but Pakistan has not taken sufficient action to improve its general 
economic condition. After Pakistan announced that it could no 
longer service its external debts, totaling about $4.6 billion, an Aid- 
to-Pakistan Consortium, including the United States, provided debt 
rescheduling. Findings/Conclusions: Pakinstan has adopted some 
economic reforms recommended by the Consortium but, unless more 
are adopted, further debt rescheduling may be needed. The Depart- 
ment of State and the Agency for International Development (AID) 
do not believe that debt relief should be equated with assistance, but 
GAO believes that it is a form of assistance to the extent that it 
releases resources for other purposes. Pakistan's high level of defense 
spending, about 45% of its domestic revenues, detracts from funds 
needed for long-term development. Pakistan's policies, such as price 
and marketing controls and the availability of aid commodities, have 
discouraged increased food production and led to large imports of 
food and fertilizer. AID provided a $27.5 million grant for recon- 
structing flood-damaged facilities under the fixed-cost reimburse- 
ment method, in which AID and the recipient agreed in advance on 
a fixed payment to be made by AID after satisfactory completion of 
a project. However, because of urgent needs, construction of some 
projects proceeded without the necessary reviews and cost estimates. 
A U.S. -supported program to control malaria was not given adequate 
support by Pakistan, and disaster relief funds were not effectively 
used. Recommendations; The Secretary of State and the Adminis- 
trator of AID should: reassess the level of assistance to Pakistan in 
view of debt relief being provided; before providing concessional 
assistance, satisfy themselves that self-help measures are being car- 
ried out; monitor progress on malaria control programs and consider 
having such programs provided on a multilateral rather than a bilat- 
eral basis; seek additional support for population planning programs 
from the Government of Pakistan; not use disaster relief funds for 
development assistance programs already justified to Congress; limit 
the use of contingency funds to emergency situations; and use appro- 
priated funds only where there is a demonstrated requirement. The 
Administrator of AID should: fully inform Congress of the debt- 
servicing problems and establish guidelines and procedures for agree- 
ments between AID and the benefiting country before work is 
undertaken and require that the agreement include a provision that 
the foreign exchange provided be used to purchase commodities in 
the United States. (HTW) 



125 

Examination of Funds Appropriated for Economic and Food Aid to 
Indochina. ID-76-54; B-159451. April 16, 1976 2 pp. +3 appen- 
dices (16 pp.). 

Report to Rep Lee H. Hamilton, Chairman, House Committee on 
International Relations: Investigations Subcommittee; by Elmer B. 
Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organliatlon Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Department of Agriculture; Department of State. 
Conflresiional Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions: Investigations Subcommittee. 

Authority; Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (P.L [83J-480). Indochina Migration and Refugee 
Assistance Act of 1975. 

In April 1975, United States aid programs for Vietnam and Cam- 
bodia were cut off as the U.S. embassies in those countries were 
evacuated and closed. On June 30, 1975, the Agency for Interna- 
tional Development (AID) closed its mission to Laos. In conjunction 
with these withdrawals, U.S. agencies, including AID and the De- 
partment of Agriculture, had to terminate foreign aid program ele- 
ments, stop making foreign aid deliveries, and dispose of funds and 
commodities earmarked for Indochina programs. Findings/Conclu- 
sions: As of January 16, 1976, AID had identified about $ 112 million 
as unobligated balances of economic aid funds from terminated Indo- 
china programs. Of this, about $83 million from the Indochina Post- 
war Reconstruction appropriation was being held for obligation 
adjustments or for return to the Treasury on June 30, 1976. Disposi- 
tion of the other $29 million in non-Indochina Postwar Reconstruc- 
tion funds had not been completed at the conclusion of the review. 
However, AID had earmarked part of the funds for return to the 
Department of Defense (DOD) and the remainder for rcprogram- 
ming in Agency Middle East programs. AID expects to complete 
action on these funds by June 30, 1976. Regarding food aid funds, 
the Department of Agriculture disposed of $27.4 million worth of 
sales commodities. Commodities valued at $24.7 million were resold 
at a $13.1 million loss which was absorbed by the Commodity Credit 
Corporation. The remaining $2.7 million of commodities were 
donated for use in other countries. Unused Indochina Public Law 
480 title I sales balances were made available for other title I pro- 
grams abroad. Recommendations: AID Should clearly tell the Con- 
gress what it intends to do with residual Indochina funds in each 
appropriation. AID should specify how much of the funds not being 
returned to the Treasury will be returned to DOD and how the 
remainder will be reprogrammed. (SC) 



126 

Impact of U.S. Development and Food Aid in Selected Developing 
Countries. ID-76-53; B-146820. April 22, 1976. 25 pp. + 6 appen- 
dices (18 pp.T). 

Report to Rep. Lee H. Hamilton, Chairman, House Committee on 
International Relations: Investigations Subcommittee; by Elmer B, 
Staats, Comptroller General. 

Orgoniiatlon Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Department of Agriculture; Department of State. 
Congressional Relevance! House Committee on International Rela- 
tions: Investigations Subcommittee. 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (P.L. (83]-480). Foreign Assistance Act of 1973. 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1974. International Development and 
Food Assistance Act of 1975. 

A review of the impact of U.S. development and food aid pro- 
grams in the Philippines, India, Korea, and Chile showed that foreign 
aid officials had relatively little information on the most needy per- 
sons in those countries. Since the food aid programs were directed 



Food 



37 



126 



Citation Section 



to reach large groups such as the rural poor, il was not possible to 
establish clearly the extent to which U S programs were benefiting 
the most needy persons Findings/Conclusions: The Agency for In- 
ternational Development (AID) has developed certain broad bench- 
marks to identify the poor in developing countries, including average 
annual per capita income criteria of $150 or less and certain life 
expectancy and health indicators However, comparing the four 
countries selected For review with these benchmarks showed marked 
differences in the number of people who would be identified as poor, 
ranging from 16% of the population in Chile to about 91% of the 
population in India Recommendations: To clarify who the most 
needy are in AID-supported counties and what efforts are being 
made to help them, the Subcommittee on Investigations of the House 
Committee on International Relations may wish to have AID iden- 
tify the most needy groups and how programs are being designed to 
assist them This could be accomplished by having AID missions 
abroad develop a profile of the most needy Although recipient coun- 
try data are deficient and it will be difficult to accomplish this task, 
a knowledge base will have to be developed if the congressional goal 
of helping the poorest people is to be achieved (Author/SC) 



127 

Lessons to Be Learned from the Management of Commodities Remaining 
from Terminated Indochina Economic Assistance Programs. ID-76-48; 
B-159451 October 20, 1976 71 pp 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture; Department 
of State; Agency for International Development 
Copgreitlonol Relevance: //oi/seCommiltee on International Rela- 
tions; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Congress. 
Authoilty: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (P.L [84]-480>. Trading with the Enemy Act (50 
USC, 1 et seq) Foreign Assets Control Regulations 31 C.F.R. 
50021 AID Regulation 1. 22 C.F.R. 201.44 22 CFR 201 66. 

A review of the methods of disposal of commodities after termi- 
nation of assistance programs in Indochina revealed problems and 
needs for future improvement The Agency for International Deve- 
lopment (AID) and the Department of Agriculture took control of 
commodities m transit worth an estimated $54.3 million. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: In terminating the pipelines and disposmq of 
goods m u ansit, these agencies incurred costs and losses of millions 
of dollars Some costs could have been reduced if the Department of 
Agriculture had not required immediate disposal of commodities or 
had reprogrammed them, and if AID had more effective procedures 
to dispose of commodities. Recommendations: The AID should 
develop detailed instructions for disposing of commodities; prepare 
contingency procedures to curtail or slow down a commodity pipe- 
line when necessary; require adequate information be maintained on 
status of open letters of credit; and improve their commodity data 
system The Department of Agriculture should include in future P L. 
480 agreements a provision for taking title to commodities, before 
their scheduled arrival in a country; make a concerted effort to 
reprogram rather than sell intransii commodities; and develop direc- 
tions as to data to be provided field representatives and procedures 
they should follow in selling inlransit commodities. (HTW) 



128 

Hungry Nations Need to Reduce Food Loses Caused by Storage, Spillage, 
and Spoilage. ID-76-65; B-159652. November 1, 1976. 29 pp 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of State; Department of the 
Treasury; Department of Agriculture, Agency for International De- 
velopment. 

38 



Congressional Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Congress 
Authority: Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (31 U.S.C. 53). Ac- 
counting and Auditing Act of 1950 (31 U S.C 67). 

Increasing food availability by effective complementary measures 
to reduce the loss of food after harvest has not been adequately 
emphasized as a means of coping with current and future demands 
for food Developing countries have inadequate food storage facili- 
ties and poor storage practices. Losses resulting from spillage, con- 
tamination, and deterioration in these countries waste food which is 
urgently needed to abate hunger and malnutrition. A tremendous 
opportunity exists for increasing the critically needed food supply by 
reducing such losses With the large increases in production required 
to feed spiraling populations, food losses will multiply unless deve- 
loping countries and donors of economic assistance concentrate on 
establishing and maintaining adequate facilities and handling prac- 
tices. The Administrator, Agency for International Development, in 
programming agricultural assistance, should emphasize better pres- 
ervation of food being and to be produced by recipient countries, 
including the adequacy of their self-help measures. The Secretaries 
of State, Agriculture, and the Treasury and the Administrator, 
Agency for International Development, should stimulate concerted 
actions by developing countries and donor countries and institutions 
to: (1) reduce postharvest losses; (2) make loss reduction measures 
an integral part of programs to increase production, (3) establish an 
effective mechanism for coordinating loss reduction actions; and (4J 
lay the groundwork for a future assessment of progress toward reduc- 
ing losses (SQ 



129 

The World Food Program; How the U.S. Can Help Improve It. ID-77- 1 6; 
B-159652 May 16, 1977. 40 pp. 

Report to Sen. Abraham Ribicoff, Chairman, Senate Committee oti 
Governmental Affairs; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of State; Department of 
Agriculture, Agency for International Development; World Food 

Program. 

Congrettlonol Relevances Senate Committee on Governmental Af- 
fairs. 

Authorltyi Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, title II (P.L. 480). International Development and Food Assist- 
ance Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-161). 

The World Food Program has provided almost $1.8 billion in 
food aid to developing countries with the United States, its biggest 
contributor, donating $640 million to the program. Findings/Con- 
clusions: The program is attempting to focus on the poorest nations 
and on development projects, but it lacks a long-range programing 
system and a clear system of priorities. This sometimes allows coun- 
tries better able to administer large volumes of food aid to receive 
preferential treatment, and results in resources going to projects 
easier to administer instead of those with greater development uses. 
Proposals for large-scale projects and expansions, which must be 
approved by the program's governing body, are often submitted too 
late for review by member governments. The program relies on 
recipient governments for data to review project progress, and doe& 
not have the right to audit projects at the country level. Recommen- 
dations: The Departments of State and Agriculture and the Agency 
for International Development should (1) work for a clear set of 
program priorities; (2) propose to the governing body that projects 
must be submitted for member governments' review; and (3) make 
efforts to obtain audit rights for the program. (HTW) 

Food 



Citation Section 



133 



TRADE POLICIES AND PROMOTION 



130 

Russian Wheat Sales and Weaknesses in Agriculture's Management of 
Wheat Export Subsidy Program. B-176943. July 9, 1973 67 pp +6 
appendices (17 pp) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

The major objectives of the wheat export subsidy program are to 
generally insure that U.S. wheat is competitive in world markets and 
to reduce Government wheat inventories The large sales of U.S. 
wheat to the Soviet Union and other exports in the summer of 1972 
caused a dramatic rise in the price of U.S. wheat Findings/Conclu- 
sions: Results of the 1972 wheat sales to Russia included: increased 
prices to farmers for their crops, creation of new jobs, and an im- 
proved balance of trade The wheat export subsidy program has been 
instrumental in competitively pricing U.S wheat in export markets. 
Maintenance of a low target price during the period of the Russian 
wheat sales was a factor in obligating the U.S. Government to pay 
excessive subsidies. Recommendations: The Secretary of Agricul- 
ture should. (1) review the wheat export subsidy program in its 
entirety and predicate its reinstatement on a meaningful justification 
for its existence; (2) devise a better system of coordinating with 
private exporters on sales of agricultural products to nonmarket 
economies; (3) review the legality of export subsidy payments involv- 
ing sales to foreign affiliates; (4) form a joint Government-business 
committee representing farmers, processors, distributors, and export- 
ers to identify information needs; (5) determine the most effective 
and efficient ways to use subsidies to compete in world markets; (6) 
provide for periodic evaluation of program effectiveness and effi- 
ciency; (7) document the basis and reasoning used in establishing 
daily subsidies; and (8) develop a cohesive wheat export policy hav- 
ing appropriate safeguards on subsidy payment amounts. (SC) 



131 

Clarifying Webb-Pomerene Act Needed to Help Increase U.S. Exports. 
B-172255. August 22, 1973. 19 pp. + 3 appendices (12 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Federal Trade Commission; Department 
of Justice: Antitrust Div.; Department of Commerce. 
Congreitlonal Relevance: Congress. 

Authority! Webb-Pomerene Export Trade Act of 1918 (15 U.S.C. 
61-65). Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Federal Trade Commission 
Act of 1914. Clayton Act of 1914. S. 1483 (93rd Cong.). S. 1774 
(93rd Cong.)- 

The Webb-Pomerene Act was enacted to provide qualified ex- 
emptions from prosecution under U.S. antitrust laws for associations 
formed for the purpose of, and actually engaging in, export trade 
when such associations do not interfere with domestic commerce. 
According to many Government and business officials, the full po- 
tential of the Webb-Pomerene Act in expanding exports has not been 
realized. Uncertainty over possible antitrust implications has been a 
major impediment to realizing that potential, even though the pur- 
pose of the act was to provide qualified exemption from antitrust 
prosecution. The difficulty in predicting the possible effects on 
domestic commerce resulting from an association's activities and the 
fear of criminal prosecution have been impediments to the formation 
of export trade associations. Findings/Conclusions; Neither the 
Department of Commerce, which has assumed responsibility for pro- 
moting export trade association, nor the Federal Trade Commission 
(FTC) has aggressively promoted the Webb-Pomerene Act or en- 



couraged business to form associations because of the antitrust im- 
plications. Consequently, some industry representatives are unaware 
of the act and its potential for their firms. According to industry 
representatives currently operating Webb-Pomerene associations, 
the act has been useful in aiding export operations. Though other 
firms were interested, they were concerned of possible criminal 
prosecution under US. antitrust laws. U S exports could be in- 
creased if provisions of the act were clarified and modified. Expand- 
ing the items eligible for export and clarifying the respective roles of 
the Department of Justice and FTC would create an environment in 
which U.S. firms could join together to provide a complete package, 
including financing, technology, equipment, and commodities, in 
competing for large-scale projects abroad. (Author/SW) 



132 

[Investigation of Whether the Federal Government Is Paying Excessive 
Prices for Coffee and Is Restricting Competition ] , B- 175530. Novem- 
ber 5, 1973. 2 pp + 2 enclosures (5 pp). 

Report to Sen. Charles H Percy; by Robert F. Keller, Deputy Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Defense. 
Congressional Relevance: Sen Charles H. Percy. 

It was alleged that the Federal Government is paying excessive 
prices for coffee and restricting competion because of stringent 
specifications. Among questions raised were- the feasibility of deve- 
loping less restrictive blend requirements for coffee used by the 
military services, the savings possibilities of using alternative blends, 
the ability of businesses to compete under present specifications, and 
the types of volume discounts currently available on Brazilian and 
Colombian coffee beans. Findings/Conclusions: Use of alternative 
blends might result in savings and might strengthen competition. 
Present discounts are generally available only to buyers of large 
quantities of Brazilian and Colombian coffees Four small businesses 
chose not to participate in Government procurements because of the 
large amount of paperwork involved, the need to meet special pack- 
aging specifications, and Government inspection requirements. (Au- 
thor/SS) 



133 

Ways to Improve U.S. Foreign Trade Strategies. B-172255. November 

23, 1973. 23 pp. + 7 appendices (33 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned; Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Commerce; Department of State. 
Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

The principal agencies involved in planning and carrying out 
commercial activities abroad have not developed clearly stated ob- 
jectives for foreign markets which reflect coordinated consideration 
of U.S. trade objectives and the activities needed to attain them, 

Findings/Conclusions; Foreign markets are not analyzed sys- 
tematically to identify areas of prime commercial importance, nor 
are export strategies adapted to the peculiarities and special oppor- 
tunities of individual markets. A pilot study conducted on the market 
plans for Mexico demonstrated that an understanding of what a 
country was planning would help U.S. trade efforts. Much of the 
information collected was unknown to the U.S. Embassy in Mexico. 
Trade strategies must be developed, either by the embassies or Wash- 
ington headquarters gathering data. The strategies must be flexible 
to respond to rapid changes in worldwide supply-demand situations. 

Recommendations: After the feasibility of preparing trade strate- 
gies has been demonstrated and an effective planning format deve- 
loped, the Secretary of State should: consider expanding the 



Food 



39 



133 



Citation Section 



mteragency committee to include representatives from all interested 
agencies; take the lead role in the overall U S. country, regional, and 
worldwide trade strategies so that agencies can coordinate activities; 
and direct U.S. Embassies to participate actively in the preparation 
of the strategies for their countries. (Aulhor/SS) 



134 

Exporters' Prof its on Sales of U.S. Wheat to Russia. B-176943. Febru- 
ary 12, 1974. 23 pp +5 appendices (12 pp.) 
Report to Rep John Melcher; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller Gen- 
eral. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture, Continental 
Grain Co., New York, NY; Cargill, Inc , Minneapolis, MN, Cook 
Industries, Inc , Memphis, TN, Garnac Grain Co , Inc , New York, 
NY; Bunge Corp , New York, NY, Louis Dreyfus Corp. 
Congressional Relevance: Rep John Melcher 

In July and August 1972, six U.S. export companies contracted 
to sell over 400 million bushels of wheat to Russia A request was 
made for an investigation on (1) whether the six U S exporters 
unduly profited from the wheat sales as a result of inside information 
on Russian wheat requirements and Russian intentions to purchase 
from the United States; and (2) on Government policies facilitating 
the sales The flow of information between the Commodity Exchange 
Authority and organizations within the Department of Agriculture 
having related program responsibilities was examined GAO had no 
statutory or contractual right to examine the records of the gram 
exporters; however, five of the six exporters voluntarily made availa- 
ble records and documents concerning the sales transactions with 
Russia. Findings/Conclusions: The estimated financial results of 
the sales to Russia of 316 bushels of Hard Winter wheat as reported 
by the five grain companies ranged from a profit of 2 cents to a loss 
of 1.9 cents per bushel. Hard Winter wheat sales constituted about 
91% of the sales Two firms reported profits, one for 2 cents and one 
for 0.3 cents per bushel The other three firms reported losses of 0.9 
cents, 1.5 cents, and 1.9 cents per bushel. The financial results of the 
sales cannot be precisely determined, but the companies' estimated 
results appeared to be reasonably accurate. It appeared that exporters 
either did not have inside information on Russian buying intentions 
or did not lake advantage of such information. At the time of the 
Russian sales, Agriculture officials concerned with the subsidy pro- 
gram were not receiving reports submitted by exporters to the Com- 
modity Exchange Authority on their cash and futures positions 
(Author/ SW) 



135 

Impact of Soybean Exports on Domestic Supplies and Prices. B- 
178753. March 22, 1974 37 pp. + 5 appendices (10 pp). 
Report to Rep. Robert H Steele, by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 
General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Rep, Robert H. Steele. 
Authority: Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1938, 304 (7 U.S.C. 
1304). Export Administration Act of 1969. Consumer Protection 
Act of 1973. S. 2005 (94th Cong.). 

A request was made for an examination of the effect of U.S. 
policy on the supply and price of U.S. soybeans and soybean products 
and the extent of executive branch awareness of the short-supply 
problems with soybeans. Findings/Conclusions: Although domes- 
tic and inicrnalional factors helped to precipitate the soybean prob- 
lem, major causes were the great foreign demand for soybeans and 
the continuation of the Department of Agriculture's policy of in- 
creasing exports. Additional factors influencing the market in 1973 

40 



included fuel shortages, transportation inadequacies, currency 
devaluations, and scarcity of substitutes. Despite production in- 
creases, the cash price of soybeans rose from $3.43 a bushel in June 
1972 to $11 20 a bushel a year later The problem of constrained 
supplies and high prices which developed in mid-1973 was forecast 
by the Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service Iti 
September 1972. Dairy and poultry industry representatives, as earl> 
as October 1972, asked for Government intervention in the form o! 
price controls and/or export restrictions. The Department ol 
Agriculture for some time opposed such actions. In June 1973, th.fi 
Secretary of Agriculture concurred in placing export controls or 
soybeans and soybean substitutes to help insure adequate domestic 
supplies. Recommendations: Congress and the executive branch 
should consider: strenghtening control over futures market activities 
establishing a better reporting system, adopting a flexible expori 
policy for critical commodities, and implementing a comprehensive 
reserve program (Author/SW) 



136 

U.S. Actions Needed to Cope with Commodity Shortages, B-l 14824 

April 29, 1974 178 pp + 9 appendices (103 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: Cost of Living Council; Council of EcO 
nomic Advisers, Council on International Economic Policy; Depart 
ment of the Interior; Department of the Treasury; Department t> 
Agriculture; Department of Commerce; Department of State; Offic* 
of Management and Budget. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

The United States Government does not have an effective plan- 
ning, policy analysis, and policy formulation system for basic com- 
modities. The ability of the existing Federal commodity policy 
process to respond to commodity problems is limited by difficulties 
encountered in decisionmaking, the use of export controls, analysis 
and forecasting, long-range policy planning, and developing policy 
for specific commodities. Findings/Conclusions: A variety of re- 
forms are needed to improve: the coordination and responsiveness of 
the commodity decisionmaking process, the implementation, report- 
ing, and evaluation of the impact of short-supply export controls,' the 
capabilities, procedures, and report products of agency commodity 
monitoring, analysis, and forecasing groups; and the data gathering, 
analytical capabilities, and policy coordination for long-range eco- 
nomic policy planning efforts. Recommendations; Congress should 
consider the actions that executive branch agencies are taking and 
GAO's recommendations for improving these agencies' capabilities 
to cope with commodity problems. Congress should also consider the 
need for legislation to establish a centralized mechanism for develop- 
ing and coordinating long-term policy planning. (SC) 



137 

[Canadian System of Regulating Wheat Stocks and the Role of Domestic 
International Sales Corporations in Exporting Agricultural Produtts] 
B-176943. May 23, 1974. 7pp. + 4 enclosures (4 pp,). 
Report to Rep. Charles A. Vanik; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned; Department of Agriculture: Canadian 

Wheat Board 

Congressional Relevance: Rep. Charles A. Vanik. 

Authority: Revenue Act of 1971. 

Canadian wheat supplies are managed through Government poli- 
cies and with a quasi-governmental trading organization known as 
the Canadian Wheat Board. The Board is responsible for the develop- 
ment of markets and export sales, delivery in domestic and export 

Food 



Citation Section 



141 



markets, and the prices producers receive for their wheat. U.S. wheat 
supplies are managed by private producers and exporters using a 
free-market approach which makes market information not as 
readily accessible.' Findings/Conclusions: The Canadian system 
maintains stable prices for domestic consumers by paying the differ- 
ence between the domestic and foreign markets to the producers; the 
United States subsidizes the farmer only to minimize his losses 
Transportation of the grain is also subsidized under the Canadian 
system. Over a ten-year period Canadian prices have risen 38.9% and 
U.S. prices have risen 40.6%. A U.S. wheat export control board 
would tend to stablize prices, facilitate long-term agreements, regu- 
late flow of supplies by controlling production and delivery, and 
facilitate product research However, such a board would tend to 
hinder and discourage free enterprise. The domestic international 
sales corporations (DISC) legislation, which allows a tax deferrment 
for exporters of agricultural products cost the U.S. Government 
about $250 million in revenue, but accounted for 20% of export 
revenue for fiscal year 1973 (S3) 



An agreement to supply 100,000 tons of wheat to Egypt, arranged 
under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, provided dollar credit financing on concessional terms for sale 
of wheat and wheat products valued at $17.5 million. The terms of 
this agreement, signed on September 12, 1974, were comparable to 
those in several similar sales agreements with other countries. The 
Government of Egypt had not purchased any of this wheat as of 
October 11, 1974 Findings/Conclusions: The sale will have little, if 
any, effect on the wholesale and retail price of wheat in the United 
States The quantity being sold to Egypt represents about two-tenths 
of I percent of the estimated domestic wheat production during the 
1974 crop year. Department of Agriculture officials expected that at 
least 50,000 metric tons of the wheat would be shipped to Egypt in 
U.S. nag vessels. The estimated cost to the U.S. Government for this 
concessional sale was $11,357,000, including the difference in the 
estimated interest costs between that which the U.S. Government 
assumes and that which will be collected from Egypt and the ocean 
freight differential. The U.S. Government's interest over a 20 year 
period will amount to $ 1 5,773,000, and the Government of Egypt's 
interest will amount to $5,154,000. (SC) 



138 

[Importations of Butter and Butier Substitutes Authorized by Presidential 
Proclamation No, 4253}. B-180009 June 10, 1974. 2 pp. + enclo- 
sure (6 pp.). 

Report to Rep. John Melcher; by Robert F. Keller, Acting Comp- 
troller General. 

Organisation Concerned: United States Customs Service. 
Congrettional Relevance; Rep, John Melcher. 
Authority: Freedom of Information Act. 5 U.S.C. 552(b). Presiden- 
tial Proclamation No. 4253. 19 C.F.R. 103.10. 

Presidential Proclamation Number 4253, issued on October 31, 
1 973, temporarily amended the U.S. tariff schedules by adding a new 
section which authorized the importation from November 1 to 
December 3 1, 1973, of 56 million pounds of butter and 22.6 million 
pounds of butter oil with over 45% butterfat. These quantities were 
in addition to the annual quota quantities of 707,000 pounds of butter 
and 1.2 million pounds of butter oil. Findings/Conclusions: Infor- 
mation from the Commissioner of Customs showed that on Decem- 
ber 31, 1973, about 55 million pounds of the additional butter quota 
had been imported, of which about 46 million pounds were exported 
before the effective date of the proclamation. The 22.6 million pound 
quota on butter oil was filled on December 14, 1973, and about 1 1 
million pounds of this was exported before the effective date of the 
proclamation. Customs officials also stated that: Customs did not 
assess or collect countervailing duties on butter or butter oil imported 
under the proclamation; Customs initiates countervailing duty inves- 
tigations only after it receives a complaint from an outside source; 
and Customs had not received any complaints on importing mer- 
chandise authorized by the proclamation. The Customs Service 
refused to furnish information on the quantities and prices of in- 
dividual transactions and the names of purchasers, claiming that the 
information was the confidential commercial or financial informa- 
tion of the importers Involved. (SC) 



140 

Excluding Substandard Canned Pineapple from the United States. 

MWD-75-40;B-t79440. March 3, 1975. 17pp. + appendix (3 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Daniel K. Inouye; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare; Food and Drug Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: Sen. Daniel K. Inouye. 

Authority: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 

U.S.C. 301). 21 C.F.R. 27.50-52. 

A review of the efforts of the Food and Drug Administration 
(FDA) to exclude substandard pineapple imports from the United 
States indicated! that FDA's regulatory action has been limited to 
those lots of imported canned pineapple included in its survey sam- 
ples and that the entry of substandard pineapple into the United 
States has not been significantly reduced. Findings/Conclusions; A 
1970 survey by FDA of canned pineapple from Malaysia, Mexico, 
and Taiwan showed that 16.4% and 4.3% of the lots sampled from 
Taiwan and Malaysia, respectively, did not comply with the stand- 
ards. Of the 40 lots of canned pineapple sampled in 1973, 29 were 
denied entry into the United States and 3 were relabeled as substand- 
ard and allowed entry. OF the 19S lots sampled In 1974, 37 were 
rejected, Lots were deemed substandard oil the basis of a specified 
number of samples not meeting the same quality factor rather than 
a combination of quality factors. Recommendations; The Secretary 
of Health, Education, and Welfare should direct the Commissioner 
of the FDA to: provide for special inspection of imported canned 
pineapple from Malaysia and Taiwan; evaluate the appropriateness 
of accepting lots which may be substandard for a combination of 
quality factors; and provide additional training and guidance to inex- 
perienced district office personnel who participate in inspections to 
insure that quality standards are properly applied. (Author/SC) 



139 

[Effects of Agreement to Ship Wheat to Egypt], B-176943. December 
6, 1974. 3 pp. 

Report to Rep. Joshua Eilberg; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Gen- 
eral. 

Orflaniiation Concerned: Department of Agriculture, 

Congretiional Relevance: Rep, Joshua Eilberg. 

Authority] Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 

1954, title I (P.L. 83-480). Cargo Preference Act of 1954, as 

amended. 



141 

The Agricultural Attache Role Overseas; What Jfe Dots and How He Can 
Be More Effective for the United States, ID-75-40;B-133160. April 11, 
1975. 81 pp. -I- 4 appendices (12 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Foreign Agricultural Service; Department 
of Agriculture; Department of State. 



Food 



141 



Citation Section 



Congreiilonal Relevance: Congress 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1954 (P L [84]-690). 

Agricultural attaches of the Department of Agriculture's Foreign 
Agricultural Service are assigned primarily to U S Embassies and 
consulates overseas to provide information on conditions in foreign 
countries and to work to expand export markets Findings/Conclu- 
sions: The Service gives attaches guidance in their major areas of 
effort, but has not established overall trade objectives by country or 
market area Attaches could profit from additional training and work 
assignments geared to their talents. Attaches' reports on market and 
trade matters generally fulfill the Department of Agriculture's re- 
quirements but are often of limited usefulness to exporters There is 
limited contact with the Food and Agricultural Organization, an 
important source of information on world agriculture The growing 
world demand for food has caused increases in pnces of many com- 
modities, but promotional funds continue to be applied to the same 
products and markets Criteria have not been established under pri- 
vate business association programs to determine when products and 
markets have been established and Government assistance should 
terminate. Reporting on agricultural developments in the Soviet Un- 
ion and Eastern bloc countries needs improvement. Recommenda- 
tions: The Secretary of Agriculture should improve management 
and direction of attache activities, better coordinate the training and 
experience for attaches, improve the utility of the Foreign Agricul- 
tural Service information-gathering system, use promotional re- 
sources more effectively; and facilitate the collection of agricultural 
information in the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries (HTW) 



142 

Review of U.S. Import Restrictions- Need to Define National Sugar 

Goals. ID-75-80, B- 114824 July 10, 1975 39 pp. + 5 appendices 

(10 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General 

Organisation Concerned: Council on International Economic 
Policy, Department of Agriculture, Department of State. 
Congreiilonal Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Sugar Act of 1937 Sugar Act of 1948, as amended. 
Jones-Costigan Act of 1934 Trade Act of 1974. 

Since the expiration of the Sugar Act on December 31,1 974, the 
United Stales is not committed to either free trade in sugar or protec- 
tion of its sugar industry There is a need to consider a more precise 
policy, either through new legislation or development of a new sugar 
program. In designing a new policy, a balance must be achieved 
among U.S. industry, U S. consumers, and foreign interests. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: From 1935 to 1973, the sugar program's protec- 
tive tariffs, guaranteed minimum prices, subsidy payments, 
production allotments, and import quotas effectively maintained a 
domestic sugar industry. In 1974, the sugar program failed to insulate 
the United States from high world prices caused by shortages The 
price for raw sugar in this country jumped from 12.6 cents a pound 
in January 1974 to a record high of 64 5 cents on November 20, 
1974. The sugar program cost U.S. consumers an estimated $5.2 
billion from 1963 to 1974. If market forecasts are accurate, lack of 
a protective program offers no immediate threat to the domestic 
sugar industry because world supplies are expected to be tight 
through 1 980. Recommendations: If the Congress wishes to develop 
national goals for sugar trade, it should ask the Council on Interna- 
tional Economic Policy to coordinate with the Departments of 
Agriculture and State and other agencies in recommending policy 
positions to advise the Congress on: (1) whether the United States 
wants to protect its domestic sugar industry, and, if so, to what 
extent; C2) specific goals of U.S. import policy; (3) the U.S. stance on 
international commodity agreements on sugar, (4) whether the most 
efficient domestic sugar producing areas and low-cost substitute 
sweetener manufacturers should be encouraged to expand produc- 

42 



tion; and (5) how the Government can minimize the economic and 
social displacement of sugar producers, processors, and workers if 
more liberal trade policies are adopted. (Author/SC) 



143 

The Government's Role in East-West Trade; Problems and Issues. 

1D-76-13A; B-162222. February 4, 1976. 69 pp. + 2 appendices 

(15pp.). 

Report to the Congress, by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: National Security Council; Council on In- 
ternational Economic Policy; Department of State; Department of 
the Treasury, Department of Commerce; Department of Agriculture; 
Export-Import Bank of the United Stales. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Trade Act of 1974 Case Act. Export Administration Act 
of 1969. Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951. Executive 
Order 11846 

Renewed commercial relations between the United States and 
Communist countries have raised public and congressional interest 
in the benefits of such trade, the policies being followed, and the 
executive branch's role in bilateral and mutilateral East- West trade 
issues Findings/Conclusions: U.S trade policy, developed through 
an interagency decision making process has not insured that political 
and strategic positions were clear before implementation because of 
differing perceptions of agencies on the direction and objectives for 
relations with Communist countries and the absence of procedures 
for congressional involvement in executive branch foreign trade 
negotiations. The executive branch established Government and pri- 
vate sector institutions to promote, facilitate, and monitor trade with 
communist countries. The Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) of tlte 
United States, which finances the export sales of U S. goods and 
services, does not have adequate documentation to indicate criteria 
used in approval of loan applications, making it difficult to determine 
whether the Soviet Union has received preferential treatment. Com- 
modities and technology of strategic importance are subject to U.S, 
national security export controls, but there are major differences 
among executive agencies on how these are interpreted. There is ati 
absence of consensus within the executive branch about U.S. di- 
plomatic objectives and their value. Recommendations: The execu- 
tive branch agencies and policy councils concerned with East- West 
trade should institute reforms to: improve executive branch under- 
standing of and involvement in trade activities; reduce fragmentation 
in policy formation; improve coordination, including multilateral 
coordination; improve the flow of information to businessmen on 
Communist countries' needs and finances; improve Eximbank's re- 
sponsiveness to U.S exporters and its approval procedures; and 
strengthen procedures and clarify responsibilities for export controls 
and technology exchanges. Congress should consider: establishing 
procedures for congressional involvement in executive branch fo- 
reign trade and economic activities; establishing a procedure for 
unified consideration of issues involved with East- West trade which 
are currently within the jurisdiction of various legislative commit- 
tees; and examining the administration of export controls and tech- 
nology export exchanges. (Author/HTW) 



144 

Food Power: The Use of U.S. Agricultural Exports as a Toot in 
International Affairs. February 20, 1976. 24 pp. + enclosure (3 pp.), 
Report by Janice E. Baker, Congressional Research Service. 



f the political manipulation of petroleum resources by 
EC, the United States, as the world's largest grain exporter, has 
considered the use of American "food power" in international affairs. 
Suggestions for using such leverage have focused on: gaining trade 
or political concessions, influencing other nations to vote with the 

Food 



Citation Section 



147 



United Stales in the United Nations, obtaining scarce and needed 
minerals, and increasing the national income from food exports by 
charging higher prices. Opponents of the use of food power argue 
that such leverage would be effective only if world food supplies 
remain tight; that long term political manipulation of food supplies 
is not feasible on a worldwide scale; that the U.S. has a moral duty 
to help feed hungry people; and that farmers, fearing adverse affect 
on their prices and markets, will not support such efforts. Developed 
nations could get along without U.S. food if they had to, though food 
power proponents point to the leverage U.S. gram allegedly had in 
exacting concessions from Russia and cite the use of various U.S 
embargos, both past and present, as precedents. Developing nations, 
with little leeway for finding alternative food sources, would be 
highly vulnerable to U S. food power. Because most OPEC countries 
were largely independent of U.S food supplies, the use of food power 
to combat "petropower" would prove ineffective according to a 1 973 
study. However, it is possible a current study would reach different 
conclusions. It is possible, too, that U.S agricultural trade would not 
diminish significantly under "food power" guidelines, but there must 
be some assurance to U.S. farmers of fair prices and regular market- 
ing channels (DS) 



145 

Agriculture's Implementation of GAO's Wheat Export Subsidy Recom- 
mendations and Related Matters. ID-76-39; B-176943 March 3, 
1976. 48 pp. -f 2 appendices (6 pp.) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Commodity Credit Corp.; Department of 

Agriculture. 

Congressional Relevance! Congress. 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 

1966(P.L. [83] -480). 

Although the Department of Agriculture initiated a variety of 
audits, selective studies, and advisory position papers concerning 
wheat, most of these efforts did not, nor were they intended to, 
constitute the formal, systematic evaluation of the program recom- 
mended by GAO. GAO recommended that the Department: com- 
plete a systematic evaluation of the Wheat Export Subsidy Program; 
review the legality of subsidy payments to exporters' foreign affili- 
ates; and insure that a reinstated program will be effective and effi- 
cient. Findings/Conclusions; Agriculture officials contended that: 

(1) there is no need to systematically evaluate the former subsidy 
program nor to subsequently develop a new, standby program; and 

(2) the tight wheat supply and high demand situation existing since 
the Russian wheat sales of 1972 should continue, precluding resump- 
tion of a subsidy. Agriculture's present policy opposes export subsi- 
dies and this contributes significantly to its reluctance to evaluate the 
former program and to develop and comprehensive standby pro- 
gram. However, this policy provides no adequate policy alternatives 
for disposing of surpluses should wheat inventories increase. 

Recommendations; The Secretary of Agriculture should: conduct 
an evaluation of the former subsidy program's effectiveness and effi- 
ciency, determine conditions under which subsidies may be needed, 
and prepare a standby subsidy program; reopen and expand the 
Office of Audit's review of the legality of export subsidy payments 
involving sales of foreign affiliates before August 1971 to obtain 
additional information on the extent to which affiliate transactions 
resulted in abuse of the former program; and adopt provisions to 
insure that exporters and their affiliates transact business at arm's 
length, should a new wheat export subsidy program be established. 
(Author/SC) 



146 

U.S. Agriculture in a World Context. November 23, 1976. 14 pp. 

Report, 

Prepared by the Food and Agriculture Section, Environment and 

Natural Resources Policy Div., Congressional Research Service. 

Organliatlon Concerned: Department of Agriculture; United Na- 
tions: Food and Agriculture Organization 
Authority! Export Administration Act of 1969. 

Localized food shortages and rising commodity prices have illus- 
trated both the interdependence of the world community and the 
dependence of many nations on the trade and aid of the United 
States U.S. farmers produce more than can be consumed domesti- 
cally and the nation depends on agricultural trade for a favorable 
balance of payments. In recent years the Government has felt it 
necessary to temporarily restrain exports to safeguard domestic sup- 
plies and/or to keep prices within an acceptable range. U.S. farmers 
and traders and foreign buyers have generally disapproved, some 
buyers have turned elsewhere for a reliable source of supply. In light 
of recent grain inspection scandals, some buyers have begun to doubt 
the quality of U.S. products. The tight markets of recent years have 
led to debates over the possible uses of U.S. "food power" and the 
increased use of bilateral agreements. Trade agreements such as the 
grain trade agreement with Russia have evoked displeasure from 
some farm and trade groups, although information agreements are 
generally seen as helpful by all segments of the U.S. economy. Inter- 
national commodity agreements between producer and consumer 
nations have gained increased attention in international forums. The 
United States advocates the evaluation of commodity agreements on 
a case-by-case basis, with the expansion of trade as the main goal. At 
the World Food Conference in 1 974, the United States and over 120 
nations agreed to 22 resolutions aimed at improving the world food 
situation and nutritional status of the world's population. The resolu- 
tions focused on food aid and local agricultural development. (Au- 
thor/SW) 



147 

U.S. Import Restrictions: Alternatives to Present Dairy Programs, 
ID-76-44; B-114824. December 8, 1976. 54 pp. + 5 appendices. 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned) Department of State; Department of the 
Treasury; Department of Agriculture; International Trade Commis- 
sion; Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, 
Congressional Relevance: tfoure Committee on Agriculture; House 
Committee on Appropriations; Agriculture and Related Agencies 
Subcommittee; .Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry; Con- 
gress. 

Auihorlty: Steagall Amendment (15 U.S.C. 713a-8). Agricultural 
Act of 1949 (63 Stat. 1051). Agricultural Act of 1949 (63 Stat. 1247). 
Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (50 Stat. 246). Trade 
Act of 1974. Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973. 

The need to consider alternatives to the present system of dairy 
import quotas is discussed. Interrelated programs of price supports, 
marketing orders, and import quotas have been effective in insuring 
an adequate supply of domestically produced milk and In stabilizing 
prices for dairy products. The cost of this self-sufficiency and price 
stability has been higher prices to the consumer and program costs 
to the government. Several alternative courses of action are available: 
(1) continued policy of import quotas for dairy products along with 
the price support program, (2) free trade in dairy products in the 
United States and abroad, and (3) open U.S. market policy with no 
import quotas or price support program. Findings/Conclusions: A 
system of free trade for agricultural products would benefit consum- 
ers through lower prices for dairy products. Under a system in which 
the United States would unilaterally open its market to imports, an 



Food 



43 



147 



Citation Section 



Agriculture Department study indicates average consumer savings of 
about $500 million a year over a 6-year period Recommendations: 
Viable alternatives or modifications to the present protective system 
of dairy import quotas should be analyzed and defined. (RRS) 



date the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey methodology eilhe 
before or during the survey and develop objectives and analysis plar 
for the survey before the sample is drawn. (Author/DJM) 



148 

U.S. Food Exports: Supplying the World's Food Needs. March 16, 
1977. 9 pp. 

Staff study by W Mack Edmondson, Assistant Director, Interna- 
tional Div. , International Studies Association, St Louis, MO. 

Authority: International Development and Food Assistance Act 
(P.L. 94-161). Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, as 
amended. Agricultural Act of 1977 P.L 84-480 8-176943(1973) 
B-178753 (1974), B-l 14824 (1974). B-133160 (1975) 

The House of Representatives' "Right-to- Food-Resolution" 
provided reaffirmation of its commitments to feed America's own 
hungry citizens, and it stressed the importance of taking hunger and 
food distribution into account in the formulation of U.S. foreign 
policy. Congress has also expressed its concern for establishing a 
flexible agricultural policy, solving the problem of whether it should 
intervene in the Nation's food export market, and identifying the 
goals of a national food policy. In its efforts to assist Congress in 
assessing the directions that the national food policy should take, the 
GAO has conducted studies in the area of U.S exports of agricultural 
commodities. These studies resulted in the recommendations that 
the Government establish a reporting system with private exporters 
to learn of impending large sales to nonmarket economies, and deve- 
lop a cohesive export policy giving consideration to domestic needs, 
commercial customers, and concessionary exports. Some degree of 
Government management of grain supplies and exports is needed. A 
broad American food policy is also needed in order to balance the 
interests of American farmers and consumers, cash-paying custom- 
ers abroad, and the poor nations (LDM) 



150 

Food Power: A Review of the Options and Arguments on the Potential V 

of U.S. Grain Exports as an Instrument of Foreign Policy. Apnl 

1977. 27 pp. 

Reportby Janice E. Baker, Congressional Research Service, Librai 

of Congress. 

Authority: International Development and Food Assistance Act i 
1975 (P L. 94-161) Foreign Assistance Act of 1973, 40. Foreij 
Assistance Act of 1974. H.R. 8933 (94th Cong.). 

The increasing dependence of the world on North America 
grains gave impetus to the idea that the United States should mal 
more use of its food resources as a diplomatic weapon (food powc 1 
Suggestions have been made to use food resources to gain trade 
political concessions, to influence votes in the United Nations, 
obtain scarce minerals, and to charge higher prices for food expor 
Arguments against the use of food power are: the moral objectia 
of withholding food from hungry people; the difficulties of adjust! 
crop production; the fact that wheat can be grown in many areas 
the world; and the adverse effects on U.S. farmers The probal 
impacts of such a policy would vary according to nations mvolvt 
Developed nations such as Japan and the Soviet Union could ma 
the necessary adjustments such as seeking other sources of supp] 
Although some concessions might be expected from these nations 
response to U.S. pressure, the extent of such concessions is unknow 
For Arab nations, a food embargo would be ineffective since most 
the countries import only about 5% of their food from the Unite 
States and their wealth would enable them to purchase grain c 
world markets. The developing nations would be most severely a 
fected, but world opinion would be critical of the use of food powi 
in these areas. The United States balance of trade could be afTecte 
unless careful guidelines were applied. Limited use of food power hs 
been made through licensing and temporary trade restriction 1 
(HTW) 



149 

Nationwide Food Consumption Sun-ey; Need for Improvement and 
Expansion, CED-77-56; B-133192. March 25, 1977. Released 
March 25, 1977. 7 pp. + appendices (39 pp). 
Report to Sen. George McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Com- 
mittee on Nutrition and Human Needs; by Elmer B. Staats, Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Conflrt*!onol Relevance; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

The Nationwide Food Consumption Survey which the Depart- 
ment or Agriculture (DOA) began in April, 1977, was reviewed in 
order to determine what types of analyses can be done with the data, 
what planning changes have occurred since survey conception in 
1974, and whether it will yield accurate information on the diet of 
low-income families and of overall food consumption in the United 
States. The sample will be of 15,000 households, with 5,000 low- 
income households, almost half of whom participate in the food 
stamp program. Findings/Conclusions: The survey sample is too 
small to provide useful information in evaluating food assistance 
programs and in identifying nutritional problems of low-income 
families. Additional low-income families should be sampled to pro- 
vide this information The survey methodology has not been fully 
validated, and the results will be open to criticism. There are no 
assurances that the data obtained will actually measure the amount 
of food consumed. Recommendations: The DOA should fully vali- 

44 



151 

Issues Surrounding the Management of Agricultural Exports. ID-76-B7 
B-176943. May 2, 1977. 2 vols. (v.l, 127 pp.; v.2, 115 pp.), 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Council o] 

Economic Advisers. 

Congreitional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority* Agricultural Act of 1970, as amended; Agriculture and 

Consumer Protection Act of 1973, 812 (P.L. 93-86; 7 U.S.C, 6I2c- 

3 (Supp. IV)). Export Administration Act of 1969, as amended (50 

U.S.C. App. 2401-2413; 50 U.S.C. App. 2403(F) (Supp. IV)). B- 

114824 (1974). B-178753 (1974). B-159652 (1974). B-146770 

(1975). B-133160 (1975), 

Interviews, questionnaires, and literature reviews were utilized In 
an attempt to describe and evaluate: (1) circumstances surrounding 
1974 and 1975 grain purchase by the Soviet Union; (2) Agriculture's 
management of its export reporting system; (3) Agriculture's fore- 
casting of foreign supply and demand; and (4) executive branch 
agricultural export policy and related issues. Findings/Conclu- 
sions: Fundamental improvements are needed in the Nation's food 
export machinery. The Department of Agriculture's export reporting 
system needs to provide accurate and timely data on exports-s 
necessary input if the effects on domestic supply and price are to be 
minimized. Current elements of export policy need to be more com- 
plete and cohesive and need to provide the flexibility necessary to 
meet both domestic and international objectives and changing food 

Food 



Citation Section 



154 



supply and demand situations Export policy implementation needs 
more coordination, cohesion, and better timing. Recommenda- 
tions: The Congress should enact legislation providing for an im- 
proved export reporting system that will function as an effective 
early-warning system. Congress should also establish a food export 
policy that protects the interests of both producers and consumers, 
while simultaneously providing an effective policy mechanism for 
surplus and shortage market conditions. That policy should also 
clarify the Government's position on grain sales to nonmarket econo- 
mies, including the desirability of such mechanisms as long-term 
agreements and government-to-government negotiations. The ques- 
tion of a national gram reserve, the role of multinational grain export- 
ers m U.S. marketing, and the role that could be played in grain 
exporting by U.S grain cooperatives should also be considered by the 
Congress. (Author/SC) 



152 

Information concerning Reports of a Possible Wheat Shortage. B- 

176943. July 30, 1977. 20 pp 

Report to Rep. Charles A. Vanik; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Organiiatlon Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Rep, Charles A. Vanik. 
Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (87 
Stat. 238). Export Administration Act of 1969, as amended (50 
U.S C. App, 2401 et seq.). 18 U.S.C. 1905. 

As of mid-February 1974, the Department of Agriculture 
(USDA) reports showed an estimated total U.S. wheat supply of 
2,150 million bushels for the 1973074 crop year (ending June 30, 
1974); an estimated demand for this supply through June 30, 1974, 
of either 1,972 million bushels or 2,059 million bushels; and a pro- 
jected carryover at June 30, 1974, of either 178 million bushels or 91 
million bushels. Differences in wheat export amounts in two Depart- 
ment reports accounted for the variances in the demand and car- 
ryover figures. Findings/Conclusions: According to the Wheat 
Situation report which is baaed on a continuing, comprehensive anal- 
ysis of all wheat data available to the USDA, the estimated demand 
for the wheat supply was 1,972 million bushels. The Department's 
weekly exports report for the week ended February 17, 1974, as 
corrected, showed, in contrast to estimated exports of 1,200 million 
bushels in the Wheat Situation report, exporters' sales and shipments 
of U.S. wheat for the 1973-74 crop year of 1,287 million bushels. The 
Exports report was based on information the Department obtained 
from exporters and the Bureau of the Census. Recommendations.' In 
order to provide an adequate basis for weekly evaluation of foreign 
demand for wheat, the Exports report should disclose the contingent 
nature of sales with unknown destinations and significant changes in 
previously reported sales. The report should also show cumulative 
exports of wheat by type. (SC) 



POPULATION CONTROL 



153 

U,S. Grant Support of International Planned Parenthood Federation 
Needs Better Oversight, B-173240. September 14, 1973. 29 pp. 
Report to John A. Hannah, Administrator, Agency for International 
Development; by J. K. Fasick, Director, International Div. 

Oraariixatlon Concerned; International Planned Parenthood Feder- 
ation. 



Authority! Foreign Assistance Act (of) 1967, title X. 

The Agency for International Development (AID) has provided 
about S10 million annually as grant budgetary support for private 
family planning activities carried out by the International Planned 
Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPF is one of the larger recipients 
of AID grants for such activities. Findings/Conclusions: AID does 
not participate in IPPF's programming or in the audit activities of its 
family planning associations, but it evaluates performance on the 
basis of annual reports, audits at IPPF's central office in London, and 
other internal AID information. Grant management relationships 
changed in April 1971 from specific IPPF projects, reviewed end 
approved by AID, to general budgetary support of overall programs. 
In spite of IPPF's rapid growth, with resulting organizational and 
operational problems, AID has limited control over the use of funds. 
At IPPF's central office, problems were noted concerning ability to 
implement effective programs and management review over family 
planning activities by associations. IPPF was qualified to sponsor 
indigenous family planning programs and carry out AID's congres- 
sional mandate on population assistance; but more accountability 
and greater assurances of efficiency and economy were needed. 
Recommendations: The Administrator of AID should provide in- 
creased assistance to IPPF for working out a plan for: timely submis- 
sion of reliable reports and data from national associations; more 
reviews, inspections, and reports by IPPF offices; improvements in 
independent audits of associations' programs; and more effective 
evaluation and reporting by IPPF's central office to AID. He should 
also perform a more complete review of IPPF's management system 
to provide greater assurance that objectives are being met, including 
field appraisals directly related to subgrantee programs. (Au- 
thor/ HTW) 



154 

Challenge of World Population Explosion; To Slow Growth Rates White 

Improving Quality of Life. B-156518; ID-76-68. November 9, 1976. 

74 pp. + enclosure. 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organlratlon Concerned: Office of Management and Budget; De- 
partment of State; Agency for International Development. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress, 

Authority: Mutual Security Act. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954. 

The rapid population growth rate In developing countries con- 
cerns the entire world because it will affect the quality of life of future 
generations, by placing more burdens on food production; creating 
greater demands on inadequate health care and education facilities; 
increasing unemployment; contributing to urban migration; ac- 
celerating the use of limited natural resources, which could restrict 
the earth's ability to support life; and being conducive to civil unrest. 
Findings/Conclusions: The situation can be controlled through 
communication, services, shifts in incentives, changes. Jn social insti- 
tutions and opportunities, and coercion. Policies, of course, have to 
take into consideration traditional values and customs, religious and 
ideological resistance, political attitudes, illiteracy, and cultural and 
economic pressures. The most effective program, and the most 
widely used, Is that of fertility reduction. In 1973, the Congress 
revised foreign economic aid policies to help the impoverished 
majority improve their standard of living and participate more effec- 
tively in the development process. The AID population program has 
six major categories. In addition to Government programs, universi- 
ties and private organizations are concerned about the problem. The 
private organizations are: International Planned Parenthood Federa- 
tion; Family Planning International Assistance; Population Council; 
Association for Voluntary Sterilization; and the Pathfinder Fund, all 
of which receive AID money. The United Nations and the World 
Bank also have extensive programs. Recommendations; Emphasis 
should be on slowing or reducing growth rates in developing coun- 
tries while improving the quality of life through social and economic 
development. (Author/SS) 



Food 



45 



155 



Citation Section 



155 

Impact oj Population Assistance to an African Country, ID-77-3; B- 
179421; B-156518. June 23, 1977 45 pp. + 9 appendices (20 pp). 
Report to the Congress, by Elmer B, Staais, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of State, Agency for Interna- 
tional Development. 

Congretiional Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Congress. 
Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended., 104b 

Rapid population growth combined with poor social and eco- 
nomic conditions is hindering development efforts in many coun- 
tries. African birthrates ate among the highest in the world, and 
population growth rates are expected to increase as improved health 
care lowers mortality. Ghana is one African nation that has recog- 
nized its population problem. It has promulgated an official popula- 
tion policy, and has established a family- planning program. The 
United States has provided about 75% of the $1 5.9 million of popula- 
tion assistance to Ghana Ghana's program, however, has reached 
only a small percentage of the population, primarily urban. Recom- 
mendations; In planning development assistance for Ghana and 
other African nations, GAO recommends that the Administrator of 
the Agency for International Development, as appropriate, encour- 
age governments, and provide support when necessary, to examine 
the relationships between social and economic change and fertility, 
help governments to establish population policies which encourage 
the types of social and economic development identified as having 
a maximum impact on fertility; consider the impact on population 
growth of planned TJ.S. development projects and work to integrate 
population and development projects; and take actions to encourage 
the establishment of an effective, systematic coordinating mech- 
anism for population assistance in Ghana and in other countries 
where none exists. (Author/SCI) 



INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND POLICIES 



156 

Numerous Improvements Still Needed in Managing U.S. Participation in 

International Organizations. July 18, 1974. 41 pp. + 5 appendices (9 

pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organlmtlon Concerned: Office of Management and Budget; De- 
partment of State; United Nations; United Nations: Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization; World Health Organization. 
Congressional Relevant as Congress. 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1973 (P.L 93-189) Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1969 (P L. 91-175; 80 Slat. 425; 5 U.S.C. 3343). 

It has previously been reported that the United States loses con- 
trol over funds contributed to international organizations and that 
the Department of State could not assure the Congress that U.S. 
contributions were efficiently and effectively used. Although in- 
creased emphasis on multilateral assistance makes the need to cor- 
rect the conditions that prompted earlier recommendations more 
urgent than ever, progress has been slow and no single recommenda- 
tion has been put fully into effect. Recommendations; The Secretary 
of State should: acquire an adequate staff familiar with the functions 
and operations of international organizations and provide for greater 
continuity of tenure; establish a deadline for developing and promul- 
gating U.S policy objectives and priorities for each organization to 
guide personnel managing U.S. interest; develop criteria for reporting 
that will produce sufficient relevant and reliable information on man- 
agement proposals and performance and enlist the support of other 

46 



members to get such criteria adopted by the organizations; continue 
U.S annual evaluations and aggressively attempt to resolve identi- 
fied problems with organizations; obtain from each of the interna- 
tional organizations a formal statement of personnel policies and 
selection procedures, instruct U.S. representatives to the interna- 
tional organizations to press for needed reforms in the personnel 
systems of these organizations; develop the policies, procedures, and 
programs for advancing and encouraging participation by U.S. citi- 
zens in international organizations; and establish a range of objec- 
tives or goals for the number of U S nationals to be employed by 
each organization. (Author/SC) 



157 

The Food Situation in Pakistan. January 15, 1975. 62pp. + appendix, 

(Spp). 

Report by Robert Shuey, Specialist in Asian Affairs, Congressional 

Research Service, 



Since Pakistan was formed in 1947, its agricultural output has 
grown at a slower rate than its population; new policies instituted by 
the Pakistani Government in 1958-1959 produced some progress In 
the mid-1960's high yield variety wheat and rice seeds were intro- 
duced which greatly increased agricultural output However, new- 
problems arose and the conflict with India caused severe setbacks. 
Pakistan increased its total food production since the 1961-1965 
period by more than 60%, much more than its neighboring countries. 
Pakistan's primary agricultural products are wheat, rice, cotton, corn, 
and sugarcane. Wheat crops for 1974 were expected to set new 
records and the rice crop was expected to be good although hindered 
by a shortage of fertilizer. In 1973 Pakistan's export earnings were 
at their highest level, with agricultural exports accounting for 80% of 
the earnings. Factors affecting the food supply in Pakistan are: popu- 
lation, the area cultivated, yield, seed variety, fertilizer, water, pest 
control, land tenancy, mechanization, labor, socio-economic condi- 
tions, credit, distribution systems, world economic and agricultural 
conditions, and foreign aid. Although self-sufficiency in wheat may 
be a realistic goal in the short term, malnutrition in Pakistan is 
endemic and rapid populations growth plus unfavorable economic or 
weather conditions could create serious food shortages. (HTW) 



158 1 

Disincentives to Agricultural Production in Developing Countries. 

ID-76-2; B-159652. November 26, 1975. 34 pp. + 15 appendices 

(83 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organisation Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Department of the Treasury; Department of Agriculture; Depart- 
ment of State. 
Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

Developing countries can increase their agricultural production 
and provide their people with urgently needed food if they provide 
their farmers with economic incentives and supporting services, 
However, many of these countries have policies and institutional 
factors which act as disincentives to their farmers to expand agricul- 
tural production. Findings/Conclusions; Disincentive governmen- 
tal policies and institutional factors which affect agricultural 
production adversely include: low producer prices which discourage 
farmers from using more productive methods; export taxes which 
restrict production for export; monetary and trade policies which 
make food imports attractive and discriminate against food and 

Food 



Citation Section 



162 



agricultural exports; restrictions on moving food from surplus to 
deficit areas which discourage increased production in the producing 
areas; institutional credit which is not generally available to small 
farmers; extension services which are generally inadequate and do 
not reach small farmers, and extreme disparities in farm sizes and 
forms of land tenure which deter increased production. Recommen- 
dations: The Secretaries of Agriculture and State and the Adminis- 
trator of the Agency for International Development, when providing 
food and agricultural assistance to developing countries, should give 
maximum consideration to disincentives to agricultural production 
in the countries involved and work for their removal The Secretaries 
of State and the Treasury should work for concerted action by all 
countries and institutions providing economic assistance to induce 
recipients to remove the disincentives and adopt a positive strategy 
providing adequate incentives to farm production. (Author/SC) 



inputs that arc essential for increased production are available to all 
farmers. Findings/Conclusions; The Republic of China (Taiwan) 
devised policies and programs to develop each of these key elements 
in its agricultural strategy. As a result, Taiwan maintained an average 
agricultural growth rate of 4.6% during 1953 to 1972. This was far 
above that of other developing nations and enabled the country to 
attain basic self-sufficiency in food Recommendations: The Secre- 
tary of State and the Administrator of the Agency for International 
Development should: work with other donor nations to help each 
developing country establish a comprehensive strategy for develop- 
ing its agricultural sector which best suits its needs and which empha- 
sizes incentives to farmers and the effective use of resources, and 
seek agreement among donor nations to give greater emphasis to the 
use of their economic aid to help each developing country improve 
its agricultural strategy and build the necessary infrastructure to 
carry out these plans. (Author/SC) 



159 

The Financial Requirements of World Agriculture in a Food-Short Era. 
April 1976. 17 pp. + appendix (2 pp.). 

Reportby Leo V. Mayer, Senior Specialist for Agriculture, Congres- 
sional Research Service. 



World agriculture, despite its long history and wide diversity, has 
recently taken on the characteristics of a new growth industry. The 
need for large amounts of capital to finance higher levels of produc- 
tion has become an issue. Although the financial aspects of more food 
production are only one part of a worldwide anxiety over more food 
security, there is growing recognition that financing has been and 
continues to be a major impediment to adequate food supplies for a 
significant part of the world's population. The great diversity in the 
production and marketing of food means that many different kinds 
of activities require financing nearly simultaneously if total food 
supplies are to increase and if the more difficult step of improved 
consumer nutrition is to be achieved Some of the types of food and 
agricultural improvements for which financial investments are re- 
quired are: agricultural infrastructure, including irrigation canals, 
land drainage, roadways, and other physical structure in rural areas; 
production inputs, including fertilizer, insecticides, and seeds; mar- 
keting institutions, including local marketing cooperatives, export 
marketing boards, and agricultural marketing corporations; technical 
innovation; extension information, such as soil surveys, price projec- 
tions, and market feasibility studies; and production incentives. (SC) 



160 

Providing Economic Incentives to Farmers Increases Food Production in 
Developing Countries. ID-76-34;B-159652. May 13, 1976, 30pp. + 
3 appendices (5 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Department of State. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Developing nations need a comprehensive strategy which empha- 
sizes economic incentives to farmers as the keystone to improving 
agricultural growth. Such a comprehensive agricultural development 
strategy must consider: local and national plans and programs which 
maximize the use of resources; assured markets to absorb farmers* 
excess production at stable prices, high enough to make using im- 
proved seeds, fertilizer, irrigation, and pesticides profitable; rural 
land reforms which allow the cultivators of land to benefit from 
increased output; institutions that will promote agricultural produc- 
tion increased by formulating agricultural policies and programs, 
providing for the effective use of external aid, creating market sys- 
tems, and instituting irrigation projects; and a system to insure the 



161 

Grain Marketing Systems in Argentina, Australia, Canada, and the 
European Community; Soybean Marketing System in Brazil. ID-76-61; 
B-114824. May 28, 1976. 85 pp. + appendix (2 pp.). 
Report to Sen. Frank Church, Chairman, Senate Committee on Fo- 
reign Relations: Multinational Corporations Subcommittee; by 
Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 
Multinational Corporations Subcommittee. 

Marketing systems and agricultural policies of major grain and 
soybean producing and exporting countries vary with the political 
orientation toward the agricultural sector. An assortment of plans are 
operating in Argentina, Australia, Canada, the European Com- 
munity, and Brazil to implement domestic and export marketing 
systems. Findings/Conclusions: In Canada, Australia, and Argen- 
tina, only government wheat or grain boards are authorized to buy 
wheat and certain feed grains. Canadian and Australian wheat boards 
are producer oriented. Argentine agricultural policy is geared 
primarily to benefit the urban population at the expense of the pro- 
ducers. The European Community, in contrast with the other mar- 
kets studied, produces primarily for domestic consumption and uses 
exports as a device for disposing of surpluses. When European Com- 
munity prices are higher than world prices, subsidies are used to 
generate exports and levies are used to limit imports. Brazil's agricul- 
tural policy Is directed toward expanding its developing soybean 
industry and increasing its exports. Brazil gives credit, tax breaks, 
and other incentives to producers. During the last decade there has 
been little increase in wheat and feed grain production in the coun- 
tries studied, but Brazil's soybean production has increased tenfold 
since 1969. International grain companies continue to play an impor- 
tant part in each market system. (Author/SC) 



162 

The United States Should Play a Greater Role in the Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations. ID-77-13; B-159652. May 16, 
1977. 66 pp. 

Report to Sen, Abraham Ribicoff, Chairman, Senate Committee on 
Governmental Affairs; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned) Agency for International Development; 
Department of Agriculture; Department of State; United Nations: 
Food and Agriculture Organization. 

Congressional Relevancet House Committee 'on International Rela- 
tions; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Senate Committee on 
Governmental Affairs. 



Food 



47 



162 



Citation Section 



Progress has been made in implementing GAO's 1969 recom- 
mendations to the Departments of Slate and Agriculture, which are 
primarily responsible for administering U.S. participation m the 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), but more specific im- 
provements are needed Findings/Conclusions: The 1976 state- 
ment of U S. objectives is broad, and neither identifies U S interests 
m terms of priorities nor relates U.S. goals to specific real or potential 
FAO programs FAO's improved programming and budgeting sys- 
tems still do not provide sufficient information to permit effective 
assessment of the relationships between the regular programs and the 
extrabudgetary development activities Present FAO attempts to 
streamline the process will further reduce the information available 
to the governing bodies, which focus their review primarily on pro- 
gram increases and shifts of emphasis The budget review process is 
long and unwieldy, and the budget documents are nonspecific and 
hard to understand. Evaluation of programs and activities is neither 
systematic nor comprehensive, and the member governments are not 
provided sufficient information to judge the effectiveness of program 
administration FAO plans to fund a development program with 
budget funds rather than with voluntary contributions and to decen- 
tralize its operations Specific functions and responsibilities have not 
been clearly assigned to concerned U S agencies. Trust fund devel- 
opment projects should be consistent with FAO policies and unified 
country programs The United States should actively help shape the 
future of the World Food Council Recommendations: The 1976 
statement should be revised to clarify U.S. priorities and concerns in 
a program-oriented manner. More specific goals and an action plan 
should be developed to help improve the programming and budget- 
ing systems A more comprehensive system of program evaluation by 
FAO should be developed and the resulting reports should be more 
specific. The U.S. position that development and technical assistance 
should be voluntarily funded and administered by U.N. Develop- 
ment Program should be reasserted U S involvement should be 
designated as being primarily the responsibility of the State Depart- 
ment, which should then clearly define responsibilities for the other 
agencies involved and develop a system to review FAO activities, 
(Author/SS) 



and has held two meetings; it seems to be evolving as a forum for 
discussion rather than an action-oriented body. (Author/SW) 



FOOD POLICY 



FOOD POLICY DETERMINATION 



164 

Agricultural Program Evaluation Laws and Studies, B- 
161740. November 23, 1973 14 pp +7 appendices (22 pp.). 
Report to Sen. Herman E. Talmadge, Chairman, Senate Committee 
on Agriculture and Forestry; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller Gen- 
eral 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry 

Authority: Rural Development Act of 1972, 603. 

Agriculture, forestry, and rural development laws that require 
reports were identified to assist the Senate committee on Agriculture 
and Forestry m its oversight responsibilities. Findings/Conclu- 
sions: Approximately 400 citations (sections of laws) relating to 
agriculture and forestry required reports from sources that go to the 
Congress and from Government officials Of the total, 183 citations 
were considered significant to the Committee. Of these, 45, or 24% 
included language indicating that the report should contain informa- 
tion on program evaluation. A list of 21 major programs was deve- 
loped. The Department of Agriculture (USDA) has made program 
evaluations for 12 of these programs in three years. Program evalua- 
tions were made for five for which such evaluations were a legal 
requirement USDA has a centralized system for program analysis, 
evaluation, planning, and budgeting, but its usefulness for assessing 
alternative courses of action was not reviewed. (Author/HTW) 



163 

U,S. Participation in International Food Organizations: Problems and 

Issues. ID-76-66.B-146820 August 6, 1977. 24 pp +3 appendices 

(3 pp.). 

Staff study by J. K. Fasick, Director, International Div. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development; 
Department of Agriculture; Department of State; United Nations 

The World Food Conference, held in November 1974, focused 
world attention on the mounting food crisis and set forth a broad 
range of resolutions and proposals to alleviate hunger. The Food and 
Agriculture Organization, the World Food Program, and the World 
Food Council will be crucial to the overall success of the attack on 
global starvation and malnutrition. Findings/Conclusions: The 
Food and Agriculture Organization was established in 1945 to col- 
lect, analyze, and publish data on food, nutrition, and agriculture; 
provide forums for government consultations; and provide technical 
development assistance. U.S nationals held only 1 1% of the organi- 
zation's professional staff positions in 1975 although the United 
States contributed 25 percent of the organization's regular budget, 
The World Food Program, established in 1963, is a multilateral chan- 
nel for contributing food aid to needy countries. The U.S. contribu- 
tion to the World Food Program has steadily increased, from $43 6 
million in 1963-65 to $140 million in 1975-76. The U. S. share of 
total program resources has fallen from about 50% to a little over 
25%. Over the years, the program has built up a cash reserve of about 
J40 million which earns an estimated $3 million in interest annually. 
Rte World Food Council, established in 1974 as a result of the World 
Food Conference, is designed to act as overall coordinator for inter- 
national food policy. The council consists of 36 member countries 

46 



165 

Federal Agencies Administering Programs Related to Marine Selene* 
Activities and Oceanic Affairs. GGD-75-61; B-145099. February 25, 
1975. 162 pp. + 4 appendices (15 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: Department of the Interior; Department 
of Commerce; Department of Defense; Department of Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare; Department of State; Department of Transpor- 
tation, Environmental Protection Agency; Food and Drug 
Administration; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; 
National Science Foundation. 
Congressional Relevance; Congress. 

Authority: Marine Resources and Engineering Development Ad of 
1966 (33 U.S.C. 1 101). Merchant Marine Act of 1936, as amended 

t ini 8 ' ' H01) ' Mar ' ne protection ' Research, and Sanctuaries Act 
of 1972 (P.L. 92-532) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 
U.S.C. 1361). Federal Boat Safety Act of 1971. 46 U.S.C. 1474, 

Agencies which submitted information for inclusion in the annual 
report to the President and the Congress on Federal agencies' partici- 
pation m the field of marine sciences, as required by (lie Marine 
Resources and Engineering Development Act of 1966, were; the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; the Maritime 
Administration; the Coast Guard; the Department of Transporta- 
ttons Office of Pipeline Safety; the Department of the Navy; the 
Defense Mapping Agency; the Defense Advanced Research Projects 

HS.?/ ? 8p f '"T f the Army ' Cof P s of Engineers; the PWi 
and Wildlife Service; the National Park Service; the Geological Sur- 
vey; the Bureau of Land Management; the Bureau of Mines; the 

Food 



Citation Section 



169 



Bureau of Outdoor Recreation; the Bureau of Indian Affairs; the 
Bureau of Reclamation; the Department of the Interior's Office of 
Saline Water, Office of Water Resources Research, and Office of 
Territorial Affairs, the National Science Foundation; the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency, the Department of State; the Food and 
Drug Administration; the National Institutes of Health; the Office of 
Education; the Atomic Energy Commission; the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration; and the Smithsonian Institution. 
Findings/Conclusions; The Food and Drug Administration's ma- 
rine science activities include its administration of the National 
Shellfish Sanitation Program and sample analyses of fish and fish 
products and fish plant inspections. (SC) 



166 

fnformation on Un ited States Ocean Interests Together with Positions and 
Results of Law of the Sea Conference at Caracas. ID-75-46; B- 
145099. March 9, 1975. 66 pp. + 2 appendices (6 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B, Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organisation Concerned! Department of State; National Security 

Council. 

Congressional Relevance! Congress. 

Committees and Members of Congress will have to consider the 
U.S. positions taken at the United Nations Law of the Sea Confer- 
ence held in Caracas in ratifying and enacting legislation to imple- 
ment a future oceans law treaty. The chairman of the U.S. delegation 
to the Conference believes that a comprehensive oceans law treaty 
should be accomplished by the end of 1975. Findings/Conclusions; 
Accomplishments at the Caracas session cited by the U.S. delegation 
were: general agreement that the interests of all nations will be best 
served by an acceptable and timely treaty; the scheduling of another 
session in Geneva from March to May 1975, with a subsequent 
signing session to be held in Caracas; preparation of working papers 
containing precise treaty texts reflecting main trends on such major 
issues as territorial seas, economic zones, straits, fisheries, continen- 
tal margins, marine scientific research, and dispute settlement; and 
refinements of alternative treaty texts for exploiting the deep seabed. 
The three main approaches to fisheries problems which seem to have 
emerged at Caracas were: the U.S. approach, which couples coastal 
state regulations with conservation and full-use duties and interna- 
tional or regional organizations for highly migratory species; com- 
plete coastal state regulation, with no coastal state duties; and 
distant-water fishing state proposals which emphasize the role of 
regional organizations. (Author/SQ 



167 

Agricultural Policy, FoodPolicy, Nutrition Policy, World Food Problems: 
A Select Bibliography, 1969-1975. April 30, 1975. 38 pp. 
Reporiby Cynthia B, Chapman, Congressional Research Service. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture. 

In response to Federal Government and public interest, a bibliog- 
raphy was prepared on agricultural policy, food policy, nutrition 
policy, and world food problems. Agricultural policy pertains to the 
national and international actions and plans which have as their 
purpose the direction of agricultural production, marketing, distribu- 
tion, and foreign trade. Food policy is an undefined term, new to the 
literature. The use of the term includes: (1) food cost, demand, and 
distribution; (2) technological aspects of new foods and food sources; 
and <3) regulation of food reserves and supply. In addition, political 
use of the term also includes topics related to agriculture. Nutrition 
policy describes the evolving purpose and plan of a nation to direct 
all of Its programs, projects, and other activities related to food and 
health. The section on world food problems is a collection of refer- 

Food 



ences on world food shortages, the relationship of population growth 
to food production, and world food conferences. (Author/SW) 



168 

U.S. Fishing Industry Can Be Strengthened by Developing Underutilized 

Fish Resources. GGD-75-68; B-145099. May 30, 1975. 31 pp. + 6 

appendices (15 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- 
ministration: National Marine Fisheries Service; Department of 
Commerce. 

Congressional Relevance; Congress. 
Authority: Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 S. Res. 222 (93rd Cong.). 

Although the US consumption of edible fish grew from 4.3 
billion pounds in 1961 to 7 billion pounds in 1973, the U.S. fishing 
industry has not increased its harvests to meet this demand and 
supplied only 33% of edible fish products used in the United States 
in 1973. Findings/Conclusions; Imports of fish and fish products 
have increased, but these may not be capable of meeting the demand 
because of the slowing growth rate of edible fish and increasing 
worldwide competition for the product. Although a large quantity 
and variety of fish resources exist in waters adjacent to the United 
States, many fish species are not used commercially or are only 
partially used. Barriers 'to be overcome include: locating fishing 
grounds, devising fishing methods, and introducing new products to 
the marketplace. Fishermen and processors generally operate in 
small establishments with little opportunity for capital accumulation 
or effective coordination. The National Marine Fisheries Service has 
helped overcome some barriers, but fisheries are still underutilized 
because: some barriers have been overlooked; only a small propor- 
tion of the Service's resources are spent on fishery development; and 
responsibility is spread among several Service components. Recom- 
mendations; The National Fisheries Plan should be completed. It 
should require planning for fishery development by species with 
similar characteristics and establish criteria for determining which 
species have the highest potential for development. The Secretary of 
Commerce should provide for monitoring implementation of the 
plan. (HTW) 



169 

Grain Reserves: A Potential US. Food Policy Tool. OSP-76-16; B- 
114824. March 26, 1976. 34 pp. + 5 appendices (58 pp.). 
Report to Sen. George McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Com- 
mittee on Nutrition and Human Needs; by Elmer B. Staats, Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned! Commodity Credit Corp. 
Congressional Relevance: SENDS 8 00. 

Authority) Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1966 (P.L. [83] - 480). Food for Peace Act of 1966 (7 U.S.C, 1707a). 
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929, Agricultural Adjustment Act. 

Until recently, the United States' primary agricultural concern 
was what to do with large crop surpluses which tended to curb farm 
income. With the massive drawdown of worldwide grain surpluses 
beginning in 1972, this concern shifted to include the additional 
question of what to do in the case of crop shortages which tend to 
decrease food availability and increase consumer prices. Proposals 
have been made that consider a food reserve policy as a buffer to 
acquire reserves during times of surplus and distribute them during 
shortages. Findings/Conclusions: In considering food reserves as a 
buffer between the food system and unexpected shocks and as a 
means of balancing producer and consumer interests, at least eight 
factors must be examined: (I) what should be the scope of a reserve 

49 



169 



Citation Section 



system'' (2) what ought to be objectives of reserve stock manage- 
ment? (3) what levels of reserves are appropriate? (4) what ought to 
be the relationship between the reserve system and the market mech- 
anism 1 ' (5) who ought to control the reserve system? (6) how should 
reserve financing operate and who should bear the costs? (7) what 
should be the relationship between domestic farm policy and a re- 
serve system? and (8) how should the reserve system be coordinated 
with export control policy? (SC) 



170 

U.S. Food and Agricultural Policy in the World Economy. April 26, 

1976 73 pp +2 appendices (2 pp) 

Report prepared by the Congressional Budget Office of the U.S. 

Congress. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development, 
Department of Agriculture, Department of State. 
Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1951 (PL [83J-48> 

The agricultural situation of the United States has changed sig- 
nificantly since the beginning of the I970's Abundance and ils at- 
tendant problems of low farm prices and large, costly Government 
stockpiles have given way to a tight market and higher prices. Al- 
ready an important force in the world market, U S. agriculture has 
assumed still greater importance. New problems which have accom- 
panied the new circumstances include: higher prices for food; in- 
creased price instability, resulting in sizable income transfers 
affecting both farmers and consumers; higher farm production costs; 
increases in the cost of providing foreign food aid; and general uncer- 
tainty about the future of agriculture and how governments will 
respond to it A central consideration in fashioning U S. agricultural 
trade policy will be the effects of larger agricultural export volume 
on the U S economy. From the standpoint of future U.S food and 
agricultural policy, the principal issue is how to avoid the increased 
price instability that would accompany expanding grain exports, par- 
ticularly if this occurred when world grain stocks were low. Addi- 
tionally, there are issues of how to achieve a more equitable 
distribution of both the benefits and costs associated with these ex- 
ports The principal policy options are- continuation of present 
policy; establishment of a domestic grain reserve; creation of an 
international gram reserve, imposition of trade restrictions; further 
trade liberalization, and negotiation of bilateral trade agreements. 
(SC) 



171 

Alleviating Agricultural Producers' Crop Losses; What Should the 
Ffora/*o/(fi*?RED-76-9l,B-114824. May 4, 1976 48 pp. + 6 
appendices (6 pp.) 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congreiilonal Relevance: Congress. 

Authority; Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 as 
amended (P.L. 93-86; 84 Stat. 13S8). Federal Crop Insurance Act 
as amended (7 US.C. 1501) Agricultural Act of 1970 7 U S C 
1445a (c) (Supp. I1I).7U S C. 1441 note (Supp. III). 7 C.F R 775 is' 
7 C.F R 775.8. 7 C F R. 722.809(k). 7 C.P.R. 728.18. S. 1647 (94th 
Cong ). H.R. 7247 (94th Cong.) 

Two Department of Agriculture programs-an insurance program 
and a direct-payment program-offer agricultural producers some 
protection against loss of income when crops are damaged or de- 
stroyed by natural disasters or other uncontrollable hazards r,n- 
Antt/QmdwoaK Legislation which has been proposed to expand 
the uisunnce program and repeal the direct-payment program would 

SO 



shift most of the disaster protection cost from the taxpayers to the 
primary beneficiaries and would save an estimated $259 million an- 
nually. Although the proposed legislation has merit and is in line with 
congressional and executive branch policy that Government activi- 
ties which provide identifiable recipients with special benefits or 
privileges should be financially self-sustaining to the extent possible, 
there are a number of shortcomings which will have to be adjusted. 
Recommendations: If the disaster payment program is retained, the 
Congress should reconsider the program's authorizing legislation in 
light of inconsistencies in program coverage, eligibility requirements, 
payment rates, and yield definitions If the proposed legislation is to 
be enacted, the Congress should consider authorizing the Federal 
Crop Insurance Corporation to develop and implement a plan for 
providing insurance coverage where uncontrollable conditions pre- 
vent producers from planting their crops and authorizing lowcr-than- 
full-cost premium rates limited to those cases in which producers 
might otherwise have to pay prohibitively high rates In any event* 
the Congress should consider adopting those portions of the 
proposed legislation which would make it easier for the Federal Crop 
Insurance Corporation to start a reinsurance program; revise the way 
m which the Corporation's administrative and operating activities 
are funded, and otherwise bring the Corporation's law up to date. 
(Author/SC) 



172 

U.S. Agricultural Policy. November 23, 1976. 17pp. 
Report prepared by the Food and Agricultural Section, Environ- 
ment and Natural Resources Policy Division, Congressional Research 
Service 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Authority: Federal Food Marketing Appraisal Act; II. R. 11998 
(95th Cong.) Consumer Food Act of 1976; S. 641 (94th Cong.). 
Federal Food, Drug, And Cosmetic Act. Agricultural and Consumer 
Protection Act of 1973. Sugar Act of 1948. Agricultural Act of 1949. 
P.L. [83]-480. 

Widespread drought in the early 1970's produced extraordinary 
demand for U.S. grains and reduced stocks to their lowest levels In 
a quarter century Grain reserves were sharply reduced by a surge of 
agricultural exports which more than doubled in 1972-74. The Ad- 
ministration reduced the government's role in agriculture, and Con* 
gress passed the 1973 Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act 
which was regarded as a major step toward returning U.S. agriculture 
to a market-oriented economy The benefits of high farm income* 
generated by the stock draw-down have been dampened by increased 
production and by increased costs, raising questions as to Hie 
adequacy of present income protection levels for farmers. A national 
system of food reserves raises the question of whether the supply 
assurance outweighs its effect on farm commodity prices. Tech- 
nology and institutional changes in agriculture have given rise to 
questions concerning the definition and role of the family farm in 
agriculture, associated concerns for rural development. Increased 
corporate involvement in farming, and the future production 
capacity of American agriculture. A relatively new area of activity 
in farm and food policy areas is the concern generated by the inter- 
ests of consumers. Consumer economics, food safety, and nutrition 
have in recent years become subjects addressed by Congress and 
private groups. (Author/SW) 



173 

Pood and Agriculture Policy Options. February 1977. 83 pp. 
-Ke/wrtby Ken Deavers; Jim Vertrees; Alan Walter; Robert Gordon. 
Prepared by the Congressional Budget Office. 

Food 



Citation Section 



176 



Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Commodity 
Credit Corp ; Federal Crop Insurance Corp 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
I9S4 (P L. [83] -480) Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 
1973. Rice Production Act of 1975. Food Stamp Act of 1964. Emer- 
gency Farm Act of 1975 H.R. 12808 <95th Cong). 

In early 1977, the Congress must make major decisions about the 
basic agricultural legislation which expires at the end of crop year 
1977. During most of the past 40 years, the capability of American 
agriculture to produce exceeded demand at prices that assured ade- 
quate returns to the committed resources The threat of surplus 
stocks, depressed farm prices, and higher program costs remains real. 
Events of recent years have significanly reduced the costs of govern- 
ment price support programs, estimated at about $1.8 billion annu- 
ally for fiscal year 1977. Recent farm income gains were obtained 
partly through a dramatic surge in U.S. agricultural exports. These 
gains have not been uniformly distributed among farmers, livestock 
producers were severly hurt by rising feed costs and falling livestock 
prices, and gains have been concentrated among the larger produc- 
ers. Another effect of recent high grain prices (and incomes) has been 
a significant rise in farm real estate values. Rising food prices have 
accounted for a sizeable share of overall inflation and have con- 
tributed to higher wages. From the 1930s until the early 1960s, the 
primary mechanisms used to support farm prices were commodity 
loan programs. Direct payments to farmers became a major tool of 
commodity policy in the 1960s, though the commodity loan pro- 
grams also remained in place. Market prices of wheat, feedgrains, 
and cotton have been well above target prices and loan rates. There- 
fore, there have been no deficiency payments for these commodities, 
nor have any government stocks been acquired. Disaster payments 
protecting farmers from natural hazards provide fee insurance to 
eligible wheat, feedgrains, cotton, and rice producers if planting is 
prevented or yields are low. (SW) 



174 

Summary of GAO Reports Issued Since 1973 Pertaining la Farm Bill 
Legislation. CED-77-39; B-188064. March 3, 1977. 83 pp. 
Report to Sen. John Sparkman, Chairman, Senate Committee on 
Foreign Relations; Sen. Herman E. Talmadge, Chairman, Senate 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry; Rep. Thomas S. Foley, 
Chairman, House Committee on Agriculture; Rep. Clement J. Za- 
blocki, Chairman, House Committee on International Relations; by 
Robert F. Keller, Acting Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of State; Environ- 
mental Protection Agency. 

Congressional Relevance! House Committee on Agriculture; House 
Committee on International Relations; Senate Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestry; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 
Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973; Farm 
Bill (P.L, 84-480). Sugar Act Rural Development Act of 1972, title 
V. 

There were 22 GAO reports issued on farm and commodity 
topics since 1973, including export and import regulation of grains, 
sugar and dairy products; the Commodity Credit Corporation; com- 
modity shortages, distribution, and forecasting; protection from pes- 
ticide hazards; agricultural research; bee keeping indemnity payment 
program; and meat marketing, inspection and bacteria control. The 
disaster assistance report was on alleviating agricultural producers' 
crop losses. Information concerning the reports of a possible wheat 
shortage, and grain reserves as a policy tool were the topics on grain 
reserves. Food aid and foreign agricultural development reports dealt 
with economic and food assistance to developing countries, increas- 
ing world food supplies, world population control and food, interna- 
tional relief agency, U.S. participation in international organizations, 
US, agricultural attache overseas, and incentives and disincentives 
to agricultural production in foreign countries. Assessment of the 



National Gram Inspection System pointed out the weaknesses in the 
system. Rural development reports concerned the impact of Federal 
programs on rural development, the problems of small farmers, regu- 
lations of the Rural Development Act programs, Farmers Home 
Administration, and the impact of the 1977 Presidential budget. The 
food stamps reports dealt with identifying the various recipient 
groups of food stamps, U.S. nutritional health, varying rates, and 
operation of the food stamps programs (SS) 



175 

Food and Agriculture Issues for Planning, CED-77-6L April 22 f 
1977. 40 pp. + appendices (II pp.). 

Staff study by Henry Eschwege, Director, Community and Eco- 
nomic Development Div. 

Organization Concerned; Department of Agriculture; Department 

of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

Authority; Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1966. Food, Drug 

and Cosmetic Act of 1938. P.L. 480 

Food and agricultural issues facing the Congress and the Nation 
are identified, and each of these issues are tied into a series of "food 
system goals" which could represent a principal element of a national 
food policy Important issues related to the goal of assuring safe, 
nutritious food for all segments of the population are; evaluating the 
effectiveness of Federal efforts to establish and promote nutritional 
standards; evaluating the effectiveness of grain inspection and com- 
modity grading programs; and evaluating the effectiveness of federal- 
ly-assisted domestic feeding programs for school children and the 
poor. Issues important to the goal of assuring that the economic 
strength of the food system is maintained include assessments of the 
effects of Government programs on the future coat and availability 
of resources to sustain high levels of food production; and the costs 
and benefits of Federal and State regulations that affect the efficiency 
of food marketing. The following issues are important to the goal of 
fulfilling the Nation's commitment to help meet world food demand 
through humanitarian measures and commercial export: evaluation 
of Federal programs designed to reduce malnutrition in developing 
countries, and evaluation of the effectiveness of Federal efforts to 
maintain strong agricultural export sales. Issues related to developing 
and coordinating national and international food policies are: anal- 
ysis of the Federal food policy decisionmaking structure, and evalua- 
tion of options for implementing a system of domestic food reserves. 
(RRS) 



176 

The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 1977 and Its Implications for 
Rural Development. OPA-76-42. May 5, 1977. 9 pp. 
Staff study. 

Organization Concerned! Farmers Home Administration; Environ- 
mental Protection Agency; Economic Development Administration; 
Department of Housing and Urban Development; Appalachian Re- 
gional Commission. 

Authority; Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, 
101 (P.L. 93-383). Rural Development Act of 1972. Federal Water 
Pollution Control Act. Emergency Livestock Credit Act of 1974. 
Housing Act of 1949. 

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is 
the agency budgeted to provide the largest amount of community 
development funding in funding year (FY) 1977. For FY 1977, the 
President's budget requests that no budget authority be provided to 
the United States Deportment of Agriculture (USDA) for water and 



Food 



51 



176 



Citation Sscti 



waste disposal grants to rural areas due to substantial funding prov- 
ided in 1976, an amount sufficient to finance the program for 2 years. 
Construction grants for waste treatment and sewer lines are included 
in the Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy function of the 
Budget. Although &6% of the projects go to nonmetropolitan areas, 
these communities receive only 39% of the funds. The Area and 
Regional Development portion of the budget covers a major segment 
of rural development funding; it was 21.8% in FY 1967 as compared 
to the proposed 24 1% in FY 1977. Farmers Home Administration 
grants for rural development and fire protection would be terminated 
in FY 1977. Virtually all of the funds for Public Works and Business 
Development goes to nonmetropolitan areas, about 76% in FY 1975, 
and most of the Area Development (non-highway) funds of the 
Appalachian Regional Commission are distributed to nonmetropoli- 
tan or rural areas There will be a reduction from. 1967 to 1977 in the 
number of farm ownership and operating loans under the Farmers 
Home Administration's Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund. (SW) 



177 

Food and Agriculture Models for Policy Analysis, CED-77-87. My 13, 
1977. 36 pp. + 6 appendices (28 pp.). 

Staff study by Henry Eschwege, Director, Community and Eco- 
nomic Development Div. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congrenianal Relevance! House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

In recent years, a large number of computer-based models have 
been, developed to help the agricultural community analyze trends, 
identify problems, and evaluate policy alternatives. Over 50 models 
with potential for food and agricultural issue analysis were identified, 
These models vary by scope, size, methodology, and issues covered. 
They can be viewed as a hierarchical set of analytical tools which can 
be used to address several levels of problems, such as local issues of 
a specific crop, regional issues involving several farm inputs, national 
issues integrating nutrition with production policies, or global prob- 
lems addressing population, wealth, and food, Many of the models 
identified are single or muJticrop models and are usually confined to 
a particular region of the world. Other models are designed to aid 
understanding of specific policies or issues such as grain reserve costs 
under varying conditions. Still others are highly aggregated, treating 
the agriculture as a whole, and are intended to predict general levels 
of activity over the short run. A smaller number of large-scale models 
exist that are not limited to any particular time frame and, in some 
cases, are actually a series of interacting submodels combining 
agricultural and nonagricultural issues. These models attempt to por- 
tray the total food system, including key factors, such as demogra- 
phy, environment, and pollution, that influence the system. 
(Author; SC) 



178 

The Netdjor a National Ocean Program and Plan. GGD-75-97; B- 
145099. October 10, 1977, 33 pp, + 13 appendices (42 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned) "Atomic Energy Commission; Department 
of Commerce; Department of Transportation; 1 Department of De- 
fense; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department 
of State; Department of the Interior; Environmental Protection 
Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National 
Science Foundation; Smithsonian Institution 
Congraulonal Relevance: Congress. 

Authority! Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act of 
1966 (33 U.S.C 1101) P.L 92-125. S. Res. 222 (93rd Cong.). 



The United States has no comprehensive national ocean progra 
Federal marine science and other oceanic activities are conducted 
2 1 organizations in 6 departments and 5 agencies, Necessarily, ma 
of the activities of these organizations are closely related. F 
dings/Conclusions: One effort to achieve coordination was the en 
tion of the Interagency Committee on Marine Science a 
Engineering which provided the forum for an interagency exchan 
of information. The Committee, however, does not have rcsponsit 
ity or authority to determine what programs should be under(ak< 
establish priorities, or decide the amount of resources. Another cffi 
to achieve coordination was the provision for bilateral and multil 
eral agreements among agencies covering specific areas of mull 
Interest. The National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmi 
phere is responsible for reporting annually to the President and t 
Congress on its overall assessment of the status of the Natioi 
marine and atmospheric activities. It has no authority to see thai 
recommendations are implemented and plays no role in coorttlnati 
agency programs or establishing priorities. There is a need for 
effective national ocean program and plan and an evaluation of 1 
extent that agencies effectively promote national objectives. (A 
thor/SW) 



PROCUREMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS 



179 

Progress of Executive Branch Action on Recommendations of . 
Commission on Government Procurement. September 19, 1973. 16 | 
+ appendix (25 pp.). 

Report to Rep. diet Holifield, Chairman, House Committee on G( 
ernment Operations; by Elmer D. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned: General Services Administration; Off! 

of Management and Budget; Executive Office of the President; Coi 

mission on Government Procurement. 

Congrenlonal Relevance: House Committee on Government Orw 

at ions. 

Authority: 10 U.S.C. 2202. H.R. 9050 (93rd Cong ). H.R. 90 

(93rd Cong.). H.R. 9061 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 9062 (93rd Cong.). 

An earlier report described the executive branch plan for flcti 
on recommendations of the Commission on Government Pr&cui 
ment, initial steps taken to provide a management structure for Go 
ernmentwide procurement policy, and matters for agency 
congressional consideration. Findings/Conclusions: The execiui 
branch structure for Governmentwide direction of protUKme 
policy is still developing, and responsibilities for parts of the man if 
ment structure and their interactions have not been clearly idenlifie 
The executive branch program to act on Commission recommend 
lions Is quite complex and includes 73 lead agency task groups ai 
330 participating agency assignments in support of 14 lead agenda 
Following congressional hearings, the General Services Adinini5.li 
tion (GSA) doubled its staffing of the Office of Procurement Ma 
agement, appointed an acting director, and furnished addilior 
guidance to the 14 lead agencies, A few lead agency positions ha 
been submitted to GSA; first drafts have been completed on abo 
40 of the recommendations, but work on about 100 has not reach 
the first draft stage. Recommendations: Matters for agency or co 
gressional consideration concern the need to: set priorities on rtcoi 
mendations, strengthen monitoring of lead agency assignment 
arrange for industry participation, and give management atWiUti 
where limited progress has been made. Congress should lakeeii 
action to authorize and direct the President to establish an Office 
Federal Procurement Policy either in the Office of Management n 
Budget or elsewhere within the Executive Office of [he Preside 
(Author/HTW) 



Foe 



diet ion Section 



183 



180 

Recommendations of the Commission on Government Procurement: 
Executive Branch Progress and Status. B-160725. January 31, 1974. 
26 pp 4- appendix (25 pp). 

Report to Rep Chet Holifield, Chairman, House Committee on Gov- 
ernment Operations; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Commission on Government Procure- 
ment 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Government Oper- 
ations. 

Authority: H R. 9059 (93rd Cong.). H.R 9061 (93rd Cong.). H.R. 
9062 (93rd Cong.). S 2510 (93rd Cong.). 



in computing costs under each method, showed that generally the 
Training Command's review was acceptable and that its estimate of 
savings by contracting for the food services was realistic. Savings 
under the contract method are due primarily to the contractor's 
lower wage rates and fewer employee fringe benefits. Data available 
on 150 of the 164 civilians employed in the food service operation 
during 1973 indicated that 92 would transfer to lower-grade civil 
service positions at Lackland, 36 would transfer to other Govern- 
ment agencies, 19 would retire, and 3 would resign. The layoffs were 
treated as a red uction-in -force action, entitling affected employees to 
the save-pay provision of the Federal Wage System, (SC) 



Executive branch actions on recommendations of the congres- 
sionally created Commission on Government Procurement were 
monitored. Findings/Conclusions: The task groups charged with 
proposing policy positions and implementing actions have presented 
submissions for executive branch review on 79 of the 149 Commis- 
sion recommendations (as opposed to 3 at mid-August 1973). 
Proposed actions on about 25 of these recommendations are being 
coordinated with the heads of individual agencies and three are being 
coordinated with the private sector. Action is complete on one 
recommendation Completing a program of this nature, size, and 
complexity is likely to require at least several years of effort. Influ- 
ences affecting program completion are: the program is basically a 
part-time effort; the executive branch review and coordination steps 
are extensive and time consuming, and recycling of many recommen- 
dations is required; an overall plan setting forth priorities and com- 
pletion dates for final executive branch action has yet to be 
established; and a legislative program involving almost half the 
recommendations has yet to be developed and coordinated. Recom- 
mendations: The Office of the Management and the Budget and the 
General Services Administration should; establish criteria and assign 
priorities for higher levels of effort to actions on Commission recom- 
mendations; develop completion dates on final executive branch 
policy positions and implementing actions; and expedite establish- 
ment of legislative program and coordination with appropriate con- 
gressional committees. The House and Senate Committee on 
Government Operations should provide executive and congressional 
coordination on legislative priorities on Commission recommenda- 
tions and should request the executive branch to coordinate periodi- 
cally the principal objectives to be accomplished on Commission 
recommendations including their completion dates. (SW) 



IS) 

{Decision of the Air Force to Contract for Food Service Operations at 

Lackland Air Force Base]. LCD-74-407; B-180966. October 4, 

1 974. 4 pp. 

Report to Rep, Henry B. Gonzalez; by Robert F, Keller, Deputy 

Comptroller General. 

Organization Contarnedi Department of the Air Force: Lackland 
AFB, TX. 

Congreitional Relevance; Rep. Henry B. Gonzalez. 
Authority: Service Contract Act of 1965 (P.L. 98-286). DOD In- 
struction 4100.33. OMB Circular No. A-76. 

The Department of the Air Force decided to contract for food 
service operations at Lackland Air Force Base because a review of 
food services operations by the Air Training Command showed that 
the Air Force could save about $2.8 million over a 3-year period by 
contracting for the services instead of using civilian personnel. The 
food services at Lackland include preparing food for and operating 
15 dining halls, operating a central meat plant, and performing 
related services. About 15 million meals were served in 1973. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: A review of the basis for the savings the Air Force 
estimated, including the procedures, rationale, and assumptions used 



182 

[Defense Supply Agency's Policy for Purchasing Potatoes]. LCD-75- 

417; B-181459. December 16, 1974. 4 pp. 

Report to Rep. Otis Pike; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Defense Supply Agency. 
Congretilonal Relevance; Rep, Otis Pike. 

The Defense Supply Agency uses the sight-buying technique, 
visual inspection before purchase of produce in the field or in storage, 
to purchase potatoes For several years the New York region pur- 
chased Maine potatoes principally from brokers or dealers at the 
New York Harlem River railroad yard and purchased Long Island 
potatoes and potatoes grown in other areas principally from growers 
in those areas. However, because Maine potato growers were making 
more shipments by truck, fewer potatoes were available at the rail 
yard in New York. Therefore, in October 1973 the Defense Person- 
nel Support Center, which purchases food for the military under 
Agency policies, directed the New York region to investigate the 
feasibility of sight-buying potatoes directly from its growers and 
shippers in Maine. In November 1973, the region sent a buyer to 
Maine to solicit bids and inspect the potatoes offered. Findings/- 
Conclusions; It has previously been recommended that the Agency 
consider developing tighter specifications which could be used to 
describe the required produce to all interested suppliers instead of 
continuing to use sight buying. Department of Agriculture officials 
agree that tighter specifications can be developed. Review of potato 
purchases made through the New York region for two 1-week peri- 
ods showed that the region saved $702 by purchasing from Maine 
growers instead of Long Island vendors. The savings realized may be 
only part of the total monetary benefit since competition between 
Maine and New York dealers may have caused both to submit lower 
bids than they would otherwise have submitted. The cost of sending 
a purchasing agent to Maine to solicit bids and inspect potatoes is 
about $316 a week. (SC) 



183 

Methods of Purchasing Food for the Military Services Are Costly and 
Inefficient. LCD-74-430; B-146700. January 14, 1975. 22 pp. + 2 
appendices (4 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General, 

Organization Concerned; Department of Defense. 
Congret slonal Relevance: Congress. 
Authority: DOD Directive 7420.1. 

The Department of Defense (DOD) food purchasing agency is 
unable to respond effectively to variable market conditions. Its ina- 
bility to depart from rigid specifications quickly results in higher 
costs and quite frequently in shortages of required items. Ffmiings/- 
Conclui'tons: A targe part of the food required by the military services 
is purchased centrally by the Defense Personnel Support Center of 
the Defense Supply Agency. The Center, in turn, sells the food, at 
cost, to the military services. During fiscal year 1973, the Center 



Food 



53 



183 



Citation Section 



reported sales of $536 million for troop feeding and S3 10 million to 
the resale commissary stores Recommendations: The Secretary of 
Defense should- improve the Center's ability to respond to the 
changing market conditions; segregate costs applicable to the resale 
and troop-support functions at the wholesale level, and revise DOD 
Directive 7420 1 and affected subordinate regulations and proce- 
dures so that the domestic part of transportation costs of resale 
subsistence items is paid by the commissary patron. The Congress 
should question DOD about the rationale for its continued adher- 
ences to rigid food specifications. The Appropriations Committees 
should question DOD's practice of using appropriated funds to pay 
the domestic cost of transporting items to overseas commissaries 
which is contrary to the appropriation acts. (Author/SC) 



vice to establish the organizational structure which it considers best 
adapted to its requirements The extension of hours of operation of 
commissaries has not appreciably affected decisions by individuals to 
enlist or reenlist. The services differ with respect to the percentage 
of surcharge and markup, the methods for adjusting shelf prices, and 
how fractions are rounded, but the criteria prescribed by the respec- 
tive services were being followed at the commissaries visited. Sub- 
stantial expenses required to be paid from commissary revenues were 
paid instead from appropriated and revolving stock funds, although 
the Navy pays more of its operating expenses from revenues than do 
the other services. Although commissaries are not necessary in large 
metropolitan areas, the services have justified the continued opera- 
tion of commissaries on the basis of unreasonable commercial prices 
and inconvenience of commercial stores. (SC) 



184 

[Decision to Change Beef Grades Used to Feed Military Troops]. 
LCD-75-428. B-167689. March 19, 1975 7 pp. 
Report to Sen. Vance Hartke; by Robert F Keller, Deputy Comp- 
troller General. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Defense 
Congressional Relevance: Sen. Vance Hartke 

The Department of Defense's (DOD) decision to buy Choice 
rather than Good beef for troop feeding was questionable because an 
individual's like or dislike For meat has been shown through scientific 
tests to be influenced by factors other than grade These findings and 
the $ 14 million increase in costs to buy Choice beef indicate a need 
for revaluation. Findings/Conclusions: DOD switched to Choice 
beef for troop feeding to give troops the same quality of beef eaten 
by the majority of the American public, to reduce complaints of poor 
quality meat products, and to lessen the probability that DOD would 
receive low quality beef as a result of its competitive bid procedures. 
DOD also said that the price difference of only $0 055 to $0.0675 
a pound between Good and Choice was a factor. However, this price 
difference applied to carcasses; the difference in costs for the proc- 
essed cuts for troop feeding ranged from $0.25 to S0.40 a pound. 
About 65% of the servicemen surveyed after the change in beef 
grades noticed no improvement in the quality of the meat served 
About 50% of the military food preparers surveyed thought that the 
Choice beef was better than the Good beef. Both this survey and 
other consumer surveys indicated that the difference between Good 
and Choice beef has little influence on consumer acceptance. Atmos- 
phere, food preparation methods, and quantity served have as much 
or more influence Recommendations: The Secretary of Defense 
should reconsider the decision to purchase Choice instead of Good 
beef. (SQ 



186 

Cost Comparisons at Patrick Air Force Base to Determine whether Food 
Service Should Be Provided by In-House Civilians or Contractors]. 
LCD-75-438, B-182672 May 8, 1975. 4 pp. 
Report to Rep. Lou Frey, Jr.; by Fred J. Shafer, Director, Logistics 
and Communications Div 

Organization Concerned: Department of Air Force: Patrick APB, 
FL, Worldwide Services, Inc 
Congressional Relevance: Rep. Lou Frey, Jr 

Authority: Service Contract Act of 1965 (P L 89-286). DOD In- 
struction 4100 33 OMB Circular A-76 

According to regulations, the operation of commercial or indus- 
trial activities must be reviewed periodically to determine whether 
private enterprise or use of Government personnel is the least costly 
method. Therefore, in October 1974, Patrick Air Force BBSC ond 
several other installations were instructed to make cost comparisons 
to determine whether food service should be provided by inhouse 
civilians or by contractors Findings/Conclusions: The cost study 
completed at Patrick Air Force Base showed that the Air Force could 
save about $418,000 over 3 years by contracting for food service 
instead of using inhouse civilian personnel and, as a result, a contract 
was awarded. A review of the cost comparison and the basis for ihc 
expected savings showed that estimates were generally reasonably 
accurate, and based on the best available data. About 94% of the cost 
estimate for inhouse civilian food service represented the wages of 
the civilians, which were higher than the contractor's estimated 
wages. The decision to contract for food service has resulted in a 
reduction in force, with 12 employees to be reassigned at the same 
grade, II to be changed to a lower grade, and 32 to be separated. 
(Author/HTW) 



185 

Information on Commissary Store Operations. FPCD-75-132; B- 
146875. March 19, 1975. 42 pp. + 5 appendices (7 pp.). 
Report to Rep. George H. Mahon, Chairman, House Committee on 
Appropriations; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organliotlon Concerned: Department of Defense. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations. 

Appropriated operation and maintenance funds for commissary 
operations in the Department of Defense have increased from $135 3 
million in 1970 to $226.9 million in 1974. Much of the increase was 
used to induce military reenlistments by extending commissary ope- 
rating hours, increasing merchandise lines, and renovating, expand- 
ing, or replacing stores. Sales increased from $ 1.7 billion in fiscal year 
1 970 to $2.5 billion in 1 974. Findings/Conclusions: Duplication of 
management functions has occurred within the Air Force and the 
Army and among all the services since DOD has allowed each ser- 

54 



187 

The Military Commissary Store; Its Justification and Role In Today's 

Military Environment, FPCD-75-88; B-146875. May 21, 1975. 13 

pp. + 3 appendices (6 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Defense. 
Congressional Relevance: Congress. 
Authority: DOD Directive 1330.17. 

Commissary stores were authorized by the Congress in the 19th 
century to provide a convenient means for servicemen at isolated 
stations to purchase food and necessities. A 1949 regulation slated 
that commissaries would not be authorized where conveniently 
located commercial facilities were available selling merchandise at 
reasonable prices. In each year since 1953, Congress has required 
certification of the need for commissaries. During fiscal year 1974, 
the services operated 279 commissaries in the United States with 

Food 



Ciiotion Section 



190 



sales totaling $2 2 billion, and $226 million was used to subsidize 
them findings/Conclusions: Commissary stores are not justified at 
military installations in metropolitan areas of the United States be- 
cause enough commercial stores selling merchandise at reasonable 
prices are available Criteria on which certification has been based 
have not changed and no commissary has been closed because of 
failure to meet criteria. Service officials contended that the commis- 
sary privilege has become ingrained as an economic benefit, its loss 
would adversely affect personnel recruiting and retention, and it is 
a moral commitment to military retirees. There is no law to provide 
a specific basis for establishment or discontinuance of commissaries. 
Courses of action available to Congress are: close the commissary 
stores; allow the Department of Defense (DOD) to continue using 
current criteria; allow DOD to continue justifying the stores only in 
remote areas; authorize the stores as a fringe benefit; or authorize 
them to operate on a self-sustaining basis Recommendations; The 
basis of action chosen by the Congress should be clearly set out in 
public law (Author/HTW) 



188 

[Proposal to Use Military Rather than Civilian Field Buyers to Procure 

Fruits ami Vegetables]. FPCD-75-157; B-146856. June 23, 1975. 3 

PP. 

Report to Rep. Fortney H. Stark, Jr ; by Robert F. Keller, Acting 

Comptroller General. 



Organization Concerned: Department of Defense, 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Government Oper- 
ations- Federal Spending Practices, Efficiency and Open Govern- 
ment Subcommittee. 

Improvement is needed in the Department of Defense's (DOD's) 
procurement of beef for feeding military personnel. Department 
specifications for beef are costly, complex, and possibly more strin- 
gent than required to meet the needs of the military services. As a 
consequence, only a limited number of meat processors are willing 
or able to sell beef to DOD. Findings/Conclusions: In fiscal year 
1975, much of the beef accepted from contractors did not meet the 
specifications. Department inspections made in contractors' plants 
have not insured that the beef delivered meets specifications. The 
principal cause was a lack of sufficiently trained and experienced 
inspection personnel. Problems in DOD's beef procurement system 
and the results of a special inspection by the Defense Supply Agency 
show that the military services did not receive the choice quality beef 
that DOD specifications required Recommendations: The Secre- 
tary of Defense should improve the procedures and practices fol- 
lowed in awarding and administering beef contracts in order to: 
obtain more effective competition, lower administrative costs 
through reduction of procurement actions, and obtain meat of ade- 
quate quality at reasonable cost. The Secretary should also reappraise 
the policy of using special military beef specifications when alterna- 
tive institutional meat purchase specifications exist which are ac- 
cepted by meat processors, institutional customers, grocery stores 
and Government agencies. (Author/SC) 



Organization Concernedi Department of Defense; Department of 
Defense: Defense Subsistence Region-Alameda. 
Congreisional Relevance: Rep. Fortney H. Stark, Jr. 



In response to a constituent's proposal that military personnel 
replace civilian field buyers in procuring fresh fruits and vegetables 
for the Department of Defense (DOD), a determination was made 
of costs involved and the feasibility of using military personnel. 
Findings/Conclusions; Based on information provided by the con- 
stituent and a review of the field buying function at the Defense 
Subsistence Region-Alameda, it was concluded that the proposal was 
not practical. The constituent made several erroneous assumptions 
and thus overstated field buying costs. The estimate by the constitu- 
ent for annual buyer costs for all regions was $850,000 compared to 
GAO's estimate of $315,840. Some factors contributing to the differ- 
ence In estimates were: GAO included only transportation to and 
from growing areas; and the constituent assumed that there were 24 
field buyers on temporary duty nationwide, whereas only 12 were 
assigned to regional headquarters. The functions of a field buyer 
could not easily be handled by military personnel because: they are 
not qualified for the duties; rotation of personnel would require con- 
tinual retraining; and officers rather than enlisted personnel would be 
required. Additional resources would be required for the services to 
assume these functions so that any cost savings would be signifi- 
cantly reduced. (HTW) 



189 

Procurement of Beef by the Department of Defense: Are We Getting Our 

Money's Worth? PSAD-76-142; B-I46700. May 25, 1976. 24 pp. + 

4 appendices (10 pp.). 

Report to Sen. Lawton Chiles, Chairman, Senate Committee on 

Government Operations: Federal Spending Practices, Efficiency and 

Open Government Subcommittee; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller 

General, 



190 

Executive Branch Action on Recommendations of the Commission on 
Government Procurement; Progress Status, Responsiveness. B- 
160725. July 31, 1977. 73 pp. 

Report to Rep. Chet Holifield, Chairman, House Committee on Gov- 
ernment Operations; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 



Organization Concerned; Commission on Government Procure- 
ment. 

Congreisional Relevance; House Committee on Government Oper- 
ations. 
Authority: H.R. 9059 (93rd Cong.). S. 2510 (93rd Cong.). 

The Commission of Government Procurement has made 149 
recommendations directed at improving and coordinating the pro- 
curement policies and procedures of the many Government agencies 
and executive departments. Executive branch progress in accepting 
and implementing these recommendations has been significant in the 
past 6 months. Findings/Conclusions: The overall status of the 149 
Commission recommendations at the time of this report was: execu- 
tive branch positions have been established on 40 of the recommen- 
dations; proposed positions are under consideration at the executive 
branch level on 83 of them; and interagency task group efforts are 
still in progress with regard to 26 of the recommendations. At July 
1, 1974, the executive branch had begun implementation action on 
25 Commission recommendations and had completed implementa- 
tion of 3 others. Recommendations: The Director of the Office of 
Management and Budget should insure: sufficient staff support to 
handle the implementation impact; establishment of relative priori- 
ties and completion dates for implementing actions; evaluation and 
approval of the effectiveness of proposed implementing actions; and 
development of a legislative priority program for coordination with 
appropriate congressional committees. (SC) 



Food 



55 



191 



Cltcrtlon Sctfon 



FINANCIAL AUDITIKG 

191 

[Controls over Data Processing of the Commodity Credit Corporation's 
Grain Inventory], November 23, 1973 5 pp. 
Report to Kenneth E. Frick, Executive Vice President, Commodity 
Credit Corp ; by Richard J Woods, Assistant Director, Resources 
and Economic Development Div. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture: Computer 
Center, Kansas City, MO; Agricultural Stabilization and Conserva- 
tion Service. 

In connection with a financial audit of the Commodity Credit 
Corporation, controls were surveyed over the processing of data on 
the Corporation's grain inventory through the Department of 
Agriculture's automated data processing (AD?) system at Kansas 
City, Missouri, Findings/Conclusions: Generally, the controls built 
or programmed into the Kansas City computer system were ade- 
quate. Management controls over certain manual aspects of the sys- 
tem, however, needed to be strengthened to increase their efficiency 
and effectiveness and to minimize the possibility of improper 
manipulation of information. Better controls were needed to provide 
for current documentation of revisions and timely updating of the 
basic computer tapes, restricted access to computer data and instruc- 
tions, and greater security of backup data files. Recommendations: 
Program revisions should be integrated into basic computer tapes at 
reasonable intervals and supporting documentation should be sys- 
tematically maintained. In order to strengthen internal control, ac- 
cess by programmers to the control decks of punched cards 
maintained by the Kansas City Data Systems Field Office should be 
restricted. To improve the security of data and related programs, 
arrangements should be made with the Director of the Office of 
Information Systems to have the necessary files stored where they 
would not be susceptible to damage, destruction, or to a period of 
inaccessibility incidental to damage to or destruction of the computer 
facility and adjacent areas. (Author/SW) 



193 

Audit of Commodity Credit Corporation, Fiscal Year W3. B- 

114814. February 7, 1974. 42 pp. + appendix (2 pp.). 

Report to the Congress, by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Commodity Credit Corp.; Agricultural 
Stabilization and Conservation Service 
Congrenional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act {15 U.SC. 
714). Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 
(P.L. [84] -480; 7 U.S.C. 1691). Agricultural Adjustment Act of 
1938, as amended (7 U.S.C 1358(a)) Cotton Research and Promo- 
tion Act (7 US C. 2101). National Wool Act of 1954. Agricultuial 
Actofl 970. P.L. 83-480. 87 Stat. 469. 87 Stat. 477. 7 U.S.C. 2119 

The Government Corporation Control Act requires GAD (o 
make an annual financial audit of the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion. In view of the character and scope of the Corporation, particu- 
larly commodity inventories and loan collateral, it wns not 
practicable to perform all the examination and verification slep* 
needed to reach an independent, overall opinion concerning the 
accuracy and fairness of the financial statements. An opinion nboul 
whether the Corporation's financial statements presented fairly its 
financial position could not be expressed. Findings/Conclusionx 
The Corporation's accounting methods appeared to provide (i gener- 
ally satisfactory record of its financial transactions, and the financial 
reporting system generally was adequate to supply management with 
information for conducting its affairs. The Corporation repotted s 
$4.09 billion loss for fiscal year (FY) 1973, up $637 million from ils 
$3.46 billion loss for FY 1972. Most of the loss for 1973 resulted 
from: (1) net direct payments of $3.1 billion to producers for setting 
aside land from production of feed grains, cotton, and wheat during 
the 1972 crop year; (2) interest expense of $370 million; mid (3) 
export subsidies of $349 million. The Corporation spent 56.3 billion 
for price-support and related activities, $5 billion of which was for 
price-support loans and direct payments to producers. Investment In 
commodity loans and inventories at June 30, 1973 was $1.6 billion 
The Corporation disbursed S4.5 billion to exporters, vendors, and 
other nonfarmers during FY 1973. (Author/SW) 



192 

Audit of Federal Crop Insurance Corporation for Fiscal Year 1973. 

B-I14834. January 8, 1974. 18 pp. + appendix (1 pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B, Staats, Comptroller General. 

Orgonliotion Concerned: Federal Crop Insurance Corp. 

Congrattional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority! Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1501). 86 Stat. 

599. 

The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation provides crop insurance 
and the research and experience needed to develop this insurance. 
It insures against practically all causes of crop loss, including 
weather, insect infestation, and plant disease. Findings/Conclu- 
sions: The financial statements of The Federal Crop Insurance Cor- 
poration presented fairly the Corporation's financial position at June 
30, 1973, and the results of its operations and changes in financial 
position for the year ended, in conformity with prescribed account- 
ing standards. The Corporation 'reported a net operating gain of 
574,000 in fiscal year (FY) 1973, a net gain from insurance opera- 
tions of about S14.9 million, less operating and administrative ex- 
penses of about S14.8 million. At June 30, 1973, the Corporation's 
capital was impaired by $9.6 million, but the impairment improved 
significantly for the second consecutive year. In FY 1973 the impair- 
ment improved $12.1 million due to a net gain from insurance pro- 
gram^ operations of $14.9 million less a $2.8 million payment from 
premium income for operating and administrative expenses. (Au- 
thor/HTW) V 



56 



194 

Audit of Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fiscal Year 19M. 
FOD-75-7; B-l 14834. January 20, 1975. 8 pp. + 7 enclosures (10 , : 
pp.). 

Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General r 

i 

Organization Concerned) Federal Crop Insurance Corp. ] 

Congressional Relevance: Congress, ', 

Authority! Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C, 1501). 

The financial statements of the Federal Crop Insurance Corpora- 
tion for fiscal year 1974 present fairly the Corporation's financial 
position at June 30, 1974, and the results of its operations and Iht 
sources and applications of its funds for the year then ended, in 
conformity with the principles and standards of accounting pre- 
scribed by the Comptroller General of the United States, Findings/- 
Conclusions; The Corporation reported that, for the first lime in m 
history, coverage of insured crops exceeded $1 billion. Premium 
income of $47.5 million exceeded indemnity payments by $19.1 
million. Expenses totaled $18.9 million, $12 million of which wu 
covered by fiscal year 1974 appropriated funds, Such appropriation! 
now exceed $200 million. The Corporation has a yearenct capital 
surplus of $2.7 million, compared with a $9.6 million capital Impair- , 
ment at the beginning of the year. This is the first time since 3965 
that the Corporation has been in a capital surplus position, (An- 
thor/SC) 



Food 



Citation Section 



198 



195 

Examination of Financial Statement of Veterans Canteen Service for 
Fiscal Year 1974. FOD-75-6; B-114818. January 20, 1975 8 pp. + 
enclosures (6 pp.) 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organliatlon Concerned: Veterans Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: Congress. 

Authority: 38 U.S.C 4204 (Supp. Ill) 38 U.S C. 4207. 

GAO is required by law to audit annually the accounts of the 
Veterans Canteen Service of the Veterans Administration. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: During fiscal year 1974 the Canteen Service ope- 
rated 171 canteens, one in each VA hospital and home located 
throughout the United States and in Puerto Rico. No canteens were 
closed during the year, and only two canteens were opened Services 
were available to a daily average of about 88,000 hospitalized veter- 
ans, 10,000 veterans domiciled in VA homes, and about 37,000 
veteran outpatients. In fiscal year 1974, canteen sales totaled $84 
million and food and beverage vending machine revenue totaled $1.6 
million. Net operating income was S2.1 million, an increase of 44% 
over the previous year. Because of its mission, the Canteen Service 
maintains uniform retail prices at all canteens and cafeteria prices 
vary only slightly by location. This leads to losses at smaller can- 
teens. In fiscal year 1974, 50 canteens operated at net losses totaling 
$448,000. The financial statements present fairly the financial posi- 
tion of the Veterans Canteen Service at June 30, 1974, and the results 
of its operations and the changes in financial position for the year 
then ended, (Author/SW) 



197 

Audit of Commodity Credit Corporation, Fiscal Year 1974. RED-75- 
311; B- 144824 February 3, 1975. 29 pp + appendix (2 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organization Concerned; Commodity Credit Corp. 
Congressional Relevancei Congress 

Authority: Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U S.C 
714). Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 
(P.L. [83]-480, 7 U.S.C. 1691). 

The Government Corporation Control Act requires an annual 
audit of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). In view of the 
character and scope of the CCC's opera tions-particularly com- 
modity inventories and loan collateral-it was not practicable to per- 
form all the examination and verification seeps needed to reach an 
independent overall opinion concerning the accuracy and fairness of 
the Corporation's financial statements for the period ended June 30 h 
1974. However, CCC's accounting methods provided a generally 
satisfactory record of its financial transactions and its financial ac- 
counting system generally was adequate to supply management with 
information for conducting its affairs. findings/Conclusions: CCC 
reported a $2.76 billion loss for fiscal year 1974, down $1.33 billion 
from its S4.09 billion loss for fiscal year 1973 Most of the loss for 
1974 resulted from direct payments to producers for setting aside 
land from production of feed grains, cotton, and wheat during the 
1973 crop year and from interest expenses. In fiscal year 1974, CCC 
spent $4 1 billion for price-support and related activities, most of 
which was for price-support loans and direct payments to producers 
CCC's investment in commodity loans and inventories at June 30, 
1974, was $563 million, a decrease of $1.1 billion during fiscal year 
1974. CCC incurred costs of S971 million for fiscal year 1974 for 
special activities authorized by various statutes and financed through 
special appropriations. (Author/SQ 



196 

[Planned Procurements for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite 
Program]. PSAD-75-51; B-179665. January 27, 1975, 5 pp. 
Report to James C. Fletcher, Administrator, National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration; by Richard W. Gutmann, Director, Pro- 
curement and Systems Acquisitions Div. 

Organization Concerned: Department of the Interior; Department 
of Agriculture; Department of Commerce. 

The Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and the Interior are 
planning procurements which should be avoided or deferred until the 
future of the Earth Resources Technical Satellite (ERTS) Program 
has been clearly established. Recommendations; In coordination 
with the Secretaries of Agriculture and the Interior, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) should institute a 
system whereby the 13 investigators assigned to the Salt Lake City 
facility will be supplied data products from the Earth Resources 
Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, thus allowing Agricul- 
ture to avoid the planned procurement of $170,000 and eliminate the 
need to hire four additional personnel. In coordination with the 
Secretaries of Commerce and the Interior, NASA should study the 
economic and technical feasibility of assigning to the EROS Data 
Center investigators currently assigned to the Suitland National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration facility. NASA should 
also assist the Department of the Interior in making arrangements to 
obtain the needed quick look data from Canada, thus deferring the 
$1 million planned expenditure and critically review all planned 
actions related to the ERTS program which may cause unnecessary 
procurements by other agencies. (SC) 



198 

Mandatory Tax Withholding Recommended for Agricultural Em- 
ployees. GGD-75-S3; B-137762. March 26, 1975. 17 pp. + 3 ap- 
pendices (5 pp.). 

Report to Rep. AI Ullman, Chairman, Joint Committee on Internal 
Revenue Taxation; Sen. Russell B. Long, Vice Chairman; by Elmer 
B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned! Internal Revenue Service. 
Congressional Relevance: Joint Committee on Internal Revenue 
Taxation. Sen. Russell B. Long. 

Authority: Tax Reform Act of 1969 {P.L. 91-172). Internal Revenue 
Code of 19754, as amended. 

Both the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and agricultural em- 
ployees faced significant problems related to the reporting of income 
and payment of taxes because of the situation in which agricultural 
employees did not pay taxes on a pay-as-you-earn basis. There was 
only limited use of the Internal Revenue Code provision for volun- 
tary withholding of Federal income tax from agricultural wages. 
Findings/Conclusions: In the four IRS districts reviewed, about 
75% of the agricultural workers did not have income taxes withheld. 
Income tax records for agricultural employees showed that many of 
them were not filing income tax returns; were not reporting all or part 
of their agricultural wages; owed large (relative to their earnings) 
yearend Federal income tax payments; or were not paying tax due 
when filing their tax returns. Few agricultural employees required to 
do so filed a declaration of estimated income tax or made quarterly 
payments. Withholding Federal income taxes from agricultural 
wages would ease the problems of agricultural workers, lessen IRS 
collection problems, and reduce revenue loss resulting from un- 
reported agricultural wages. Recommendations: The Joint Commit- 
tee on Taxation should initiate legislation revising chapter 24 of the 



Food 



57 



198 



Citation Section 



Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to include remunera- 
tion received as agricultural wages in the Federal income tax withotd- 
mg system (SC) 



199 

[The Need for Daily Deposits of Alcohol and Tobacco Excise Tax Pay 
ments Made Directly to the District Internal Revenue Service Offices] . 
GGD-75-112; B-137762 August 1, 1975. 2 pp. 
Report to Rep. Al Ullman, Chairman, Joint Committee on Internal 
Revenue Taxation; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned* Internal Revenue Service. 

Congressional Relevant*: Joint Committee on Internal Revenue 

Taxation 

Authority: 26 U.S C 5061. 26 U.S.C. 5703. Internal Revenue Code. 

A review of alcohol and tobacco excise tax payments received by 
the district offices of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) showed that 
deposits were not made on a timely basis Investigations made at the 
San Francisco District Office showed that deposits of alcohol and 
tobacco excise tax payments were made to the Federal Reserve Bank 
about once a week rather than daily. Findings/Conclusions; Depos- 
its were not made until there were from 70 to 100 items recorded on 
the certificates of deposit Review of remittance data on six compa- 
nies accounting for 5104,840,519.95, or 36% of the taxes deposited 
by the district director in San Francisco over a 9-month period 
snowed that in no instance was a tax payment from any of these 
companies deposited on the date it was received. The deposit delays 
ranged from 1 to 9 days after receipt at the district office, The 
estimated additional borrowing cost to the Government because of 
the undeposited tax revenues from the six companies was about 
$64,000 for the period reviewed. Corrective action has since been 
taken and deposits are now being made daily. IRS internal auditors 
reviewed the deposit practices at 14 other district offices and found 
(hat 7 of them were not making timely deposits. All district directors 
have been notified that existing guidelines prescribing daily prepara- 
tion of certificates of deposit for alcohol and tobacco tax payments 
should be followed. (SC) 



200 

[Recommendation for the Elimination oj Hazard Insurance Coverage on 

Grain for Which the Commodity Credit Corporation Pays Storage 

Charges]. RED-76-12; B-l 14824. August 6, 1975. 3 pp. 

Report to Richard E. Bell, President, Commodity Credit Corp.; by 

Henry Eschwege, Director, Resources and Economic Development 

Div. 



warehousemen on the status of warehouse receipts upon maturity of 
price-support loans It would seem to be advantageous for CCC to 
assume risks at the present time when its gram inventory is low so 
that a substantial saving can be obtained with a minimum impact on 
the insurance and warehousing trades if its inventory should again 
accumulate to a large volume. Recommendations: The CCC should 
adopt a self-insurance policy on gram for which it pays storage 
charges at the earliest opportunity (SC) 



201 

[Disagreement about Cost Estimates regarding the Proposed Tout 

Substances Control Act]. OPA-76-12; B- 109650 December 4, 

1975. & pp. 

Report to Sen. John V Tunney; by Elmer B Staats, Comptroller 

General. 

Congressional Relevance: Sen. John V Tunney. 

Authority: Toxic Substances Control Act; S. 776 (94th Cong.). 

A Manufacturing Chemists Association's (MCA) study on the 
economic impact of the proposed Toxic Substances Control Aci 
overestimated the costs to industry The cost estimates presented in 
the MCA study were significantly higher than those made by the 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its draft economic im- 
pact assessment of the proposed legislation. The basic issues were: 
estimates of the number of chemicals to be tested and the testing 
costs per chemical; the "maintenance of innovation" cost; the meth- 
ods of data collection for the MCA report; and the economic impact 
estimates. Points of disagreement were discussed with representa- 
tives of MCA. Findings/Conclusions: There continues to be uncei- 
tainty about the cost estimates MCA representatives were 
concerned that the legislation would require testing costs substan- 
tially greater in scope than those envisioned by EPA. The proposed 
legislation may need to include more specific requirements for later 
evaluation of the testing requirements and economic impacts of the 
act as a whole A major source of overcstimation of costs was ihe 
"maintenance of innovation" cost Three objections to this cost were 
{!) firms would not necessarily incur these extra costs; (2) even if 
these costs were incurred, they should not be counted as cosls of the 
act; and (3) the costs did not appear to be estimated accurately ty 
MCA. The economic impact estimates made by MCA, based on i 
"broad" econometric model, were at least twice as high as they 
should be. An accurate estimate of costs would yield estimates of 
price increases significantly lower than those of the MCA study. The 
act would have some effect upon the gross national product, but rtt 
MCA report greatly exaggerated that effect. (SW) 



The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) has reservations 
about CCC's assumption of the insurable risks on grain on which it 
pays; storage charges. However, the principle of risk assumption by 
CCC is valid and offers an excellent opportunity to adopt a self- 
insurance policy. Findings/Conclusions: While CCC officials ar- 
gued that elimination of the insurance requirements would have 
minimal effects on storage rates since the rates offered by warehouse 
operators would be competitive, all warehouse operators interviewed 
indicated the feasibility of a reduced storage rate to CCC if they did 
not have to insure CCC grain. The operators reported that they 
difinitely would not pay insurance premiums on CCC grain if CCC 
did not require insurance protection. Not a single operator inter- 
viewed said that CCC's assumption of risks would be contrary to 
usual trade customs or would disrupt normal business practices as 
claimed by CCC officials. Although CCC claimed that assumption of 
the insurable risks would place an administrative burden on CCC, the 
elimination of the insurance requirement would present no procedu- 
ral problem and CCC would incur only a nominal expense to inform 

58 



202 

Financial Disclosure System for Employees of the Food and Drug 
Administration Needs Tightening. FPCD-76-21; B-103987; B- 
180228. January 19, 1976. 14 pp. + appendix (1 pp.). 
Report to the Congress; by Elmer B. Staats, Comptroller General 

Organliatlon Concerned! Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; Food and Drug Administration; Civil Service Commission 
Congressional Relevance: Congress 
Authority 18U.S.C.208 45 C.F.R. 73.735. Executive Order lltt? 

In regulating industry, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 
must be sure that its employees maintain the highest standards ri 
ethical conduct. A review was conducted to determine the effective- 
ness of the agency's financial disclosure system and to examine the 
financial interests reported by employees. Findings/Conclvnoss 
The review of financial disclosure statements filed in 1 974 Indicated 
that 134 employees owned interests prohibited by regulations. ID 
addition, 203 regulatory employees had not filed financial discloiuie 

Food 



Citation Section 



204 



statements. FDA had not developed a policy on real estate holdings 
and, as a result, 50 employees owned farmland interests which had 
not been adequately reviewed to determine whether a real or poten- 
tial conflict existed The General Counsel, Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare (HEW), had not promptly acted on several 
exception requests referred by FDA for review and consideration 
FDA does not have adequate procedures to insure timely reviews of 
the statements. As a result, employees with prohibited interests re- 
tain such interests for a considerable period of time before being 
notified that they must divest of their interests. FDA had not fol- 
lowed up on divestiture requests to insure employee action Recom- 
mendations; The Secretary of HEW should insure that the 
department takes timely action on employee requests to retain pro- 
hibited interests and consider having the internal audit agency peri- 
odically review the FDA financial disclosure system. The Secretary 
should direct the Commissioner of FDA to. develop effective proce- 
dures for collecting employee statements; insure that all employee 
financial disclosure statements are reviewed within 60 days after 
they are filed; develop policies concerning employee property inter- 
ests; develop procedures to insure certification of the review of the 
statements; develop followup procedures to insure prompt action on 
divestiture requests and on failures to comply with regulations; and 
provide guidelines to employees (SW) 



A review of the Farmers Home Administration's (FmHA) deter- 
mination of the value of the Government's equity transferred in 
September 1972 from its Direct Loan Account and Emergency 
Credit Revolving Fund to the Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund 
indicated that, because of deficiencies in FmHA's accounting sys- 
tem, the amount may not be accurate. Following the transfer of assets 
and liabilities, the Direct Loan Account and the Revolving Fund 
were abolished. The Secretary of Agriculture is required to pay from 
the insurance fund into the Treasury interest on the value of the 
Government's equity transferred to the insurance fund at least once 
a year. Findings/Conclusions: Because the account and the revolv- 
ing fund have been abolished and their assets and liabilities are now 
commingled with those of the insurance fund, the equity value on 
which interest should be computed cannot be determined. As a re- 
sult, GAO cannot approve the Department's determination of the 
Government's equity on which the interest is computed Because of 
these problems and because continuation of the present interest com- 
putation procedures may result in FmHA's eventually paying exces- 
sive and inequitable interest, FmHA has proposed that the Congress 
repeal the legislation requiring the payment. (SC) 



203 

Audit of the Food Service Contract with Marriott Corporation. GGD- 
77-10; B-I66850. December 14, 1976 Released January 28, 1977. 4 
pp. 

Report to Rep. Lindy Boggs, Chairman, Joint Committee on Ar- 
rangements for Commemoration of the Bicentennial; by Robert F. 
Keller, Deputy Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Marriott Corp. 

Conoreiilonal Relevance: Joint Committee on Arrangements for 

Commemoration of the Bicentennial. 

The Marriott Corporation's records of the food service facility at 
the Congressional Visitors' Reception Area were audited. Fin- 
dings/Conclusions: The income of the facility from April 1 to Sep- 
tember 6, 1976, was $121,382; the cost of sales was $42,689, 
operating expenses were $22,297, and other costs totaled $152,908. 
The facility showed a net loss of $ 1 30,6 1 1 . Marriott's contract prov- 
ided that Marriott could deduct from income: (1) the cost of equip- 
ment supplied plus installation and removal costs; (2) the cost of 
providing and installing asphalt; and (3) an amount equal to eight 
percent of sales for administrative overhead, The principal items 
included in other costs were site preparation, tent rentals, and de- 
preciation of equipment. Marriott maintained a separate account in 
which the food service facility transitions for income and expense 
were recorded, and a weekly summary of income and expense tran- 
sactions was generated. (RRS) 



204 

[Farmers Home Administration's Determination of the Value of the 

Government's Equity Transferred to the Agricultural Credit Insurance 

Fund]. RED-75-345; B-114873. April 7, 1977. 5 pp. 

Report to Secretary, Department of Agriculture; by Elmer B. Staats, 

Comptroller General. 

Organization Concerned: Farmers Home Administration. 
Authority: Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, 
309(g) (7 U.S.C. 1929(g)). Rural Development Act of 1972. Treasury 
Circular 966. 



Food 



59 



Congressional Documents on Food 

Citations in this appendix are extracted primarily from committee prints. Documents are included for fiscal years 
1973 through 1977. 



SAFE AND NUTRITIOUS FOOD 



205 

School Food Program Needs: Slate School Food Service Directors' 

ttesponse;A Working Paper. 73-S582-5. September 1973. 79 pp 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs, 

Prepared by the staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and 

Human Needs, United States Senate. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Recent increases in the cost of food and labor which affect in- 
dividual families across the Nation also affect food programs sup- 
ported by the Federal Government. State Food Service Directors 
were sent a questionnaire to obtain information on this year's school 
food costs as compared with previous costs and the effect of these 
increases on the quality of and participation in the program. There 
are indications that more recent cost increases will result in some- 
what higher estimates than those contained here. Responses from the 
States were as follows: the cost of producing a lunch (37 States) was 
a high of 80-85 cents, a low of 50 cents, and an average of 61. 7 cents. 
The cost of producing a breakfast (33 States) was a high of 44-45 
cents, a low of 10 cents, and an average of 30.6 cents. The increase 
Sn the cost of producing lunch over the last year was, for 4 States, 
less than 5 cents; for 16 States, 5-9 cents; for 12 States, 10-14 cents; 
and for 1 State, 20-24 cents. The increase in the price of lunch to 
students was no increase for 1 State; 5-10 cents for 30 States; over 
10 cents for 1 State; and an unspecified increase for 6 States. For 12 
States, the effects of not increasing reimbursement rates was to de- 
crease participation in the School Lunch Program. (SW) 



206 

"Hanger 1973" and Press Reaction. 73-S582-6. November 1973. 26 

pp, 4- appendices (92 pp,), 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs, 

Congressional Relevance; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, 

Federal food programs have expanded nearly threefold in the past 
several years and now reach about half of those in poverty. Poverty 
in America is measured by means of a "poverty line," which assumes 
that any family with a yearly income less than three times the cost 
of a minimal diet is poor. Therefore, by definition, to be "poor" is to 
be improperly nourished. Families that have yearly incomes below 
the poverty line do not have the resources to purchase an adequate 
diet, and It is these people to whom the food assistance programs are 
directed, Poverty levels in the inner cities, where the cost of living 
is higher and even full-time employment does not assure an escape 
from poverty, are higher than in other areas, A 1 968 Citizens' Board 
oflnquiry Into Hunger and Malnutrition in the U.S. identified 280 
"hunger" counties which had more than twice the national average 
of poor persons in addition to high infant mortality and poor partici- 
pation in Federal food programs. This study provided impetus to 

Food 



many State and local officials to improve and expand their food 
programs for the poor, resulting in a dramatic increase in family food 
program participation in the past five years. Yet the incidence of 
poverty and hunger have risen since 1969, and food assistance is 
minimal at best and still does not help about half of the poor. There 
are various regional differences with respect to the success of food 
programs; the most noteworthy are the progress made by the South 
as a whole and the failure of much of the Midwest to feed its poor. 
CDS) 



207 

To Save the Children: Nutritional Intervention through Supplemental 
Feeding. 74-S582-4, January 1974. 56 pp. + appendix (102 pp.). 
Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; Department of Agriculture 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Questions have been raised about the Government's role in sup- 
plementing diets of mothers and infants at nutritional risk. Existing 
information demonstrates the benefits of good nutrition on physical 
health and indicates possible long-term benefits to mental develop- 
ment. The extent of malnutrition in the United States is not fully 
known, but there are indications that it is a serious problem and that 
the greatest problem is among new and expectant mothers with 
inadequate income and their young children. Programs dealing with 
this problem are the Supplemental Food Program, the Pilot Food 
Certificate Program, the WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) Pro- 
gram, and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Ma- 
ternal and Child Health Services. The progress of these programs was 
assessed, and nutritional assistance was found to be cost effective. 
Recommendations were made to: continue commodity authority for 
the Secretary of Agriculture, modify regulations, include consumer 
and nutrition education in projects, fund outreach programs, evaluate 
food delivery and medical systems, allow for greater flexibility, im- 
prove administration and guidelines, and integrate with other pro- 
grams. (HTW) 



208 

National Nutrition Policy: The Food Industry, fts Resources and Activities 
in Food Production and Nutrition: A Working Paper. 74-S582-8. April 
1974. 158 pp, 

Report to Sen. George McGovern, Chairman, Senate Select Com- 
mittee on Nutrition and Human Needs; by Cynthia B. Chapman, 
Congressional Research Service. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

The food industry, aside from being one of the most significant 
contributors to the U.S. economy, directly influences the health and 
well-being of the populace as it sets the parameters within which the 
consumer must select a dietary regimen. There has been growing 
criticism expressed over the food industry's alleged lack of responsi- 
bility in providing nutritionally sound food products and in promot- 

61 



208 



Congressional Document! on Food 



ing nutritional awareness to the public and over just what the food 
industry's role should be. While the industry deserves at least a 
portion of the negative review it has received regarding risky addi- 
tives and misleading advertising, it supports and promotes advance- 
ments on behalf of the consumer as well as or better than other 
industries. The structure and functions of the food industry are con- 
tinually undergoing revision The food industry is very competitive, 
and in addition to profit from sales, other constraints imposed on its 
activities are: industrial secrecy; technical problems of food safety, 
shelf life, and distribution; and lagging productivity. Federal and 
State governments have not been consistent in passing regulations 
which the food industry must follow in nutntional labeling. Relations 
between the food industry and governments are generally poor and 
reflect a dilemma concerning the regulatory responsibilities of each 
sector. Most food processors and retailers have found it in their 
interest to demonstrate advertising honesty in providing nutrition- 
ally sound and safe foods. The public must rely on industry integrity 
to provide an adequate, diverse, and safe supply of food; when this 
trust wavers, consumer reaction forces the industry to take corrective 
measures (DS) 



211 

National Nutrition Policy; Nutrition and Food Availability, A Working 
Paper. 74-S582-14 May 1974. 69 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs; by Freeman H. Quimby; Cynthia B. Chapman, Congressional 
Research Service. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, 

In light of the increasing concern over the issues of both nutrition 
and food availability, seven articles dealing with the subjects are 
presented: "The Changing Food Market-Nutrition in a Revolution," 
"Food-Related Energy Requirements," "The New Food Chain," 
"Energy Use in the U.S. Food System," "The Plough, Harrow and 
Harvester Hold the Key to This Year's Inflation," "Maximum Pro- 
duction Capacity of Food Crops," and "National Food Situation." 
(DS) 



209 

Guidelines for a National Nutrition Policy. 74-S582-9. May 1974. 7 

pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the National Nutrition Consortium, Inc. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

A national nutrition policy is needed to ensure that food will be 
available to provide an adequate diet at a reasonable cost for every- 
one The goals of such a policy should be to; provide the diet, main- 
tain food resources for emergencies, develop a level of sound public 
knowledge of nutrition, maintain a system of quality and safety con- 
trol, and support research and education in foods and nutrition. 
These goals can be achieved by maintaining surveillance of the nutri- 
tional status of the population, developing programs to insure nutri- 
tional quality and health, disseminating better and more information 
on nutrition, and cooperating with other countries. Appropriate Fed- 
eral agencies and boards should be established to plan and implement 
programs. (Author/SS) 



212 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Health, A Working Paper. 
74-S582-15. May 1974. 132 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs; by Freeman H. Quimby; Cynthia B. Chapman. 
Prepared by the Science Policy Research Div., Congressional Re- 
search Service. 

Congretslonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

A compilation of articles on nutrition dealt with the basic issue* 
involved in the relationships between nutrition and health. Evidence 
from clinical data and animal experiments indicates that many prob- 
lems in pregnancy and fetal development result from nutritional 
deficiencies. Malnutrition is also a contributing factor in retardation 
and learning and behavioral problems. Nutrition directly affects 
health, and the relationship between malnutrition and succptlblllty to 
infectious disease has been established. Nutrition also aflccls 
capacity and productivity and has an impact on economic develop- 
ment. Papers are presented in the general areas of malnutrition and 
early development; malnutrition, learning, and behavior; and lieallh. 
(HTW) 



210 

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. 
V4-S582-11. May 1974. 101pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs; by Freeman H. Quimby; Cynthia B. Chapman. 

Congresilonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Papers dealing with contemporary issues in food and nutrition are 
divided into two main catagories: international nutrition policies and 
US. nutrition policies. Papers in the section on international nutri- 
tion policies cover: program planning, criteria for success in nutrition 
programs, neglect of nutrition, and economics as an aid to nutrition 
change. Papers in the section on U.S. policies involve; nutrition in 
comprehensive health care, national nutrition policy, multidiscipli- 
nary manpower, patterns of food consumption, and findings of the 
1971-72 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (SS) 

62 



213 

National Nutrition Policy; Nutrition and Special Groups, A Working 
Paper. 74-S582-17. May 1974. 182 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs; by Freeman H. Quimby; Cynthia B. Chapman, Congressional 
Research Service. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Indian Health 
Service, 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

Authority) Older Americans Act, title VII. 

The literature on national and international food and nutrilton 
policy was reviewed, and key articles were compiled on the iwtEona! 
nutrition policy and special groups. The contents of this compilation 
deal with three special interest groups in American Society-the aged, 
American Indians, and blacks, In the section on the aged, the articles 
are concerned with nutrition and health for older people. Nutrition 
is the focus of the papers in the section on Indians, and nutrition and 
diet are discussed In terms of black Americans, A section dealing 
with nutrition and special .groups includes discussions on food habits 

Food 



Ccngrestlonol Document! on Food 



217 



of migrant workers, nutrition aids for migrant workers, and the nutri- 
tional status of Mexican Americans. The final section is concerned 
with such special groups as preschool children, teenagers, and hand* 
{capped children (SW) 



week," "World Food Crisis," by Sen George McGovern; "A World 
Food Action Program," by Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey; and "A Re- 
sponse to the World Food Crisis," by the Washington Post. (SW) 



214 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and the Consumer; A Working 
Paper. 74-S582-12. May 1974. 63 pp. 

Report to Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; Food and Drug Administration; by Freeman H. 
Quirnby; Cynthia B, Chapman, Congressional Research Service. 

Congretiional Relevance! Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Authority: Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (P.L. 89-755). Truth in 
Food Labeling Act Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [of] 1938. 

Articles were compiled on nutrition and health, special groups, 
consumer issues, and Government research. Articles on food labeling 
are; "Nutrition Labels. A Great Leap Forward" by Arietta Beloian; 
"Nutrition Labeling: What, Why, How" by Joan L. Bergy; "Food 
Dating-Now You See It, Now You Don't" by Consumer Reports; 
"The Food and Drug Administration and Labeling" by O. C. John- 
son; and "What's Happening to Food Labeling?" by Margaret L. 
Ross. Articles on other issues are: "Improvement of the Nutritive 
Quality of Foods" by the American Medical Association Council on 
Foods and Nutrition; "Expensive Eating: Processed Vegetables, 
Fruits Are Expected to Become Costlier" by Norman H. Fischer; 
"Food Safety A New Look at Corporate Responsibility;" "Nutri- 
tional Influences on the Toxicity of Environmental Pollutants" by 
Robert A. Shakman; "Vitamins, Minerals, and FDA;" and "Grass- 
roots Nutrition or. Consumer Participation" by Cicely D. Williams. 
Articles on Additives are "Food Additives: Health Question Await- 
ing an Answer" from Medical World News; "Food Additives" from 
Postgraduate Medicine; and "Food Additives as a System" by Rich- 
ard J. Ronk (SW) 



2)6 

National Nutrition Policy: Background Reading Document, 74-S5S2- 

24. June 1974 26 pp + 11 enclosures (93 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Subpanel on Nutrition and Disease of the Panel on 

Nutrition and Health. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Obesity is considered to be an important contributor to many 
different health disorders, including coronary heart disease, hyper- 
tension, strokes, diabetes, gall bladder disease, arthritis, pulmonary 
dysfunction, sleep disorders, social disabilities, and decreased ability 
to withstand trauma or surgery. Many, if not all, of these health 
hazards can be decreased by weight reduction or by prevention of 
weight gain during childhood and middle age. In 1967, 54.1% of all 
deaths were attributed to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Sta- 
tistical evidence is presented to demonstrate: that the problem of the 
coronary heart disease component of cardiovascular disease is rela- 
tively a more serious problem in the United States than in many other 
countries; the direct and indirect economic costs of cardiovascular 
diseases in the United States; the contribution of obesity to the cause 
of cardiovascular disease in the United States; the contribution of 
obesity to the problems of hypertension, diabetes, and the psycholog- 
ical problems of children and adolescents; the prevalence of obesity 
in the United States compared to other countries; the secular trends 
in obesity in the United States during the past two decades; the 
prevalence of obesity in the lowest socioeconomic groups; that 
weight reduction is of benefit in reducing cardiovascular disease risk 
factors; and that new forms of medical care and public health educa- 
tion are of value in achieving weight reduction in normal populations 
or in high risk overweight groups, Several key publications related to 
obesity and health are included in their entirety. (SC) 



215 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and the International Situation. 
74-S5S2-13. May 1974. 86 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs; by Freeman H. Quimby; Cynthia B. Chapman, Congressional 
Research Service. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; United Na- 
tions: Food and Agriculture Organization. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 
Authority: P.L. [83]-480. 

Literature on national and international food and nutrition policy 
was reviewed, and key articles were compiled on nutrition and: 
health, special groups, consumer issues, and government research. 
The contents of the compilation are: "The Next Crisis? Food," by 
Lester R. Brown; "The Politics of Food," by Stephen S. Rosenfeld; 
"An Exchange on Food," by Charles O. Billo and Lester R. Brown; 
"Nutrition and World Health," by Grace A. Goldsmith; "Food vs. 
People: What Will Happen in the Next 10 Years?" by Omer J. Kelley 
and Howard B. Sprague; 'The World Food Problem," by Frances 
Moore Lappe; "The Ecology of Malnutrition," by Jacques M. May 
and Hoyt Lemons; "The World Food Problem: Principal Findings 
and Conclusions," by the President's Science Advisory Committee; 
"Potentials for Incerasing Food Production in the Western Hemi- 
sphere," by Harold F. Robinson; "Running Out of Food?" by "News- 
Food 



217 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and the Consumer, If: A Working 

Paper. 74-S582-19, June 1974, 208 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Compiled by the Pane! on Nutrition and the Consumer, National 

Nutrition Policy Study. 

Congrestlorval Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Nutrition, education should develop knowledge to enable each 
individual to choose a nutritionally adequate diet. This goal can be 
accomplished by: a concerned food industry regulating food and 
nutrition labeling and advertising; improved nutrition education pro- 
grams in schools; providing resources for nutrition education 
throughout life; training to provide leadership for implementing pro- 
grams; and development of a National Nutrition Education Council 
to coordinate efforts. Papers in this compilation include information 
on: popular nutrition education in the areas of diet, school programs, 
nutritional labeling and advertising, and policy considerations; nutri- 
tion education and the media; Action for Children's Television; chil- 
dren's milk intake; applied research; frozen dinners and breakfast 
foods; malnutrition; the role of the Food and Drug Administration; 
and trends for the future. (HTW) 

63 



Congrottlonal Dotumsnti on 



218 



.\aiional \utntton Policy: Sutnlion and the International Situation, II: 
A Harking Paptr. 74-S582-16, June 1974, 193 pp 

Repjn lu ihe Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 



Compiled by the Panel on Nutrition and the International Situation, 
National Nutrition Policy Study 

Congnti\eno\ Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, 

The international scarcity of major agricultural commodities 
which emerged in 1973 reflected important long-term trends as well 
as the more temporary phenomenon of poor weather The world 
appears to be entering an extended period in which global grain 
resect es w hied provide a crucial measure of safety when crop failures 
occur v, ill generally remain on the low side and in which little, if any, 
excess cropiand %iH be held idle in the United States. The world has 
bwcme overwhelmingly dependent on North America for exporta- 
ble food supplies and is likely to be in a vulnerable situation with 
respect to food in years ahead. Consequently, the United States must 
work, both internationally and at home, toward solving the food 
problem This report presents 10 papers on nutrition and the interna- 
tional situation- "The Need for a World Food Reserve," "A Sino- 
Amencan Soybean Research Institute," "Food. Growing Global 
Insecurity," "Population. Food and Economic Adjustment," "Food 
Grains, Feed Grains and Oilseeds What Should be the National 
Policy''" "World Food- Prices and the Poor." "World Food Situa- 
tion-Trends and Prospects," "Statement of the Director of the Inter- 
national Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement, Mexico City," 
'The World Food Situation -and How Others See It " and "How 
Well Will the World Eat Tomorrow?" (DS) 



119 



atld 



Nutrition Policy: N utr)l i on> 
Harking Paper. June 1974 70 pp. 

to (he Senate Sefect Committee on Nutrition and Human 



Compiled by the Sub panc ] on Nwntiott flnd Hea , th s . 
on Nutrition and Health. 

'* Amen ' Can Dielelic 



0> 
o Brain Development and Behavi^ u,, A. 



22Q 

National Nutrition Policy: Selected Papers on Nutrition Information aM 

Programs. 74-S582-20, June 1974. 16 pp. 

Report to ihe Senate Select Committee on Munition and Human 

Needs; by Emma M. Blacken, Analyst, Congressional Research 5tr- 



Congranlonal Relevance: //owe Committee on Education Jim! U 
bor- Select Education Subcommittee; Senate Select Committee on 
Nutrition and Human Needs. 

Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of ] 973. El H 
13168 (93rd Cong.). 

Two articles on nutrition and testimony on the school lunxh 
program are included in a working paper prepared by the Congitt- 
sional Research Service. "Programs to Cornbnt Nutritional Quad- 
ery," by LaVell M. Henderson, is a discussion of the problems <rf 
dealing with misleading information on nutrition nnd product tint 
are falsely touted as nutritional, In "Facilitating Effective Invnmwm 
in Nutrition," author F. James Levmson comments ori tlic ptojiami 
for improving nutrition in underdeveloped countries mid offers c<> 
planations why little has been done to implement them. Tlic Ms- 
timony of Edward J. Hekman, Administrator of the Food and 
Nutrition Service, is on the phasing out of commodity (fistribulian 
and realigning domestic food assistance programs to fit the farm 
market conditions. (SS) 



221 

National Nutrition Policy; Selected Paper* on Tcvtinohfty, s R rc U 

Advances and Production, A Working Paper. 74-S58-22. June 1974 
89pp. 

Reporno the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Hum* 
Needs; by Emma M. Blacken, Analyst, Environ mental Policy D\v, 
Congressional Research Service. 

Conarei.lonal R| eV anc, Senate Select Committee on Nucrllfou 
and Human Needs. 

In spite of the possibilities of food shortages in about 1 ycnrs, the 
technological efforts applied to food problems arc still direct to 
mod.ficat.on of relatively primitive and inefficient systems, fencfih 
cou/d come from an assessment of the potential of a more cffickm 



P ' icies arc 
less 

their maior 



influcllcc 






rcvnlutlon h 

of food le * umes - ^ d hwr 

Cr PS - Meat ' milk ' c ^ s ' n " d "* * 
tacome people and may not repress ^ 

naU 



niltrlcms 

in dev ='Pi"8 
. P P uIation . r. cultivated area, in, 



tries will be 
Proved eed 

S^ ' . ns 

ana economic, political, and social factors, (HTW) 



Food 



CongreitEonal Document! on Food 



225 



222 

National Nutrition Policy Study: Report 'and Recommendation, I. 

74-SS82-25 June 1974 92 pp 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs 

Prepared by the Panel on Nutrition and Food Availability. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs 

Continued imbalances in the world agribusiness food system due 
to unpredictable production and constantly changing consumer food 
and nutritional wants and needs can be expected to lead to perpetual 
price swings. The Secretary of Agriculture should use programs 
which will induce the retention on the farm and in the distribution 
system of ample stocks of essential grains. The U.S. private and 
public agribusiness economy should provide technical assistance as 
it is requested by developing countries to aid them in the develop- 
ment of their food production and distribution systems. All levels of 
government should renew their support of the research and produc- 
tivity aspects of U.S. agriculture. Both private and public sectors of 
the agricultural industry should engage in more cooperative research 
with other nations. An international futures market should be deve- 
loped as a means of strengthening the effective planning and risk 
taking in the- United States and world food systems A closer link 
between agricultural production and more efficient use of the food 
stamp program should be developed in welfare and nutrition pro- 
grams. Food stamp premiums should be used as incentives to estab- 
lish effective food outlets in the poor areas of the country. The rail 
transportation system should be improved in order to provide a 
sanitary, safe, and efficient food transportation system, Aquaculture 
and new protein sources should be explored through additional re- 
search and development programs. An international fishing code 
should be developed to protect the fishing rights of all nations. (SC) 



224 

National Nutrition Policy Study: Report and Recommendation, III, 

74-S5S2-27. June 1974. 3fc pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Panel on Nutrition and Government. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

A primary deficiency in the development of national food and 
nutrition policy and programs is the lack of the kind of information 
that would be supplied by a surveillance and monitoring system. 
Such a system needs to be designed to: rapidly monitor the general 
nature of food purchases and food consumption patterns in various 
areas and population groups; collect representative foods and diets 
for analysis of food additives, food contaminants, certain nutrients, 
and other materials of interest; and monitor nutritional status in 
different parts of the country and particularly m high risk groups. The 
development of a national food and nutrition policy will require 
increased numbers of professionally trained people. The current edu- 
cational system transmits little nutritional information to physicians 
or other health care personnel. A high priority should be given to the 
development and support of nutrition teaching in medical schools, 
and the role of nutrition and nutrition services must be recognized 
in the development of health maintenance organizations and in the 
development of a national 'health insurance. If an effective nutrition 
policy is to be developed, there must be a Food and Nutrition Policy 
Board at a high level of government and an Office of Nutrition to 
implement and coordinate programs. (SC) 



223 

National Nutrition Policy Study: Report and Recommendation, II. 

74-S582-26. June 1974. 24 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Panel on Nutrition and the Consumer. 

Congreisioncil Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

The nutrition, consumer programs, and popular education com- 
ponents of a national food policy reach across and into all aspects of 
planning, implementing, and administering food and farm programs. 
The Panel on Nutrition and the Consumer, therefore, believes that 
a national food policy should: (1) affirm a totally adequate global 
food supply as a basic goal; (2) guarantee sufficient resources to 
Ensure the production and distribution of a food supply that will 
provide a nutritious diet for all Americans whatever their economic 
status; (3) recognize that decisions most likely to result in the best 
diet at the least cost will necessarily involve professional competence 
and a greater concern for nutrition in all segments of the Nation's 
food system; (4) allocate national resources for agricultural and nutri- 
tion programs; and (5) require that the nutritional needs of consum- 
ers be the first among domestic food system goals. The Federal 
Government should: take affirmative steps to establish standards For 
food labeling which set forth nutrient quality and value; advocate 
price competition where it will efficiently allocate resources and 
contribute to stable food supplies; insure that neither poverty nor 
lack of information shall be a barrier to food availability; recast 
Federal farm programs to insure that nutritional needs of consumers 
are given a priority role in determinig programs that affect supply 
levels of farm products; and centralize in one agency the food policy 
programs now scattered among many agencies. (SC) 



225 

National Nutrition Policy Study; Report and Recommendation, IV, 

74-S582-28. June 1974. 8 pp. + 2 appendices (6 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Subpanel of Health Care Systems of the Panel on 

Nutrition and Health. 

Organliatlon Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare. 

Congrexilonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs 

Nutrition is a critical factor in the promotion of health and pre- 
vention of disease and in recovery and rehabilitation from illness or 
injury. Improvements in the nutrition of people will have a direct 
effect on the level of health. Any proposed system of health care 
must address itself to early identification and intervention of persons 
at nutritional risk. To date, national medical care policy has not 
provided the basic nutrition services which people need to assume 
responsibility for their own nutritional health. The Subpanel of 
Health Care Systems of the Panel on Nutrition and Health recom- 
mends that national policy: mandate nutrition input into the plan- 
ning, organization, and implementation of health care systems; 
assure the availability and accessibility of nutritional care services to 
enable the population of the United States to achieve and maintain 
optimal nutrition health with high priority given to individuals with 
specific nutrition problems and needsj assure linkage of "non-health" 
nutritional care services with the nutritional care component of 
"health care" services; provide adequate funding to study methods 
of developing, implementing, and evaluating nutritional care pro- 
grams; and assure sufficient, competent nutrition personnel to pro- 
vide nutritional care throughout the health care system. (SC) 



Food 



65 



326 



Congre*s1onal Document* t>t\ food 



226 

National Nutrition Policy Study; Report and Recommendation, V. 

74-S582-29, June 1974. 15pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Subpanel on Popular Nutrition Education of the 

Panel on Nutrition and the Consumer. 

OrgonlioHon Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 

of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Ccmgreitlonal Relevance! Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

In a time of changing food habits and rising food prices, the need 
for a unified and coherent governmental food and nutrition policy is 
increasingly evident. An articulated policy is necessary to the struc- 
turing and direction of programs both in the private sector and in the 
many areas of government; programs that help to equip the citizen- 
consumer to participate effectively in the food marketplace pro- 
grams that work to encourage freedom of choice, and programs that 
work to promote good nutrition and good health by guiding consum- 
ers in the direction of wise and informed choices. The Subpanel on 
Popular Nutrition Education recommends the establishment of an 
Advisory Commission on Nutrition to be composed of representa- 
tives of Federal and Stale governments, the leadership of scientific 
nutrition societies, consumer groups, and economists. The passage of 
a National Nutrition Education Act, which would provide for a 
nutrition coordinator at the State level to assess existing resources 
within each State, pilot projects to guide the development of continu- 
ing programs, teacher training, and a national nutrition education 
backup center, is also recommended, Colleges and universities 
should be encouraged and funded to provide courses in nutrition for 
non-scientists, and nutrition should be recognized as a legitimate 
area of science education in secondary schools and colleges. An 
increased and specific allotment of public service advertising time 
should be devoted to nutritional matters. (SC) 



National Nutrition Policy Study: Report and Recommendation* VI 

74-S582-30. June 1974. 25 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Panel on Nutrition and the International Situation. 

Organdtitlon Concerned! Agency for International Development; 
Department of Agriculture, 

Coitgreittonal Relevance) Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Even if Government food production projections for 1985 are 
realized, the improvements in caloric intake and the protein con- 
sumption in the developing countries would be too small to make a 
significant improvement in the diet of the average person in such 
countries. Food production needs to increase by substantially more 
than Is likely with a continuation of present policies. The Panel on 
Nutrition and the International Situation recommends: that there be 
a significant increase in the support of agricultural research devoted 
to the problems of Increasing food production in the developing 
countries and minimizing bases during storage and marketing; that 
the United States and other industrialized countries develop meas- 
ures to provide an adequate supply of farm production inputs at low 
real cost and to assist the developing countries In obtaining the 
means to acquire such inputs; and that, Where feasible, assistance in 
expanding agricultural production and encouraging rural develop- 
ment focus on the needs of small farmers and employment. While the 
Panel does not recommend that the United States take an aggressive 
roie in inducing the developing countries to actively engage in pro- 
grams to reduce birth rates, it does recommend .that research to 



improve contraceptive techniques be adequately funded and that the 
United States, have the capacity to provide technical assistance, when 
requested, for establishing family planning programs, Ii is impeiti 
that a food reserve program be developed that would meet most o-l 
the emergency needs of the developing countries. (SC) 



228 

National Nutrition Policy Study; Report and Recommendation, Vil 
74-3382-31. June 1974. 7 pp. 

Report to Department of Agriculture; Department of Health, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare. 

Prepared by the Subpanel on Nutrition and Disease of the Panel on 
Nutrition and Health. 

Organisation Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Dcpartineni 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Cong rot lone I Relevant" Senate Select Committee on Nutrilioi 
and Human Needs, 

In 1969, the Panel on Nutrition and Health made a variety o 
recommendations with regard to obesity to the White House Confei 
ence on Food, Nutrition, and Health. None of these recommend j 
ttons has been implemented. The public is continually expose 
through the mass media to advertising of products which conlribui 
to obesity and to products related to health and weight rcducltoi 
Much of this advertising is misleading and unsatisfactory. Expansk 
of public and private industry-supported public health education c 
the topic of obesity prevention is needed. A vast expansion of i 
search into the root causes of obesity is urgent; it should focus * 
children, on the poor, on the social factors that contribute to obesii 
and on the best educational methods for its prevention. A rnaj 
change in food advertising is needed, including abolishing all a 
directed ait children. Federal regulatory agencies need to btcoi 
more effective in controlling misleading advertising and ineflccti 
weight reduction methods. An adequate income to purchase nui 
tious foods that will prevent obesity and other illnesses should 
guaranteed to all Americans. The construction of bicycle Ian 
parks, and recreational facilities that will encourage people to 
crease their physical exercise should be encouraged, A nonparit 1 
public agency should be created to collect, evaluate, and disscmsn 
information on healthful nutrition to the public, (SC) 



229 

National Nutrition Policy Study: Report and Recommendation, T' 

74-S582-32, June 1974. 178 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Hui 

Needs, 

Prepared by the Panel on Nutrition and Special Groups. 

Organization Concerned; Department of Agriculture, 1 Depart r 

of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Congraitlanal Relevant*! Senate Select Committee on Nulr 

and Human Needs. 

Authority! Food Stamp Act. Social Security Act. 

There are special groups In the society for whom publicly 
ported food assistance is necessary either to maintain nmhi 
adequacy or to achieve socially desirable goals, In the first irou 
America's poor-people for whom the Federal food programs 
matte* B P daily survival; in the second Rrnvfl are those whose i 
iior,;i' Mtu. is is vM.'icrniili! H'euuSi! of H nii)iili> Changing and J 
i-omrU'x Miciciy 'Jic :sol iled e!:le:l> ind yii'si; school chlldrc 
i-ni>ii'ii!'i ol foot' rEogritms ..ai do ar \il.mj; "tout whypeoj 
rii|j-i: people are tiling] v because lhe> are jvoi While the pox 
tiie iiMicrab'c orr.nue 'o need food uss-iU-ce, food pro 
Mimi!<t be ma,le ircrc iitx tsbihlc and inou" rfli.'iMive. National 



66 



Congretilonal Document* on Food 



232 



lion policies should promote the following ends- (1) an expanded 
food stamp program based on a more adequate diet plan at lower cost 
to recipients; {2) a national commitment to ensure a full range of 
nutrition services for all pregnant women and young infants, (3) 
availability of food service in all schools and institutions serving 
children, especially school breakfast, day care, and summer feeding; 
(4) adaptation of oil food service programs to meet the special needs 
of migrants and Indians for whom the programs have been least 
responsive to their most severe hunger conditions; and (6) nutritional 
protection for the elderly, whatever their social circumstances. (Au- 
thor/ SC) 



230 

Comprehensive Study of the Child Nutrition Program, July 1974. 
74-S162-16. September 10, 1974. 87 pp. 
Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 
Submitted by the United States Department of Agriculture. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture: Agricultural 
Research Service; Food and Nutrition Service. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry; Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry; Agricul- 
tural Research and General Legislation Subcommittee. 
Authority: National School Lunch Act of 1946. Child Nutrition Act 
of 1966, as amended. P.L. 93-150. P.L. 91-248. P.L. 92-433, P.L. 
92-32. P.L. 93-326. 

The child nutrition programs provide Federal cash and donated 
food assistance to nonprofit schools of high school grade and under 
and to child care institutions for use in serving well balanced meals 
and milk to children. Additional cash assistance is provided for meals 
and mtlk served free or at reduced prices to children who are deter- 
mined to be unable to pay the full price under local family size and 
income standards established in accordance with minimum and max- 
imum national income poverty guidelines. Federal contributions 
have risen from under $600 million to $1.7 billion in 1974. The 
overall Federal contribution has risen to about 41% of the total 
program cosls, while the States' share has remained relatively stable 
and the children's share has declined. The number of children enter- 
ing school age has stabilized with significant implications for partici- 
pation in the school lunch program which is now at 25 million 
children per day. The Department of Agriculture and the President 
are concerned about the present Federal administrative structure for 
the food programs. There is a need for better recognition of the role 
of (he States in child nutrition programs. Nutritional standards for 
the school lunch program need to be continually reassessed in light 
of nutritional knowledge and the acceptability of the lunch by chil- 
dren. The current food distribution program needs to be assessed and 
consideration should be given to whether a single cash payment, 
increased to reflect past commodity support, may be preferable. 
There is also a need to improve program data for the costs of produc- 
ing and serving meals. (SW) 



231 

Report on Nutrition and the International Situation, 74-S582-34. Sep- 
tember 1974. 57 pp. 

Report lo the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs. 

Organliollon Conwrned: Department of Agriculture; Agency for 
International Development; United Nations: Food and Agriculture 
Organization. . . 

Congraulonal Ralevani Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 
Food 



Authority: P.L [83J-480 

U.S food aid over the past several years has not only been shrink- 
ing but, in the struggle over short supplies, political concerns have 
received a high priority. More than 50% of Food for Peace shipments 
in 1974 went to political-military-related countries. Critical fertilizer 
aid has also been affected by political-military concerns. In 1970, the 
United States shipped 6.1 metric tons of wheat to the hungry over- 
seas. By 1973, the amount dropped to 2.5 metric tons, and the 1974 
projection was just under a million metric tons Poor crops in 1972 
created a heavy grain demand. In spite of favorable harvests world- 
wide in 1973, reserve stocks continued to fall. General grain stocks 
whether privately or publicly held, do not always provide adequate 
or appropriate famine relief An emergency reserve stock is needed; 
it could be created without disruption of farm or consumer pnces. 
The size of the stocks needed for emergencies cannot be absolutely 
determined, but estimates based on average grain shortfalls and past 
experience in emergencies put the range anywhere from 500,000 to 
25 million tons of grain. A policy adequate to deal with global hunger 
should concentrate on food reserves, food aid, and growth of in- 
dividual nations' productive capacity. (SW) 



232 

Implementation and Status of the Special Supplemental Food Program 

for Women, Infants, and Children. 75-S582-1. October 1974. 81pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition 

Service. 

Organization Concerned: Food and Nutrition Service; Department 

of Health, Education, and Welfare; University of North Carolina. 

Congreiilonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

Authority; Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as amended (P.L 92-433; 

86 Stat. 724; 42 U.S.C. 1786). P.L. 93-150. P.L. 93-326. 39 Fed. Reg. 

13166-69. 

The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, 
and Children (WIG Program) provides cash grants to State health 
departments and approved local health clinics for the purpose of 
providing specified nutritious food supplements to pregnant and lac- 
tating women, infants, and children up to 4 years of age who are 
nutritional risks because of inadequate family income. The program 
is administered by the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutri- 
tion Service. In order to fulfill the Congressional mandate to assess 
the benefits of the WIG Program, the department is conducting two 
evaluations: a detailed medical evaluation designed to determine the 
nutritional and medical benefits of food provided to participants; and 
an examination of the efficiency, effectiveness, and operational costs 
of the various State and local food delivery systems being used to 
reach the target populations. The evaluation of the food delivery 
systems will be based on a stratified random sample of participating 
clinics. This sample will be representative of the various types of 
delivery systems, geographic locations, ethnic groups, and target 
population groups, including program participants, nonparticipants, 
and dropouts. Information will be obtained from approximately 4,- 
500 members of the target population through face-to-face inter- 
views Data will be obtained to provide a profile of the climes, 
participants, and nonparticipants. For the detailed medical evalua- 
tion, as of August 1974, preliminary data had been collected on 
17,659 initial clinical forms, 5206 dietary forms, and 20,697 plasma 
samples. (SW) 

67 



233 



Congressional Documents on foo< 



733 

Report on Nutrition end Government. 75-S582-3. Apnl 1975. 58 pp. 
Report prepared by the Staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, United States Senate 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare, Department of Agriculture, Office of Management and 

Budget 

Congreiiional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs 

Authority: Nutrition Education Act; S. 3864 (94th Cong ). P.L. (83]- 

480. 

A comprehensive national nutrition policy is necessary to coordi- 
nate and monitor the varied nutrition-related programs now dis- 
persed throughout the government Tax policy, agricultural policy, 
and even foreign policy all have nutritional implications. A national 
nutrition plan should be developed, as a written document, to enable 
each agency to submit nutrition-related budgetary and legislative 
proposals for nutrition activities to the proposed Federal Food and 
Nutrition Office as part of the regular planning and budgetary proc- 
ess. As an agency develops its proposals to submit to the Office of 
Management and Budget for incorporation into the budget, those 
objectives or activities with nutritional implications wilt be tagged 
and compared with similar objectives of other federal agencies. This 
totality of objectives, placed in a single document, is the National 
Nutrition Plan. The Federal Nutrition Office would not administer 
nutrition- related programs, it would be responsible for coordination 
and monitoring of nutrition programs throughout the government 
and for providing the President and Congress with interpretation of 
data collected as part of the national nutrition surveillance effort. A 
National Nutrition Center should be created to administer nutrition 
education programs, coordinate and monitor all federally-funded 
nutrition research, and administer nutrition manpower programs. 
Nutrition research is needed concerning the special dietary needs of 
preschool children, teenagers, and the elderly. Basic research is in- 
dicated on nutrient-nutrient interaction, long-term accumulation of 
minerals in the body, and the effect of malnutrition on mental as well 
as physical development. (SW) 



of meals by about 22 cents, thus reducing the number of children abfc 
to participate. Legislation has been introduced to amend the Na 
tional School Lunch and Child Nutrition Acts in order to extend am! 
revise the special food service program for children, the special sup 
plemental food program, and the school breakfast program, and k 
strengthen the school lunch and child nutrition programs. (DS) 



235 

WIC Program Survey: 1975. 75-S582-9. April 1975. 291 pp. 
Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Depart nit nl 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Congretslonal Relevance! Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. ; 

Authority! S. 850 (94th Cong.). 

A survey was conducted in 34 States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin 
Islands to determine the progress of the Special Supplemental Food 
Program known as WIC (Women, Infants, and Children). Under thti 
program, high protein diet supplements are made available to low 
income pregnant women, infants, and children determined to b4 
nutritional risks. Survey responses indicated that the total number oj 
unfunded WIC project applications was 63; this represented 201,904 
people and would have cost $35,188,1 10. The estimated number ot 
people eligible to participate in the WIC program was 4,036,000, and 
the budget needed for this number of participants was $876 million. 
In 31 States, vouchers or checks were used for food delivery; in II 
States, there was direct food distribution; in 6 States, there was home 
dairy delivery. Six States were entirely satisfied with the nutritional 
value of the WIC food package. The most often recommended 
change was for more flexibility in the choice of cereals. Elgin Stales 
had either no nutritional education or a limited program because o[ 
inadequate administrative funds, (SW) 



234 

School Food Program Needs, 1975. 75-SS82-a. April 1975. 213 pp. 
Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Congressional Relevance; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human N-eeds. 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1431). Food and 
Agriculture Act of 1965 (7 U.S.C. 144a-l). National School Lunch 
Act- Child Nutrition Act of 1966. 

In order to determine the most pressing problems facing adminis- 
trators of the School Lunch and Breakfast Programs and to gather 
recommendations for strengthening the program to feed as many 
children as possible, the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and 
Human Needs sent a questionnaire to School Food Service Directors 
in each State and American Samoa. From 30 to 38 States responded 
to each question Most Stales reported some increase in the price of 
meals over the past year; the increases ranged from less than 5 cents 
to more than 10 cents for lunches and slightly less for breakfasts. The 
average cost of producing the meals increased 13%. Most States 
reported an increase in participation in reduced price meals over the 
year, less for breakfasts than for lunches, State support per meal 
above the required matching funds ranged from none to over 10 
cents. Equipment needs for new and existing programs totalled S33,- 
516,000 for the responding States. The Ford Administration's bloc 
grant proposal on child nutrition programs would increase the cost 

66 



236 

Comparative Analysis of the Food Stamp Act of 1964 (tntt l'fO{XKtd 
Reform Legislation. 75-S162-26. November 5, 1975. 102 pp. )r 6 
appendices (232 pp.). 

Report to Herman E. Talmadge, Chairman, Senate Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestry. 

Congrenlonal Relevance; Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry. 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (84 Slat. 3048; 7 
U.S.C. 2012(b)). P,L. 88-525. U.S. Department of Agriculture v. 
Moreno, 413 U.S. 528. U.S. Department of Agriculture v. Murry, 
413 U.S. 508. Bennett v. Butz, 386 F. Supp. 1059 (USDC, D, Minn-. 
1974). H.R. 8145 (94th Cong.). S. 1993 (94th Cong.). S. 2451 (94lh 
Cong.). S. 2537 (94th Cong.). 

Comparisons were made between the existing food stamp act &nd 
the bills before Congress. The areas of comparison were fiimncisJ 
eligibility criteria (income and resources), non-financiafe eligibility 
criteria (categorical eligibility, social security income, students, wort 
registration, strikers, household composition, continuing eligibility, 
and cooking facilities), application process, purchase requirements, 
coupon allotments, minimum benefits, program administration (cou- } 
pon Issuance, cash/coupon accountability, coupon use, credit tot lo$t , 
benefits, and demonstration projects), Federal/State reporting re*] 
quirements, Federal penalties, funding, operational authority, andi 
food distribution. (Author/SS) 



Congressional Document! on Food 



240 



237 

The Role of the Federal Government in Human Nutrition Research. 
76-S582-5. March 1976. 112 pp. 

Reporfoy Cynthia B. Chapman; Freeman H Quimby, Congressional 
Research Service 

Organization Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; Department of Agriculture; Department of Defense; Veter- 
ans Administration. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Authority! Research and Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C 427). 
Reorganization Act of 1949 (5 U.S.C. 133z-15).' (P.L 85-857; 38 
U.S.C, 4101). Hatch Act. Omnibus Medical Research Act. Public 
Health Service Act, 301. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act P.L 
89-106, 2. 7 U.S.C. 22201. 



lead to geometrically higher costs for society as a result of the harm- 
ful effects of malnutrition, sent questionnaires to all program direc- 
tors soliciting recommendations and criticisms The economies of 
scale effected by USDA, combined with the expertise of their pur- 
chasers, has made the program one of the most cost-effective federal- 
ly-mandated child nutrition programs ever implemented As part of 
its ongoing efforts to diminish CSFPs, USDA is urging them to join 
with the WIC program, limiting the total number of persons on 
supplemental feeding programs without regard for actual need In 
addition, USDA has handicapped CSFPs by refusing to provide ad- 
ministrative funds and by not making commodities available in a 
timely fashion. By arbitrarily limiting caseloads on the CSFP, USDA 
has caused many local needs to go unmet The study, "Nutritional 
Benefits from Federal Food Assistance," is one of many which sup- 
port the committee's contention that CSFP is of value (DS) 



Nutrition research in the Federal Government involves four de- 
par I ments-the Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of 
Defense (DOD), Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 
(HEW), and the Veterans Administration. The evolution of Federal 
nutrition research, the expenditures, decisionmaking policies, and 
resource allocation of each agency are outlined. In fiscal year 1975, 
HEW led all departments with a total expenditure of over S60 million 
for nutrition research out of a total of $73 million for all departments 
USDA expended $9.7 million in fiscal year 1974. DOD expended 
$2.6 million and the VA expended $450,000 in fiscal year 1975. 
About 2.6% of the total USDA agricultural research budget was 
spent on human nutrition research in fiscal year 1 974 If State fund- 
ing is counted, agriculture departments in the United States spend far 
more for animal than human nutrition research. USDA sponsors 
basic research on nutrients and applies these research results to un- 
derstanding food consumption and improving foods and dietary hab- 
its. DOD human nutrition research includes studies on nutrient 
requirements of sedentary, training, and combat military personnel 
in various climates. The broad purpose of human nutrition research 
conducted by HEW is to advance knowledge to prevent and treat 
diseases. Neither HEW nor the individual Public Health Service 
agencies seem entirely aware of the program or Federal support for 
human nutrition research in the department. Human nutrition re- 
search projects of VA hospitals in 22 states were performed with 
other academic, medical, and non-profit institutions. (SW) 



23ft 

Commodity Supplemental Food Program Survey. 76-S582-7. April 

1976. 8 pp. 4- 3 appendices (114 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Congressional Relevances Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Authority! Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1935, 612c (40 Stat. 
750; 40 Stat. 774; 7 U.S.C. 612). Agriculture and Consumer Protec- 
tion Act of 1973 (P L. 93-347). Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L. 81- 
439; 7 U.S.C. 1431). Child Nutrition Act of 1966. Food Stamp Act, 
as amended. Commodity Supplemental Food Program Act of 1976. 
Social Security Act, 1616a. P.L. 92-603. P.L. 74-320. P.L. 92-32. 
31 U.S.C, 714. 31 U.S.C. 712. 7 C.F.R. 250.14. 

The Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) was estab- 
lished to provide iron and protein-rich food to low-income pregnant 
women, nursing or post partum mothers, and children under six. The 
Department of Agriculture (USDA), which administers the program, 
has taken the position that it should be eliminated; thus, the number 
of programs has dropped from a high of 310 (37 States) in 1971 to 
its present level of 100 (15 States) with a drastic reduction in the 
number of participants. The Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, convinced that elimination of the program would 



339 

Nutrition and Health II: Nutrition and Health Revised with a Study of 
the Impact of Nutritional Health Considerations on Food Policy. 
76-S582-9. July 1976. 69 pp + 16 appendices (291 pp.). 
Report prepared by the Staff of the Select Committee on Nutri- 
tion and Human Needs, United States Senate. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Authority) Public Health Service Act; S 3239 (95th Cong.). Nutri- 
tional Health Service Act. S 2547 (95th Cong.). S. 2867 (95th Cong.). 

The Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs 
held hearings in June 1974 to measure the progress that had been 
made in achieving the goals set al the 1969 White House Conference 
on Food, Nutrition, and Health and to focus attention on the need 
for a comprehensive national nutrition policy. This report, the se- 
cond edition of the fifth in the series of staff studies expanding on 
recommendations and testimony offered at the hearings, is con- 
cerned primarily with America's self knowledge of Us nutritional 
health; more specifically, the availability of nutrition evaluation and 
counseling to individuals and the adequacy of our national nutrition 
monitoring system. The bureaucratic and political problems of apply- 
ing nutritional health considerations to food policy are also exam- 
ined. There is ? nf "" 1 fnr tflp tnl\mu\no mrmmfv ClS an investiaation 



Food 



240 



Congrenianal Document! on f, 



Conwrned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance! Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs 

Authority: Food Stamp Reform Act of 1975 S. Res 58 (94th 
Cong) 

There has been much controversy over the Food Stamp Program, 
especially since President Ford's attempts to increase the amount 
that low income families would have to pay for the stamps. Data from 
studies by the Department of Agriculture and the House Agriculture 
Committee have helped to refute some of the charges made about the 
program. Most food stamp recipients had incomes below the poverty 
level and only 1 1% earned more than $10,000 a year. Only about 
1.3% of program beneficiaries were students, and an insignificant 
number were sinkers. Most working households qualified by deduct- 
ing work-related expenses, and 16.9% of eligible households con- 
tained an elderly member. Program complexity rather than fraud was 
responsible for the high rates of certification and stamp distribution 
errors; recipient fraud was estimated at no more than 1%. Benefits 
of the program include its effect as a stimulus to the economy by 
increasing jobs and business receipts Although program reform is 
necessary, large cuts are not justified by the facts. (HTW) 



241 

Food Stamp Program Profile, Part 2: Appendix. 76-S582-12. August 

1976 93pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Organization Concerned; Food and Nutrition Service. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

The Department of Agriculture's 1975 survey of the characteris- 
tics of food stamp households collected data from the case files of 
1 1,327 households certified as eligible for participation on the food 
stamp program during September 1 975. The average total amount of 
deductions from gross income was $77 per month for all households, 
with about 83% of all households claiming some deduction. For all 
households in which an elderly person resided, the average total 
deduction was $46. The average household size was 3.2 persons; 
one-person and two-person households comprised 46% of all 
households. The average gross monthly income was $298. Females 
headed 64% of all households. Elderly persons comprised about 6% 
of total participants. Of all households, 76.6% had nonworking heads 
and irnnrwi n ~ = arned i ncome , 15.4% had household heads working 
*1 had household heads working Jess than 30 hours 



CongrcMional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on \'i)i tl . 
and Human Needs. 

Authority: Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as amended (P.L.9), 
86 Stat. 724; 42 U.S.C. 1786). 

The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Info 
and Children {WIC Program) provides cash grants to 
departments and approved local health clinics tor the 
providing specified nutritious food supplements lo pregnant aiidi 
tating women, infants, and 1 children up to 4 years of age who 
nutritional risks because of inadequate family income. The pros 
is administered by the Department of Agriculture's Food and Ni, 
lion Service. A medical evaluation of the program, conducted . 
a 2 1/2-year period, showed that a Federal program of diet i 
plementation can dramatically improve birth weights, height,^ 
circumference, and reduce anemia among low income Infants i 
children. Other results of diet supplementation were an increut 
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration for infants and c[ 
dren; an increase in the consumption of protein, calcium, phospfy 
ous, iron, vitamin A, thiaminc, ribioflavin, nlacm, ascorbic acid, i 
folacin by participating mothers; and a relative increase in wtij 
gain during pregnancy by particpating mothers, In the course ofi 
evaluation, a total of 41,300 infants and children were examined 
total of 9,867 women, including 4,125 with completed pregnancii 
were investigated. The present evaluation was concerned wiihi 
short-term benefits of the WIC program. The long-term cffecu 
nutritious food supplements on growth, development, morbidii 
mortality, behavior, and learning arc still unknown and 
investigated. (SW) 



243 

Food Stamp Program. 76-H1G2-6. September 1976. 9 appcndm 

(565 pp.). 

Report to the House Committee on Agriculture. 

Prepared by the staff of the House Committee on Agriculture. 

Organlxatlon Concerned: Department of AgrtcuHurc. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture, 
Authority! Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (7 U.S.C. 2011 
H. Res. 228 (95th Cong.). H. Res. 974 (95th Cong.). 

Basic information was collected about the operation of the fa> 
stamp program and the characteristics of food stamp recipient Th 
foKowfng areas of concern and interest to the House Commiiieeoi 
Apiculture arc covered: the amount of time it takes to process ap 
plications for food stamps; State and local administration of the foot 
stamp program; program quality control, including participation b] 
certain classes of people In the food stamp program; student partiti 
pation in the program; the reaction of local community groups*! 
have had direct contact with food stamp recipients and applicants^ 
the program; the rationale for criteria for food stamps, Aid lo Fwi 
lies with Dependent Children, and Supplemental Security Income 
State administrators' evaluations of the quality control process and 
illegal abuse of the food stamp program; the evaluation by Fedtral 
agencies of the illegal activities in the food stamp program; and to 
detection, investigation, and disposition of suspected cases offlM 
activities i n the program. The document includes: reports by fc 
Comptroller General; responses and analysis of responses to ques- 
tionnaires sent to State administrators of the program, local com- 
munity groups, and Federal agencies; and copies of questionnaires 
sent to these various groups. (SC) 



Conflf'' onal 



on Food 



247 



244 

Diet and Killer Diseases with Press Reaction and Additional Informa- 
tion. 77-S582-1 January 1977. 320 pp. 
Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Congrettional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, 

Authority! National Consumer Health Information and Health Pro- 
motion Actof 1976 (P.L 94-317). P.L. 93-641. S. 3449 (95th Cong). 
S. 3570 (95th Cong.). 

Hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Hu- 
man Needs focused on the role of diet in preventive health care, the 
degree to which diet affects the causation of the killer diseases, and 
the need for modifying educational, research, and health delivery 
systems to include nutritional factors. Six of the ten leading causes 
of death in the United States have been connected to diet: heart 
disease, cancer, stroke and hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, 
and cirrhosis of the liver Obesity, which is a form of malnutrition, 
can substantially contribute to coronary artery disease; a 10% in- 
crease in weight results in a 30% increase in the probability of coro- 
nary disease. Coronary heart disease is statistically the number one 
kilter disease; altered nutrition has much preventive potential 
Obesity is a risk factor in hypertension, diabetes, and arthritis Sub- 
stantial preliminary evidence indicates that nutritional imbalances in 
the diet contribute to at least 30% of the cancer cases in men and 50% 
in women. There has been a positive correlation between high fat 
consumption and breast cancer and colon cancer and between lack 
or fiber in the diet and cancer of the lower intestinal tract. It must 
be emphasized that correlation and contribution do not mean causa- 
tion. Since food patterns are established in infancy, it is important 
both to meet the nutritional needs of children and to develop sound 
food habits. Elementary and secondary school curricula should pro- 
vide information on nutrition, food purchasing, and food consump- 
tion. Public attention needs to be directed to the antecedent causes 
of preventable diseases. (SW) 



245 

Die! Related to Killer Diseases: Part 2, Obesity, 77-S581-2. February 1, 

1977, 246 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs, 

Congressional Relevance; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Paradoxically, obesity Is the number one malnutrition problem in 
the United States. Thirty million Americans are overweight, and 
fifteen million are obese to a degree that actually shortens their lives. 
Moreover, the obese are getting fatter, and the number of obese 
Americans is increasing each year. Treatments for obesity are a 
$10-billion-a-year industry, and yet the record of success in losing 
and keeping off the weight is abysmally poor. It has only been in this 
century that obesity has become a significant health problem. While 
U is a problem peculiarly associated with our affluent Western cul- 
ture, it is more prevalent among low socioeconomic groups, A person 
is defined as obese If he or she is 20% overweight based on height, 
sex, and age. Obseity becomes a major risk factor for individuals who 
are 30% or more overweight; there is a significant correlation be- 
tween obesity and ill health, including cardiovascular disease, hyper- 
tension, diabetes, and arthritis. Even though research and therapy 
have shown that the problem of obesity is more readily solved by 
preventive measures than by curative approaches, we still 'have not 
been able to reverse the current trend toward a more obese society 
and must begin now to cope with this .major health problem. Reports 
we presented dealing with various aspects of obesity as It relates to 
health, (DS) 

Food 



746 

Diet Related to Killer Diseases: Part 1, Cardiovascular Disease 

77-S581-1. February 1977. 774 pp 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 



Heart and vascular disease account for 50% of all death m the 
United States, almost 3 times as many as cancer. Each year, almost 
2.5 million Americans suffer major cardiovascular events which re- 
sult in over 850,000 deaths. This primary killer costs the United 
States an estimated $57 billion in health care and lost productivity 
annually. These figures convincingly illustrate the catastrophic effect 
that cardiovascular disease has on the Nation's health and economy; 
however, cardiovascular disease need not be an inevitable event 
Scientific research has pinpointed a number of risk factors, including 
many which are diet-related, which if abated or eliminated would 
significantly decrease the mortality rate of the number one killer. The 
simple fact that 20% to 30% of heart attack victims die before they 
receive any medical care only reinforces the importance of instituting 
preventive measures to reduce cardiovascular deaths. A Department 
of Agriculture study estimates that an improved diet would poten- 
tially reduce heart and vascular disease mortality by 20% to 25% 
which would save over 200,000 lives and $ 14 billion annually. Sepa- 
rate reports are presented dealing with various aspects of cardiovas- 
cular disease and its link with diet in an attempt to provide sufficient 
knowledge to formulate legislation for a Federal health maintenance 
and promotion initiative, to ascertain how research priorities are 
determined, and to ascertain whether nutrition research has received 
emphasis commensurate with its role in cardiovascular diseases 
PS) 



247 

Dietary Goals for the United States. 77-S582-2. February 1977. 79 
pp. 

Report prepared by the Staff of the Select Committee on Nutri- 
tion and Human Needs, United States Senate. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture, Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

Congressional Relevancei Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

The eating patterns of this century represent a critical public 
health concern. The public is confused about what to eat to maximize 
health. The Government, in order to reduce health costs and maxi- 
mize the quality of life, should provide practical guides to the in- 
dividual consumer as well as set national dietary goals. Government 
and industry response is required regarding the content of nutritional 
information provided to the public, the kinds of foods produced, and 
how foods are processed and advertised. The following are suggested 
U.S. dietary goals: (1) increase carbohydrate consumption to account 
for 55% to 60% of the energy (caloric) intake; (2) reduce overall At 
consumption from approximately 40% to 30% of energy intake; (3) 
reduce saturated fat consumption to account for about 10% of total 
energy intake and balance that with polyunsaturated and monoun- 
sturated fats, which should account for about 10% of energy intake 
each; (4) reduce cholesterol consumption to about 300 mg. a day; (5) 
reduce sugar consumption by about 40% to account for about 15% 
of total energy intake; and (6) reduce salt consumption by about 50% 
to 85% to approximately 3 grams a day. To achieve these goals the 
following changes are suggested: increase consumption of fruits and 
.vegetables and whole grains; decrease consumption of salt, sugar, 
butteriat,.eggs, and foods high in fat; decrease consumption of meat 
and increase consumption of poultry and fish; substitute nonfat milk 

71 



254 



Congresilonal Document! on Food 



since the lifting of price controls in the fall of 1973. U.S. fertilizer 
demand in 1973/74 exceed available supplies. Projections for the 
availability and prices of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash fertilizers 
for 1975, 1976, and 1980 are presented. Fertilizer prices and use 
estimates for 1974 are included. The use of separate materials and of 
dry bulk materials is increasing, and plant nutrient use Is up in most 
regions. The current and expected fertilizer situation in major deve- 
loped and developing countries is explored. In spite of high sales, 
producers have restricted nitrogen fertilizerexports to supply domes- 
tic demand. In addition, the Agency for International Development 
restricted the tonnage and the time of shipment of the fertilizer it 
financed in 1973/74. (SQ 



255 

Report on Nutrition and Food Availability. 75-S582-2. December 

1974 82 pp. + 3 appendices (11 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs, 

Congressional Relevance; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

Authority! Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973. 

While weather and inflation are principal causes of the current 
food shortage and resultant high prices, governmental policEes-par- 
tlcularty U.S. foreign and agricultural policy-have also been a major 
factor. The Russian wheat sale, by reducing U.S. carryover, resulted 
in increased .global dependence on annual food supplies and fostered 
instability and high prices, The increase in farm production costs 
which have more than doubled in the last few years has more than 
offset any increase in farm profits. Thii is reducing the number of 
farms and is driving the small farmer out of business. Though farm 
productivity has increased 5,8% over the past 15 years, the trend 
toward larger farms, with increased corporate involvement, may 
reduce productivity and the consumer price advantages that have 
some from competition. Declining farm prices are having tittle effect 
on food retail prices; inflation in farm-to-retail price spreads is due 
in large part to the structure of the food industry where a small 
number of firms controlling over 60% of sales enjoy considerable 
discretion in setting prices. To avoid further global increases in mal- 
nutrition and starvation and because current shortfalls indicate a 
large market for U.S. exports, the U.S. Government must provide 
greater monetary incentive and support to encourage its farmers to 
expand! productivity. In addition, it must provide financial security 
should overproduction occur, insure that adequate supplies are avail- 
able on a priority basis at a fair price, and confront the marketplace 
in which the farmer sells and the consumer buys. (DS) 



conservative 1974 estimates are that between 200 and 400 million 
people will face starvation and that over 1 million will die as a resul I. 
Whether these "local famines" spread will depend, among other 
things, on the responses of our own and other governments. World- 
wide programs of consumer education on birth control, increased 
census- taking in developing countries (to aid in planning), increased 
research on the effects and control of population growth and in food 
production, and universal international awareness of the problem are 
all urged. Three factors affect world food output- technical and finan- 
cial constraints, short supply of resources (land, water, energy, and 
fertilizer), and ecological disruption, There is an urgent need la in- 
crease present world grain inventory levels, but there ts much uncer- 
tainty over the most advantageous method of developing reserves or 
carryover stocks and how to determine an equitable and feasible 
sharing of the true costs of maintenance. An important question U.S 
policymakers must face is whose interests are to be served or sacrif- 
iced before any conclusive food policy can be forthcoming. (DS) 



257 

Potential Effects of Application of Air and Water Quality Statidardt on 
Agriculture and Rural Development. 75-S162-5. January 2, 1975.- 
331 pp. 

Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry: Rural 
Development Subcommittee, by Joseph P Biniek, Analyst, Environ- 
mental Policy Div., Congressional Research Service. 

Organization Concerned! Environmental Protection Agency. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry: Rural Development Subcommittee. 
Authority) Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 
1972 (P.L. 92-500). Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (P.L. 91-60-0. 
Rural Development Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-419). Federal Water Pollu- 
tion Control Act of 1956, as amended. Air Pollution Act of 1955, 
Clean Air Act of 1963. Clean Air Act of 1972. 

Farmers are concerned about the economic impacts of Federal air 
and water pollution regulations. The Federal Water Pollution Con- 
trol Act Amendments of 1972, which seek to control effluents, tc- 
quire increased investments for runoff control facilities and added 
operational costs. However, since regulations apply to less than \% 
of farmers, primarily large producers, the impact of this legislation 
on production costs is minimal. The Clean Air Act of 1970, espe- 
cially the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality, has 
greater implications for agriculture and the use of rural rcsauices 
Related papers include discussions of: anti-pollution regulations, 
legislation, and programs; environmental economics; farm animal- 
waste management; economic Impacts of effluent and runoff control 
on the dairy, beef, and hog industries; and Issues involved in prevent- 
'ing deterioration of air quality. (HTW) 



256 , 

Malthus and America; A Report about Food and People. 74-H162- 

2. 1974. 17pp. 

Report to the House Committee on Agriculture. 

Prepared by (he Subcommittee on Department Operations, House 

Committee on Agriculture. 

Congrtclonol Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; House 
Committee on Agriculture: Department Operations, Investigations 
and Oversight Subcommittee. 

By the end of this century, we can expect 6,5 to 7.5 billion people 
on our globe if the present rate of growth continues. In nearly every 
developing country of the world, the unrelenting geometry of human 
growth continues at an alarming pace, The combined effect of popu- 
lation growth and rising affluence is accelerating world food demand 
at rates without precedent in history. The initial collision between 
soaring population and limited food supply is already beginning; 

74 



258 

Agriculture in a World of Uncertainty; The Potential Impact of Rising 
Costs of Production on Agriculture and Rural America, A Compilation 
of Cost Production Data and Associated Economic Studies, 75-S162- 
15. April 14, 1975. 149 pp. 
Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

Organliatlon Concerned) Department of Agriculture. 

Congressional Relevance) Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry. 

Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973. 

Although operating expenses of agricultural production hart 
been increasing for some time, total production expenses increased 
about 49.8% in the past two years alone. Further cost Increase* for 
most inputs are expected to occur this year, intensifying an already 

Fflfld 



Congressional Documents on Food 



261 



difficult cost-price squeeze. Current target prices for many commodi- 
ties arc below variable costs of production. However, total costs of 
production are substantially above target prices in virtually every 
area. Although only a small share of all agricultural land is incum- 
bered by debt, the incidence of debt is concentrated in commercial 
agriculture nnd especially with young farmers who are attempting to 
establish themselves For agriculture to continue to be viable, land 
must continue to be transferred from older farmers ready to retire to 
younger farmers. The returns to agriculture must be adequate to meet 
these transfer costs. The current target price for corn, which is the 
largest single crop and is the feed base for much of the livestock 
industry, is $1.38; this would cover the variable costs in most States 
but would fall short of total costs projected for 1975 in all States 
Data presented for cotton, soybeans, grain sorghum, wheat, and 
other miscellaneous crops show that most target prices fall within the 
range of variable costs. The entire livestock sector of American 
agriculture is on the brink of economic disaster as a result of an 
extended period of cost pressure on all segments and declining prices 
in most. The complexity of the overall agricultural situation is ex- 
pected to slow rural development and to retard general economic 
activity for rural America. (SC) 



259 

Studies in Price Stability and Economic Growth. Paper No, 5: Food Prices 
in 1975. 75-J842-24. July 18, 1975. 10 pp. 

Report to Joint Economic Committee; by G. E. Brandow, Professor 
of Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State Univ. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance! Joint Economic Committee. 

Consequences flowing from the poor crops of 1974 and prospects 
for continuing inflation in the economy at large dominate the food 
price outlook for 1975. The supply of concentrate feeds for livestock 
will be sharply reduced at least until 1975 crops are available. Pro- 
duction and consumption of all livestock except beef and veal will be 
lower. Market supplies of beef and veal will increase as the rapid 
expansion of cattle herds slows down. The index of retail food prices 
may average about 10% higher in 1975 than in 1974 and 10% to 12% 
higher in the fourth quarter of 1975 than in the fourth quarter of 
1 974. Some price effects of the poor crops of 1974 will carry forward 
at least through the third quarter of 1976. Not much more than half 
of the expected increase in retail food prices seems to be attributable 
to poor 1974 crops. Costs of processing and distributing food proba- 
bly will continue to rise with general inflation and will be reflected 
in the retail prices of many foods. Grains are among the leading 
commercial exports of the United States and are the principal pro- 
ducts needed for food aid for poor countries. Where grain production 
cannot be enlarged, an increase in grain exports amounting to 5 
million tons can be expected to raise the index of retail food prices 
by 1.0% to 1.5%, If crops are good in 1975, the stage may be set for 
a marked decline in the rate of food price increases in 1976. (SC) 



260 

Impact of Russian Grain Purchases on Retail Food and Farm Prices and 
Farm Income in the 1975 Crop Year. 75-J842-34. September 29, 
1975. 8 pp. 

Report to Joint Economic Committee; by G. E. Brandow, Professor 
of Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University. 

Organlxallon Concerned! Department of Agriculture; Department 

of State. 

Congressional Relevance: Joint Economic Committee, 

Food 



Prices, production, and income in agriculture in the 1975 crop 
year are projected for three different export situations. With exports 
at levels expected about July 1, 1975, farm prices of feed grains, 
wheat, and soybeans in the 1975 crop year are projected to be 10% 
to 30% below their averages for calendar year 1974 Pnces of lives- 
tock products, except beef, are projected to increase Projected real- 
ized net farm income is 22% lower than in calendar year 1974. The 
combined effects of changes in farm prices and of projected increases 
in costs of processing and distnbuting food raise the projected aver- 
age retail food price index during the 1975 crop year by 8% or 9% 
above the level of January through March 1975 The projected ef- 
fects of exports which include an additional 1 million tons of grain, 
about the amount purchased by the Soviet Union in July 1975, are 
to raise farm prices of feed grains and wheat by 10% to 12%, to reduce 
stocks of grains remaining at the end of the 1975 crop year, and to 
decrease livestock feeding during the year Realized net farm income 
in the 1975 crop year is projected to rise 10% and the retail food price 
index to rise an additional 1% over the first situation. The projected 
effects of an export situation including 20 million more tons of gram 
and 25 million more bushels of soybeans than the first situation are 
similar to those of the second situation, but somewhat larger. Farm 
prices of food grains, wheat, and soybeans could rise 13% to 17%, the 
realized net farm income 14%, and the retail food price index 1.4% 
above the figures projected in the second situation. (SC) 



261 

Agricultural Research and Development: Background Papers. 75-H702- 
19. September 1975. 179 pp. 

Report to the House Committee on Science and Technology: 
Science, Research and Technology Subcommittee; the House Com- 
mittee on Science and Technology: Domestic and International 
Scientific Planning and Analysis Subcommittee. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Science and Tech- 
nology: Science, Research and Technology Subcommittee; House 
Committee on Science and Technology: Domestic and International 
Scientific Planning and Analysis Subcommittee. 

The field of agricultural research and development has been given 
high priority by Congress which realizes that recent food shortages 
in various parts of the world may be part of long term trends which 
could lead to increasingly severe global food problems It has been 
said that improved technology is the world's only hope of substan- 
tially increasing food production; if this is the case, the United States' 
principal contribution to world food production in the long run will 
be through sharing of our technology to help other countries increase 
their agricultural production. This technological contribution may be 
in the fields of agricultural production efficiency, post production 
losses, biological efficiency, energy, nutrition, remote sensing, and 
other areas. A Working Conference on Research to Meet U.S. and 
World Needs will meet in July 1975 to identify research issues 
related to the capacity of the United States to meet its domestic and 
international food needs. The world food crisis has its origins in long 
term economic, political, and social trends; bad weather is only an 
immediate cause. Food supply and demand projections assume that 
food production and distribution technology will continue to im- 
prove as a result of research and education in both developed and 
developing countries. Other factors under man's control which can 
shape the world's future food needs are: population policies; resource 
use and consumption patterns; research and education; political, so- 
cial, and economic organization; and international trade and food 
reserves, (DS) 

75 



262 



Congreiilonol Documents on Fo 



262 

1975 Food Price Study, Part 1: Food Prices, the Federal Safe. 

75-S581-15 October 1, 1975. 198 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs 

Congreitlonal Relovanea; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

Authority: P.L. 88-354 H.R. 9182 (94th Cong,). 

Testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and 
Human Need was presented by members of the academic, farm, 
Federal, private, and congressional communities who were con- 
cerned with food prices. Discussion included the economics of food 
pricing, and effects on consumers and farmers Antitrust legislation 
before the House of Representatives was discussed. (SS) 



263 

1976 U.S. Agricultural Outlook. 75-S162-29, December 18, 1975. 
434 pp. 

Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 
Papers presented at the National Agricultural Outlook Conference, 
Washington, D.C, November 17-20, 1975. 

Organization Concerned! Department of Agriculture, 
Congreiilonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry. 

The National Agricultural Outlook Conference is sponsored each 
year by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to provide the 
agricultural industry with the latest information on production, 
prices, input supplies, and the demand situation. Continuing uncer- 
tainty for agriculture and a virtual reversal in the trends for many 
commodities between 1974 and 1975 make the projections aired at 
the Conference particularly significant. Topics covered at the confer- 
ence included: the 1976 U.S. economic outlook and the changing 
world economy; the world agricultural situation and outlook and the 
outlook for U.S. agricultural trade; the outlook for food supplies and 
prices; the outlook for USDA food programs; projections with regard 
to the cost of producing agricultural commodities; women in agricul- 
ture and the implications of International Women's Year on agricul- 
tural extension work; and commodity outlooks for wheat, rice, feed 
"-" 'Iseeds, fats and oils, livestock and meat, poultry and eggs, 
iucts, fruits and tree nuts, vegetables, timber products, 
tton, sugar, and corn sweeteners. A variety of topics in 
amily living were also explored, including: clothing and 
tttons, family expenditures, the impact of inflation on 
sing trends affecting the family, use of energy by 
orities for USDA research to meet family needs, die- 
'or food stamp families, and the Nutrient Data Bank. 



264 

1975 Food Price Study, Part 2; A Questionnaire Approach to Determine 
Food Price Factors, 75-S582-15, December 1975. 294 pp. 
Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 
Needs, 

Organization Concerned: Massachusetts: Special Legislative Com- 
mittee on Food Pricing and Marketing Procedure of Food Chains. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs, 

Authority: Consumer Protection Act, Massachusetts General Laws, 
ch. 93, para. 1-2. H. 6581, Massachusetts Legislature. Fair Trade 
Law, Massachusetts General Laws, ch. 93, para. 14. 



A questionnaire was developed to elicit price information hi 
meat packers and retail outlets, but these members of the food iiuh 
try continued to be reluctant to answer questions. It was believed tf 
the questionnaire approach could result in two significant adva 
tages- specific breakdowns of data and a clear picture of the practic 
of market leaders within specific relevant markets as distinct fro 
industry averages in general Budget constraints precluded the use 
subpoenas to force answers from the industry. A Massachusetts go 
eminent questionnaire sent to grocery store chains met with ll 
same resistance as the congressional questionnaire. (Anthor/SS) 



265 

1975 Food Price Study, Part 3; Concentration in Hie ffetf 

75-S582-16. December 1975 22 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Hume 

Needs. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Niilrilio 

and Human Needs. 

Authority! United States v. Von's Grocery Co. (384 U.S. 270). 

The relationships between price and slaughter in two wholcsal 
beef markets were compared reflecting conditions in two lime pc;i 
ods: January 1970 to mid-1971 and 1974. The market relationship 
compared were between live price and slaughter and between cnrens 
price and slaughter Analysis of the data was complicated by atnlisli 
cal aberrations. Included is an analysis of the effect of groin price 
on live cattle prices and a comparison of market relations in risin 
and falling markets. Data were collected from: Omahn live prices fa 
1,100 to 1,300 pound steers, statistics of Federally inspected US 
slaughter of cattle, National Provisioner carcass prices for yich 
grade three 600 to 700 pound steers, the price of no 2 yellow grain 
on the Chicago market, and retail prices determined for use In tin 
computation of USDA beef price spreads. (Author/SS) 



266 

1975 Food Price Study, Part 4: Economic Organization of the A/tf/toj 

and Bread Industry. 75-S582-17. December 1975. 39pp. -|- nppen 

dices (106 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Congreitlonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

Bread prices have risen more rapidly in recent years than those 
for many other food items. Between 1967 and 1972, domestic ship- 
ments of bread-type flour rose 6.2%, and the value of shipments of 
all primary flour milling industry products rose about 3%. Capital 
expenditures were up 14.1%. The number of mills dccreosed by 
18.7% overall. After a period of declining industry concent ration, tins 
share of the market for the largest millers increased rapidly. The 
overall increase in wheat flour production since 1967, combined with 
mill closings, seemed to indicate a greater rate of plant capacity 
utilization. The average value added to a bushel of wheat increased 
between 1963 and 1967, An examination of grain elevator ownership 
by the large milling firms revealed no significant trends. Profits could 
not be properly assessed. Several larger milling companies began to 
buy into other non-food related fields, and capital expenditures rose 
dramatically. The volume of sales of white pan bread has decrenscd, 
but the price increased. In each of three census years, members of a 
subindustry group accounted for 99% of all national sales of bread. 
Several instances of violations of antitrust laws were found. (Au- 
thor/SS) 



Food 



Congrettional Document* on Food 



270 



267 

1975 Food Price Study 5: A Preliminary Evaluation of USDA's Farm to 

Retail Price Spread Series. 75-S582-18 December 1975. 30pp. + 9 

appendices (19 pp). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs. 

Prepared by the Staff of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition. 

Organisation Concerned: Department of Agriculture. 
Congrettlonal Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs 

In recent years there has been a rapid rise in food prices with an 
accompanying increase in the spread or difference between prices 
received by farmers and prices paid at the retail level. In 1972, an 
annual market basket for a family of four was estimated to cost 
51,310.82. By 1974, this figure increased by 33% to $1,749.56. Dur- 
ing the period from January 1974 to March 1975, farm values de- 
creased from 185.7 to 170.5 (based on a 1967 index), while retail 
costs increased from 155.5 to 168.5. The Department of Agriculture 
has attempted to explain the increased costs and profits at the proc- 
essing, wholesaling, and retailing levels, but estimates on spreads 
involve many uncertainties. Cost components of the following prod- 
uct groups were chosen for analysis: beef and pork, including assem- 
bly, processing, and wholesaling; bread, including millers and 
baker/whoUyjaler and retail spreads; apples, including packing, 
wholesaling, and retailing; potatoes; fresh milk; and butter, including 
farm value, manufacturing and wholesale, and retailing. (HTW) 



269 

Food Industry Studies. 76-S582-2. January 1976. 507 
Report prepared by the staff of the Select Committee on Nutri- 
tion and Human Needs, United States Senate. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs. 

The Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs 
drafted in-depth questionnaires on the wholesaling and retailing of 
beef in an effort to investigate the reliability of present data bases and 
to obtain data on price factors However, industry officials in general 
offered only aggregated information which cannot provide an ade- 
quate basis for assigning costs factors, A questionnaire prepared by 
the Special Commission Relative to the Pricing and Marketing 
Procedures of Grocery Store Chains in the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts was also resisted by industry officials. Both of these ques- 
tionnaires are printed without the requested data An analysis of the 
monthly changes in the retail costs, and the farm-to-retail "spread" 
of a market basket of food for the period January 1974 through 
March 1975 showed that, while farm values decreased, retail costs 
increased. This caused the difference between the prices which farm- 
ers received and the prices paid by consumers at the retail level, or 
the "spread," to increase substantially. A major shift has occurred in 
recent times with respect to the size of the "spread" figures Specific 
cost increases, such as those for energy, labor, and packaging, have 
had a significant impact on the food processing and retailing indus- 
tries. It is necessary to acquire more reliable figures in order to 
develop a clearer picture of the varying nature of each segment of the 
food industry and greater understanding of the responsibility for and 
justification of rising food costs. (SQ 



260 

Do Retail Footl Prices Adjust to Farm Price Changes without Undue Lag? 
A Report on the Data A vailabJe and Required to Answer Tliat Question. 
75-H162-3. 1975. 12 pp. 4- appendix (7 pp.), 
Report to the House Committee on Agriculture: Domestic Market- 
ing and Consumer Relations Subcommittee. 

Organization Concerned; Federal Trade Commission; Department 
of Agriculture: Economic Research Service; Council on Interna- 
tional Economic Policy. 

Congroitlonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture: 
Domestic Marketing and Consumer Relations Subcommittee. 

There is congressional interest in information regarding how re- 
tail food prices respond to changes in farm prices, and in particular, 
where in the food marketing chain the lags occur between changes 
in the farm, price of commodities and comparable changes in the 
retail price paid by the consumer. Data presently collected by the 
Government are not sufficiently specific or timely to allow meaning- 
ful interpretation of price changes and profit margins throughout the 
system and, therefore, to determine when undue lags in price adjust- 
ments occur. The minimum data needed are gross margin data col- 
lected on specific foods at each stage of the food marketing chain 
where significant pricing discretion is exercised. There are several 
problems relative to industry's ability and willingness to report the 
dala necessary for computing gross margins. These problems include 
confidentiality of data, availability of data in the form needed, and 
costs of data reporting. The Economic Research Service is the logical 
agency to assume primary responsibility for expanded data collec- 
tion. The Hne-of-business reporting program of the Federal Trade 
Commission, while useful in fulfilling the antitrust enforcement re- 
sponsibilities of that agency, could not be readily adapted to the 
detailed monitoring needs required. There is a need for expanded 
data collection on beef and pork margins. The collection of new data 
on beef and pork should be instructive for decisions about expanding 
new techniques of data collection to other foods. (SW) 

Food 



270 

Survey of Retail Food Industry Pricing Practices. Summary Results of 

Consumer Shopping Behavior Pricing Study. 76-S262-9. May 26, 

1976. 69 pp. 

Report to the Senate Committee on Commerce. 

Printed at the direction of Sen. Warren G. Magnuson, Chairman, 

Senate Committee on Commerce. 

Congretilonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Commerce 
Authority: Price Disclosure Act; S.997 (94th Cong.) Fair Packaging 
and Labeling Act. 

A letter of inquiry was sent to the retail food industry requesting 
information on the use of automated check out systems, current 
limitations on item pricing, and planned elimination of item pricing. 
Responses from about 50 grocery chains are included. The results of 
a Consumer Shopping Behavior Pricing Study conducted by re- 
searchers at Michigan State University and the University of Ver- 
mont for the Ad Hoc Committee of the Grocery Industry for the 
Development of the Universal Product Code (UPC) indicated that 
there are significant negative impacts on the consumer concurrent 
with the removal of individual item pricing in food products. There 
were significantly fewer price comparisons mftde in UPC-Scanner 
Prices Off stores than in conventional stores and significantly in- 
creased price awareness in conventional stores. The public Policy 
Subcommittee of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Universal Product 
Code issued a statement following the conclusion of the study recom- 
mending that all stores retain traditional methods of item pricing. 
Most of the chains responding to the retailers' questionnaire in- 
dicated that they would retain unit pricing idefinitely. Comments by 
the retail food industry's trade association and a copy of the staff 
working draft of S, 997 (94th Congress), a bill to amend the Fair 
Packaging and Labeling Act to require the disclosure of retail unit 
prices of consumer commodities are included. (SC) 

77 



371 



Congreiiionol Doeumenli on Food 



Coat of Producing Milk in the United Stales, 1974, 76-S162-12 June 
II, 1976 15 pp -f 8 appendices (58 pp) 
Rfp)n to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 
Prepared by the Economic Research Service of the U.S Department 
of Agriculture 

Cngtulono! Relavonee; Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry 

Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L 

93-86) 

The Economic Research Service conducted a survey of dairy 
farmers in 24 major tnilk-pcoducmg areas to obtain information for 
esfimatmg the average cost of producing milk in 1974. Several esti- 
mates of average costs per cow milked and per hundredweight of 
milk were computed, based on different methods of valuing feed and 
Und, Two methods were used to value homegrown feed fed to dairy 
livestock, at the cost of producing the feed and at average prices 
received by the farmers Two method were used to value owner- 
operated land current value for agricultural use and average acquisi- 
tion value. Direct costs averaged $6.74 per hundredweight of milk 
valuing homegrown feed at cost of production and $761 per hun- 
dredweight valmng feed at prices received by farmers. An imputed 
management charge and overhead costs averaged Si .32 per hundred- 
weight. Imputed land allocations, depending on the method used, 
were an additional SO 52 of S0.99 per hundredweight. The average 
pnce received for milk in 1974 as reported by the farmers surveyed 
was S8J9 per hundredweight. Direct costs varied widely among 
subregions, ranging from $5.54 in Minnesota to $9.24 in Florida. 
Feed comprises the largest component of direct cost, averaging $3.57 
per hundred weight when valued at costs of production. The second 
largest component of cost is labor, which averted $1.23 over all 
subrcgions and ranged from S0.75 to $1 63. The remaining one- 
fourth of direct costs is composed of building and equipment costs, 
interest and depreciation on livestock investment, interest on operat- 
ing capital, and miscellaneous costs. (Author/SQ 



372 

Food ' fi&nvtan Sjatoi* 5*^,7 ^ Analysis. 76-/9S2- 
M. August 1976. 76 pp. -j- 4 appendices (9 pp.) 



T, ' 

t: Technology Assessment Board. 

Prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Cop- 



inadequate analysis, especially by the overseas network of agricul- 
tural attaches; and USDA's fragmented organizational structure 
which hinders effectiveness and promotes institutional conflicts of 
interest. The principal improvement in the FAO system has been Ihe 
increased attention being given to the establishment of an Early 
Warning and Agricultural Information System. The United Stales 
can play a key role in helping FAO and the developing countries to 
improve their information systems. (Author/SC) 



273 

Marketing Alternatives far Agriculture: Is There a Seller Way? 
76-S162-10. November 1976. 109 pp. 

Report to Sen. Walter D. Huddleston, Chairman, Senate Committee 
on Agriculture and Forestry: Agricultural Production, Marketing 
and Stabilization of Prices Subcommittee, 

Orgnnlxatlon Contained! Department of Agriculture, 
Catw*tlonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry. Agricultural Production, Marketing and Stabilization of 
Prices Subcommittee. 

An ad hoc committee of 26 agricultural economists from land 
grant universities and the U.S. Department of Agriculture was 
formed to assess the question, "Is there a better way for farmers fo 
market VheiT products?" The initial paper in the collection attempts 
to identify the real or imagined concerns that farmers, agribusiness, 
and the public have about the marketing system. Each of the 10 
papers then discusses one or more specific policy issue which coul J 
affect substantially the market options open to farmers, Some 
proposals involve rather narrow and specific proposals of interest to 
a few commodities; others propose sweeping changes which could 
affect everyone in the economy, Some of the proposals suggest mat- 
mg (he competitive open market work better, while others, In effect, 
suggest abandoning the competitive open market througli the deve- 
lopment of farmer group action and market power. Most of the 
proponb focus mainly on the domestic market, although one 
proposal considers the possibility of a more centralized control of 
export trade. Three papers suggest institutional arrangements de- 
signed to improve market access, increase and improve the amount 
oi information available concerning markets to farmers, and improve 
the process of price determination. The market institutions discussed 
m five papers would involve group action and, in some coses, sub- 
stantial changes in legislation to make more group action possible. 
t. 



Office of Technol 8y * 



? 

Economic Re^ &^L5Sff ..A**? 11 "? Service, 
* key USDA units rr*mW. r ' , *<*"*"> Service are 



J74 



S ' A8ricultural Outlook ' 75-S162-18. December 10, 1976, 
Repon to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

n r at M 6 M f nal A *"cult U ral Outlook Conference, 
on, D.C., November IMS, 1976. 



Fo 



Department of Agriculture, 
Rel ' vanc " &** Committee on Agriculture and 

S? B ?? 1977 ' Nallonal Environmental Policy Act of 
" " " 



' 

' A 8 ricu ural Ad ustment Act of J933. 

' S U Conse "<>n and Domes- 



is 



ducts wl 



Wh Pr CflSS and market farm 
o n prices, production, input sup- 



Congressional Documents on Food 



278 



plies, and demand The conference also projects the direction and 
magnitude of figricultural trends for the coming year The overall 
topics which were addressed in the 1977 conference on the national 
agricultural outlook were; U.S. economic and agricultural outlook- 
food-supplies, demand and consumption; agricultural inputs and 
productivity; U.S. agriculture in the world; U.S. agricultural policy- 
commodity outlook and family living. This conference also dealt 
with (he interrelationship of formerly distinct policy areas of agricul- 
ture, domestic food, and foreign food. (SW) 



275 

Cosls of Producing Selected Crops in the United Slates: 1975, 1976 and 

Projection'; for 1977. 77-S162-1 January 21, 1977. 46 pp. 

Report to Sen. Herman E. Talmadge, Chairman, Senate Committee 

on Agriculture and Forestry. 

Prepared by the Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of 

Agriculture. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry. 

Authority: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P L 
93-86). v ' ' 

Wliilc farm product prices have been relatively favorable in re- 
cent years, the cost of producing the Nation's food supply is of 
continuing importance. A comprehensive program of research on 
cost production is carried out by the Commodity Economics Divi- 
sion of the Economic Research Service. Data for the cost of produc- 
tion estimates come from a variety of sources, but the primary source 
for major crops is the 1974 survey of over 4,000 producers. Produc- 
tion costs vary significantly over time, from farm to farm, and across 
States and regions. In 1976, changes in per acre production costs 
from 1975 levels varied from an 8% increase for cotton to a 2% 
decrease for corn. In general, declining fertilizer prices helped offset 
cost increases for most other input items. Yields per plant acre in 
1976 were below 1975 levels for all crops except cotton. Because 
yields decreased relatively more than costs, unit costs increased for 
all of the 10 crops examined. Per planted acre costs are expected to 
increase for all ten commodities in 1977 over a projected range of 
from 4% to 7%. Slight reductions in per unit costs could occur for 
corn, grain sorghum, peanuts, and soybeans if projected planted acre 
yields are realized. Significant reductions in costs per bushel from 
1976 could result for flax and oats. Per bushel costs of wheat and 
barley may be about the same. Slight increases in costs per unit for 
cotton and rice can be expected if projected yields materialize. (Au- 
Ihor/SC) 



276 

Costs of Producing Milk in the United States, 1975 and 1976, 

77-S 162-3. February 25, 1977. 45 pp. 

Report to Sen. Herman E. Talmadge, Chairman, Senate Committee 

on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 

Prepared by the Economic Research Service of the Department of 

Agriculture. 

Organization Concerned) Department of Agriculture. 
Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry. 

Authority! Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (P.L. 
93-86). 

Rapid increases and fluctuations in the prices of inputs used by 
farmers have increased the need for current and consistent informa- 
tion on the costs of producing major agricultural commodities, A 
comprehensive program of research on the cost of production is 
carried out by the Commodity Economics Division of the Economic 



Research Service. Data for the cost of production estimates come 
from a variety of sources, but the primary source for dairy informa- 
tion is the 1974 survey of almost 1,600 producers. It cost an es- 
timated weighted average of $9.48 to produce a hundredweight of 
milk in the United States in 1975. The preliminary estimate for 1976 
is $9.40 The cost per cow, including replacement heifer costs, in- 
creased almost $85 from 1975 to 1976. The cost per hundredweight 
decreased $0.08. The average price received per hundredweight of 
milk, for the production areas covered by the study, was $8.59 in 
1975 and an estimated $9.57 in 1976. The average return per hun- 
dredweight in 1 975 to the operator and family's labor, management 
and risk was $0 99. In 1976, the estimated return to the operator was 
$2.03. Direct costs,, which include total feed costs and most cash 
costs, account for 64% of total costs. They varied widely among 
farms and regions, but averaged $6.05 per hundredweight in 1975 
and $6.06 in 1976. Feed comprises the largest component of both 
direct and total costs, and labor costs are the second lareest comrjo- 
nent. (SC) H 



277 

The Profit and Price Performance of Leading Food Chains, 1970-74. 
77-J842-17. April 12, 1977. 82 pp. + 6 appendices (50 pp.) 
Report to Rep. Richard Boiling, Chairman, Joint Economic Commit- 
tee. 

Congressional Relevance: Joint Economic Committee. 

There has been a long-term trend towards larger and fewer stores 
and increased concentration in food retailing. Grocery chains have 
gained a steadily increasing share of grocery store sales, from 34% 
in 1948 to 57% in 1972. Taken together with increasing concentra- 
tion among grocery wholesalers, the result is a relatively small and 
declining number of buyers who largely determine which products 
will gain access to supermarket shelves. The share of grocery store 
sales held by the largest retailers in metropolitan areas has also 
gradually but steadily risen. This is particularly important because 
competition among retailers as sellers occurs in local markets rather 
than in regional or national markets. The following factors have been 
found to be positively related to changes in market concentration: the 
number of large chains in a market; the entry of large chains by 
internal growth; entry by large chains and by large nongrocery store 
firms through acquisition of an existing grocery retailer; and horizon- 
tal mergers that increase the market share of the top four retailers in 
a market. Statistical analysis of chain profitability revealed that prof- 
its are significantly higher in markets where a few firms control most 
grocery store sales, The analysis also found that when a chain has a 
dominant share of a market, it enjoys substantially higher profits than 
in markets where it has small shares. There is strong evidence that 
"monopoly overcharges" are likely in markets that are dominated by 
one or two firms and/or where sales are highly concentrated among 
the largest four firms. (Author/SC) 



278 

Conservation of the Land and the Use of Waste Materials for Man's 

Benefit. 75-S162-16. May 25, 1977. 69pp. 

Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

Congressional Relevance! Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry. 

Authority: P.L. 92-500. 

The acreage in cropland in the United States is increasing, and 
most cropland is being used more intensively, particularly by in- 
creased use of row crops. As a result, exposure of the soils to erosion 
is increasing. Land that has been shifted from agricultural use to the 
open market is often of high quality. Planning and legislation may be 



Food 



79 



278 



Congressional Document* on Food 



rcil-jin.) M in-ure lh.it the long term ink-rest of the public is given 

<, ,>ierji'n,i in hiul use decisions In developing and implementing 

jgn ultiirjl i .ml use pu!n-> , the nature and diversity of soils, water 
a.Jilibil.i). J'tiuiiL LU minions, and ihc polential conlnbutions of 
inrm'steJ anJ afletted citizens should be given consideration Soil 
ermvn aealcs a serious sedimentation problem which pollutes sur- 
fa.c wjteii ?>oma of the highest sediment yields come from the most 
IwluUHC and most intensively cultivated soils Actions are needed 
that 'Ail! promote the beneficial use or increased efficiency of use of 
s*jge *li,Jgcs and animal manures The land remains the most 
wab'c alternative for disposition of the waste products through land- 
fill or appLcation to croplands The heavy-metal content of animal 
manure, does not usually create a problem with land use, whereas the 
hravy meiali in sewage sludge* represent a potential hazard for 
ifng term use Both materials create odors and nuisances if improp- 
erl> managed Research data have demonstrated that properly 
treated nr processed animal manures can be effectively used to feed 
ar.im.iK No harmful effects are imposed on people or livestock 
through the use of animal manures as feed (SW) 



INTERNATIONAL FOOD 



279 

Impact* of Domestic and Foreign Food Programs on the U.S. Agricultural 

Economy 73-S582-1 October 1973. 18 pp. 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human 

Needs 

Prepared by the Economic Research Service, Department of 

Agriculture 



Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Department 
of Agriculture Economic Research Service. 

Congreulonal Relevance; Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs 

Authority: Food Aid Act (P.L [83J-480). Food Stamp Act Food for 
Peace Act of 1966 S. Res 157 (93rd Cong,}. 

Foreign food programs, in addition to serving humanitarian pur- 
poses, have prov.ded economic inputs for developing more viable 
econom.es in many nations and opened new trade channels for U S 
agncultural producers Foreign and, to a lesser extent, domestic food 
dis nbutum programs have provided outlets for more than $20 billion 
m foods acqmred through price stabilization and surplus remova" 

I H r^w f :' Dg b th the U ' S farmer and "- a Z 
nd abroad. Wuh bonus food stamps increasing food expenditures of 
low mcome families by at least SI billton or more 
approximately S900 miHion being spent for free 






280 

U.S. and World Fowl Security. 74-S162-6. March 15, 1974. 71 pp. 
Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry: 
Agricultural Production, Marketing nnd Stabilization of Prices Sub- 
committee. 

Congratslonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry: Agricultural Production, Marketing and Stabilization of 
Prices Subcommittee. 

The medium-term food outlook for the world has never been so 
unpredictable and potentially unstable As a safeguard agninst uncer- 
tainties, a more systematic world food security policy nnd a closer 
coordination of national adjustment, food aid, and stock policies nre 
required. U.S. grain reserves are by far the lowest since World Wnr 
II, and carryover stocks are dwindling and are expected to go even 
lower. The current issues are whether stocks should be stabilized 
within some boundaries and how to accomplish this. If the U.S. is to 
reap the advantages of being a major supplier to the world grain 
market and avoid the disadvantages, it must develop a food nnd 
agriculture policy which enables it to sustain nnd increase Jls export 
sales while at the same time insulating itself from adverse worldwide 
market forces. Trends in U.S. and global grain production since 1 950 
are analyzed to find relationships between size of stocks, proportion 
of shortfalls that could have been met, and storage costs. The world 
food and agricultural situation is balanced precariously between a 
little too much and a little too little, "feast or famine, " and U is 
impossible to predict the supply-disposition situation beyond the 
current crop year. The World Food Conference, scheduled for 
November 1974, offers an opportunity to plan cooperative action 
toward minimum world food security, including food aid and disaster 
relief; the success of the Conference will depend upon how effec- 
tively the involved governments cooperate in turning a proposal into 
an effective system. (DS) 



281 

National Nutrition Policy: Selected Papers on Footl Security ami 

Availability, 74-5582-21. June 1974. 19 pp. 

JjSwrtjo the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition nnd Human 

Needs; by Emma M. Blacken, Analyst, Congressional Rescnrch Ser- 

vice. 

Congnulonol Relovance, Senate Select Committee on Nulrition 
and Human Needs. 

In the first of four papers included in this working paper, Addeke 

H. Boerma Solving the World's Food Problem," urges swift nation 

unsure suffic,ent food for the world's population to lead healthy, 

active : 1 iv He recommends extensive population control, globally- 

0ui?? 7 T dUCtl n ' and increased foreign aid. The second paper, 
G oba Food Insecurity," by Lester R. Brown, is a discussion of 
me ea ing world affluence flnd ^^ ^ ^ 

North A - 0mme " tS n the P SSibility f a P eriod of u*h{ in 
CaU ' nme f d 8horta 8 cs - The *W W * 
P PUlation " Presented ' United 






80 



Food 



Congressional Document* on Food 



285 



282 

The World Food Conference: Selected Materials for the Use of the U.S. 
Congressional Delegation to the World Food Conference, Rome, Italy 
November 5-16, I974i 74-S162-20. October 30, 1974 378 pp 
Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry: Fo- 
reign Agricultural Policy Subcommittee. 

Organisation Concerned: Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare; United Nations: Food and Agriculture Organization; 
Agency for International Development. 

Congressional Relevance* Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry: Foreign Agricultural Policy Subcommittee 
Authority! P.L. 83-480 

The present world food crisis suddenly emerged m a pronounced 
form m 1972; it was the first time in more than 20 years that the 
output of food m the world declined. In particular, world output of 
cereals fell by a large amount, 33 million tons. It was also the first 
lime in recent decades that adverse weather affected production in 
several parts of the world. The tight food situation was accentuated 
by a boom in economic activity in the developed countries which led 
to a high demand for commodities. With dwindling food reserves, the 
food aid programs to developing countries were cut There was also 
a fertilizer shortage which was related to the rise in petroleum prices 
in late 1973. To meet the contingency of a worldwide food shortage, 
the U.N. Food .and Agriculture Organization has endorsed the 
proposal to build up a worldwide network of national stocks of ce- 
reals. There is also a need to establish an emergency reserve, mainly 
of cereals, to be used when acute shortages occur in a particular 
country or region. The worldwide food information system needs to 
be strengthened in order to have notice of possible local food crises. 
Existing nutritional programs to countries whose people are mal- 
nourished should be given high priority The vital demand for fertil- 
izer in developing countries should be met by specific measures to 
bring about a better balance between growing demand and supply. 
Food production needs to be expanded more rapidly in developing 
countries. The import financing problems of most developing coun- 
tries need to be dealt with, perhaps by price stabilization schemes and 
trade barrier reduction. (SW) 



stockpile, improved detection of shortages, technical assistance to 
improve agricultural productivity, population control programs, in- 
ternational food reserves, and improved monitoring of farm exports, 
(HTW) 



284 

World Food Conference, 74-H382-1 1974. 16 pp 
Report to Rep. Thomas E. Morgan, Chairman, House Committee on 
International Relations; by the Special Mission to Europe, Novem- 
ber 6-17, 1974, House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions. 
Authorltyi P L. [83]-480. 

The special mission attended the World Food Conference held in 
Rome from November 5-16, 1974, with Congressmen Clement Za- 
blocki and Pierre S. duPont serving as congressional advisers to the 
U S. delegation. Agreement was reached at the Conference on the 
need for increased food production and priorities to be given to 
agriculture. Participants at the Conference approved a fund for aid- 
ing developing countries to expand food production, recommended 
a commitment by donor countries to food aid of at least 10 million 
tons of grain a year, and endorsed international cooperation for 
setting up grain reserves. They decided on establishment of a global 
information and early warning system and stressed the need for 
eliminating trade barriers. The conference called for creation of a 
World Food Council to provide coordination To meet immediate 
needs, the mission believed that the United States should provide 
increased food aid for short-term emergencies. Disagreements about 
U.S. emergency food aid centered on the levels of shipments and on 
how much food should be allocated according to humanitarian needs 
and how much on the basis of political considerations The mission 
recommended; meeting urgent hunger needs, efforts to enlist the aid 
of food exporters and nations who can contribute financially, follow- 
through action on Food Conference recommendations, efforts to 
increase agricultural production, and a basic review of #P.L. 480 
legislation to determine what changes may be needed to update the 
U.S. food aid system. (HTW) 



aea 

Global Commodity Scarcities in an Interdependent World. 74-H382- 

44. 1974. 36 pp. 

Report to Rep. Thomas E. Morgan, Chairman, House Committee on 

International Relations. 

Report by the Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy of the 

House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 

Organization Concerned: Organization of Petroleum Exporting 
Countries. 

Congreitlonal Relevance: //ouse Committee on International Rela- 
tions; House Committee on International Relations: International 
Economic Policy and Trade Subcommittee. 

An inquiry into global commodity scarcities focused on supply 
deficiencies and increased prices of petroleum, other minerals, and 
food. Artificially contrived petroleum cutbacks by the Organization 
of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have contributed to 
recession and balance of payments problems, with the most serious 
impact on less developed countries. Although the formation of 
OPEC-type cartels seems to be unlikely, exporting nations have 
taken actions to raise world commodity prices. There are differences 
of opinion as to whether scarcities are due to long term depletion of 
the world's resources, Market adjustments may involve time lags 
with disproportionate impacts on low income groups. Action should 
be taken by the United States dealing with: access to supply, research 
and development of substitutes, formation of international institu- 
tions for recycling petrodollars, reconstitution of the strategic U.S. 



265 

Hunger and Diplomacy: A Perspective of the U.S. Roleatthe WorldFood 
Conference. 7S-S162-6. February 4, 1975. 14 pp. + 7 appendices 
(154 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry Fo- 
reign Agricultural Policy Subcommittee. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; United Na-' 

tions. 

Congressional Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Forestry; Foreign Agricultural Policy Subcommittee. 

Authority: P.L. [83J-480. 

The World Food Conference was held in Rome, Italy, November 
5-16, 1974. A framework was developed for concerted international 
action on the food problem, and U.S. objectives were almost com- 
pletely achieved. The World Food Council will be a high level, limit- 
ed-membership United Nations (UN) organ charged with overall 
review of followup action in all food policy areas. While assigned a 
coordinating role, it will have no authority beyond morality to force 
action on the part of governments of UN bodies A global informa- 
tion and-early warning system on food and agriculture was agreed to 
by the conference. The system would provide nations with timely 
and improved information on anticipated crop and stock levels, 
weather difficulties, unusual demand, and other factors affecting 



Food 



81 



285 



Congreilonnl Documents on food 



world food availability A sjstem of nationally held but mternation- 
all> c'wrdinatcd food reserves was proposed. A proposal was en- 
dorsed tailing for the establishment of a global network of nationally 
heM gram reserves, entailing [he negotiation of rules and guidelines 
for national stock holding policies, access to grain supplies, interna- 
tional conjugations and exchange of information A recommenda- 
tion was adopted providing lhat food aid donor countries should 
make all efforts to provide food commodities or the financing of food 
commodities to insure the availability of len million tons of food 
assntarue annually to the developing world Developing countries 
were asked to reorder their programs, priorities, and farmer incen- 
tives to stimulate their domestic food production. (SW) 



286 

Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger. 75-H382-38. August 
15, 1975 39 PP 

Report Portions of the Report of the House Committee on Inter- 
national Relations. 

Organization Concarnad: Agency for International Development. 
Consrv it tonal Relavenca: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions 

Authority: International Development and Food Assistance Act of 
1975, H R. 9005 Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. P.L [83J-480. 

H.R. 9005 seeks to consolidate the gains of the reform of the 
foreign aid program passed by Congress in 1973 by: giving the 
Agency for International Development further guidance in carrying 
out the "New Directions" mandate; eliminating or reorienting fund- 
ing categories which represent more traditional approaches to deve- 
lopment aid; integrating "New Directions" policy into overseas 
distribution aspects of the P L 480 food aid programs; and providing 
an identification for the program apart from military assistance and 
short-range political aid Innovations in the bill would: use the 
capabilities of America's agricultural universities for providing re- 
sults of research to small farmers in developing countries; give clearer 
focus and a special source of funding for aid to disaster victims; help 
countries solve their energy problems; and expand efforts to develop 
and disseminate "intermediate technology" for less-developed coun- 
tries The bill would add to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, title 
XII, Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger. Sections under 
Title III, Development Assistance, deal with policy, nutrition, fo- 
reign currencies, loans, agricultural research, population planning, 
technical assistance, energy research, education, human resources 
development, reconstruction, the role of women, hospitals, housing 
and reimbursable programs. (HTW) 



287 

7? Hf rt^T*' ^ tte**to**l Grain Reserves System. 
75-H382-60. November 1975. 9 pp + 3 appendices (9 pp.). 

.! W. mW E u M r8an ' Ch8irman ' House C mmi tee n 
Interna t.onal Relates; by a StafTStudy Mission to the September 

?ory OroJp mCeEm8 f thC Iotemational Wheat Council Prepara- 
Orsonliallofl Concern.* International Wheat Council Preparatory 
C*nflr.,,|onc,l advance, ff olue Committee on International Rela- 
Authority: H.R. 9005 (94th Cong.) H. Res. 1399 (93rd Cong) 

82 



was established to consider possible bases for an agreement to replace 
the present International Wheat Agreement, The principal features 
of the U.S. proposal to the Preparatory Group were: reserves totaling 
30 million metric tons of wheat and rice in excess of working stocks 
would be established; each participating nation would be responsible 
for holding an equitable share and would pay for costs of managing 
reserves; reserves would be built up or released according lo guide 
lines for coordinated action; shortage situations would be met first 
through a warning stage and then, if necessary, through release of 
reserves; participants would receive assured access to reserves; and 
developing countries would receive aid. No estimates of the cost to 
the United States of this system have been made public, but advan- 
tages and increased price stability would result from spreading costs 
of reserves among nations. Many problems remain in reaching inter- 
national agreement, but the United States can encourage progress by 
reaffirming its position and focusing public attention on issues 
impeding progress. (HTW) 



288 

The United States, FAOand World Food Politics; U.S. Relations with an 
International Food Organization. 76-S582-8. June 1976. 68 pp. 4 

appendix (7 pp.). 

Report to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Huninn 

Needs. 

Organization Concernodi United Nations: Food and Agriculture 

Organization. 

Congressional Relevance! Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 

and Human Needs. 

As the world's largest agricultural producer, the United Stntcs 
should play a more active role in combating worldwide hunger and 
malnutrition. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the 
United Nations was established to raise levels of nutrition and stand- 
ards of Hying, to secure improvements in the efficiency of production 
and distribution of food and agricultural products, to belter the con- 
dition of rural populations, and to contribute to an expanding world 
economy and strive to assure freedom from hunger. For such interna- 
tional organizations to be effective, they must work togetlter with 
national governments to create a global strategy to combat hunger 
and malnutrition through increased food production. This is not 
being done at present. The United States has no coherent, rational, 
and explicit policy consisting of goals, objectives, and priorities for 
FAO and for the United States as a member of FAO; instead, it has 
fragments of policy which tend to be situation- or issue-specific and 
negative rather than positive and creative. The U.S. has supported 
FAO and its programs in general, but only so long as it docs not 
expand too rapidly or become too expensive, Americans participate 
in FAO at many different levels and in many differon t ways, ranging 
from taking part in the governing bodies and their committees to 
working in the field in developing nations. In general, U.S. policy- 
making apparatus has not adapted to FAO's changing role, its growth 
m size and financial resources, and its increasing importance as a 
development-oriented agency, (DS) 



289 

American Foreign Food Assistance: Public Law 480 and Related 

Materials. 76-S162-15. August 13, 1976. 43 pp. 

Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

Organliation Concerned. Agency for International Development; 

Department of Agriculture. 

Congrei.lonal Relevance: Senate Committee on Agriculture and 

Food 



Food 



292 



Authority: A. er ; 



Development and Assistance Act of 



<u IP T r * r * cu ' t u r al Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 ( .L. [8 3}-4go) International Development and Food Assist- 
ance Act of 19-75 



ro M 1 S *' ore 'g n food assistance is provided under the authority 

A fti ? w ** 8 . Popularly called the Food for Peace program 
Under title I O f ^ laW| thfi Commodity Credit Corporation makes 
loans on highly favorable terms to finance the sale of U.S agricultural 
commodities to developing nations. Title II provides authority for 
the President to buy American farm products and donate them to 
American v o l u n tBry agenc j eS| the World Food Program, or to foreign 
governments for distribution to needy individuals abroad. The objec- 
tives ot the F^ood for Peace program are: expanding international 
irade; developing and expanding overseas markets for American 
farm products; preventing or alleviating malnutrition and hunger 
throughout the world; encouraging economic development and im- 
proving food production in less developed countries; providing an 
additional ^outlet for the products of American farms and ranches, 
especially in times of surplus; and advancing the objectives of Ameri- 
can foreign policy. Exports under P.L 480 agreements in the past 
have increased overall U.S agricultural exports when there has been 
a need to do so. In recent years, P.L. 480 shipments have leveled off 
at about SI b i Hi on, down from a high of S 1 .5 billion in the mid-sixties. 
However, considerably smaller quantities are being shipped due to 
substantially higher prices for the commodities programmed. Whe- 
reas the average annual volume of shipments between 1968 and 1 972 
was over 1 1 million metric tons, the average between 1973 and 1975 
fell to about 5.5 million metric tons. (Author/SC) 



290 

Implementation oj Recommendations of the World Food Conference: A 

Report to Congress. 76-H462-3. December 1976. 77 pp 

Report to the House Committee on International Relations. 

Submitted by the Agency for International Development. 

Organization Concerned: Department of Agriculture; Agency for 

International Development; United Nations: Food and Agriculture 

Organization; Consultative Group on International Agricultural Re- 

search. 

Conflrettlon*"! Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 

tions. 

Authority: International Food and Development Assistance Act of 

1975,213 CP.L. 94-161). Foreign Assistance Act, asamended. P.L. 

[83]-480, title I. 

Delegates of 130 governments and representatives of interna- 
tional organizations and private agencies participated in the World 
Food Conference to adopt a common set of goals and objectives for 
the elimination of hunger and malnutrition and to agree on a range 
of measures <lesigned to carry out these objectives. The U.S. Govern- 
ment played a leading role in structuring the conference and in 
formulating tne action program described in 22 resolutions. Now, 2 
ycnrs later tle world as a whole and the developing countries in 
particular have experienced 2 successive years of improved crop 
production. Food prices have eased, stocks are up, fertilizer and 
other agricultural inputs are more available, and their costs have 
stabilized or even declined. In part, these results reflect the produc- 
tive efforts tHt tine conference helped to mobilize. Overall, improved 
outputs have arisen primarily from more favorable weather condi- 
tions in a number of the main producing countries as well as in the 
large food deficit areas. U.S. foreign aid directed toward agricultural 
development hs increased very substantially, and the International 
Fund for A.S ricultural Development was established to promote 
agricultural Development. The focus of new development projects 
has been on the small farmer and rural development. The target 
annual averaS* 5 growth rate for developing countries has been set at 
49 PnoHald to the developing countries, although slightly under the 
10 mill' tons target set by the World Food Conference, has in- 

creased consi<* erably: a major portion of the aid has bce provided 
States. (SW) 



Food 



291 

Use of U.S. Food Resources for Diplomatic Purposes: An Examination of 
the Issues. 77-H462-6. January 1977. 66 pp. + 2 appendices (19 

pp.). 

Report to the House Committee on International Relations. 
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Con- 
gress. 

Organization Concerned: Department of State. 
Congrdislonol Relevance: House Committee on International Rela- 
tions. 

Authority: Export Administration Act (P.L 81-110; 50 U.S.C. App 
2401-13). Equal Export Opportunities Act (P.L. 92-412). P.L. 87- 
515 P.L. 89-63. PL. 93-372. P.L. 93-500. 

Food power is the diplomatic influence that a food-exporting 
country exercises over the decisions and activities of other nations 
either because of the control that the exporting country has over a 
specific market or segment of a market or as a concomitant to the 
ability of the food-exporting country to provide food aid to needy 
countries. The exercise of food power can take a number of forms, 
including diplomatic negotiating positions on terms of commercial 
agricultural trade, entering into long-term supply agreements, unilat- 
eral restrictions on or embargoing of exports to specific countries or 
regions, or various forms of food aid transfers to individual countries. 
Food power can be based either on market control or on the depend- 
ence of specific countries on food aid imports. As a result of its recent 
paramount position in world food markets for wheat, feed grains, and 
soybeans, the United States has had opportunities to exercise food 
power over specific countries based on market control. Recent op- 
portunities for the exercise of food power by the United Staes have 
resulted primarily from world weather patterns rather than from U.S, 
administration policies or legislative action. With few exceptions, 
past limitations on export of U.S. agricultural commodities have not 
proven to be effective mechanisms for exercising food power. To use 
U.S. market control food power effectively in the future would re- 
quire a major restructuring of existing mechanisms for the conduct 
of U.S. foreign agricultural trade in order to increase governmental 
control over the availability, pricing, and disposition of commodities. 
(Author/SC) 



292 

Commodity Storage Conditions in Bangladesh. 76-S382-25. Septem- 
ber 1977. 6 pp. 

Report to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; Foreign As- 
sistance Subcommittee; by Rudolph Rousseau, Staff Member. 

Organization Concerned: Agency for International Development. 
Congrettlonal Relevance; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: 
Foreign Assistance Subcommittee. 
Authority: P.L. [83J-480. 

During the first 9 months of 1976, the United States provided 
about 250,000 tons of Food for Peace wheat, rice, and soybean oil 
valued at more than $50 million to Bangladesh. Knowledgeable ob- 
servers in Bangladesh estimate that 100,000 to 200,000 tons of total 
food supplies will be lost to insects, rodents, and mold in the granar- 
ies of that nation this year. The physical cause of this unusually high 
level of food spoilage is that bumper domestic crops combined with 
a large volume of imported food are overtaxing the storage capacity 
and managerial capability of the Government of Bangladesh. Food 
stored in inadequate facilities has been exposed to the weather and 
pests. The Government has not been able to maintain the food stocks 
properly and has not adequately managed their rotation and distribu- 
tion. This situation is the direct result of the policies followed by the 
Governments of Bangladesh, the United States, other donors, and 
international organizations. Although responsible officials of the 
Government of Bangladesh are aware that food is spoiling in Oovern- 

83 



292 



Congrenlonal Document* on Food 



ment warehouses, the Government continues to maximise the impor- 
tation of donated or concessionally financed food since the 
Government is fiscally dependent on this food. In 1976 about 40% 
of [he national budget of Bangladesh derived from the domestic sales 
of imported food For the Government of Bangladesh, the costs of 
spoilage of donated or concessional food are minima! compared with 
the financial and political implications of a food shortage. (SC) 



FOOD POLICY 



M3 

International Food Reserves: Background and Current Proposals, 
74-H3S2-39. October 1974. 22 pp. + 5 appendices (115 pp.). 
Report to the House Committee on International Relations; Interna- 
tional Organizations Subcommittee. 

Prepared by the Foreign Affairs and Environmental Policy Divi- 
sions, Congressional Reference Service, Library of Congress. 



' Rfllovcmce; /foiweCommitlee on International Rela- 
tions- International Organizations Subcommittee. 
Aurhority: Food For Peace Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-808). Agricultural 
Trade, Development, and Assistance Act of 1954 (P.L. 83-480). 
National Food Bank Act; S. 2577 (94th Cong.). Agricultural Adjust- 
ment Act of 1938, title HI. 

The serious world food situation, coupled with the 1974 drought 
and resulting poor grain harvest, has renewed anxiety over the possi- 
bility of a disastrous famine and has revived interest in the establish- 
ment of a coordinated world food reserve. Sharp reductions in 
forecasts of U S grain production indicate a worsening in grain bal- 
ance in 1974-75 There exist now, and have existed in the past, 
various official and semiofficial organizations which have considered 
the question of world food reserves. The most recent of these are the 
World Food Program, established in 1962 to help carry out develop- 
ment programs and to meet emergency needs, and the Food Aid 
Convention, established in 1967 to provide gram to developing coun- 
tries. In addition, the World Food Conference, whose purpose will 
be to strengthen world food security, is scheduled to meet in Novem- 
ber 1974. The following international food reserve programs have 
been proposed: "World Food Security Proposal of the Director Gen- 
eral of the FAO;" "Toward the Integration of World Agriculture- A 
Tripartite Report by 14 Experts from the European Community, 
Japan, and North America," "An International Grain Reserve 
Policy," "Feast or Famine; The Uncertain World of Food and 
Agriculture and its Policy Implications for the U.S.," "Declaration 
on Food and Population; A Call to Governments and People for 
Action by Concerned Citizens from Many Parts of the World " 
World Food Authority Proposal of the Secretary General of the 
Pendmg World Food Conference," and "President Ford's Proposal 
Concerning International Food Reserves." (DS) 



Stamp Act of 1964. 

Questions central to farm and food policy are addressed to assist 
Congress to prepare for legislative action on these issues, including 
U S. Department of Agriculture recommendations concerning legis- 
lation to amend and extend basic farm support programs. The papers 
in this document address factors to be considered in developing a 
national food policy which can assure food for the future; the interre- 
lationship of agriculture and the national economy; and the objec- 
tives of U.S. food and agricultural policy and the implications for 
commodity legislation. Reviews are included of. general farm organi- 
zations, including the American Farm Bureau Federation, the Na- 
tional Farmers Organization, the National Farmers Union, and the 
National Grange; consumer organizations, including the American 
Freedom from Hunger Foundation, the Consumer Federation oi 
American, and the National Consumers Congress; commodity or- 
ganizations, including the American National Cattlemen's Associa- 
tion, The American Soybean Association, Great Plains Wheat, 1 nc., 
the Grain Sorghum Producers Association, the Midcontincut Farm' 
ers Association, the National Association of Whcnt Growers, end 
others; and Federal emergency and disaster relief programs thai 
affect the agricultural producer, agricultural marketing agreements 
and orders, and agricultural adjustment during the period J933 
through 1975. Information is provided on the legislative authority 
and program provisions for 1976 for specific commodities and or 
various commodities, including feed grains, wheat, cotton, soybeans 
dairy products, peanuts, rice, and wool. (SC) 



JM 

Farm and Food Policy, 1977. 76-S162-15. September 15, 1976. 277 

Report to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 

Connm* Department of Agriculture 
R .,. vanw) 



P A * ricuUurc and ~* r 

84 



Federal Information Sources and Systems on Food 



Citations in this appendix are extracted from Federal Information Sources and Systems; a Directory issued by the 
Comptroller General for the period through June 30, 1976. (1977 Congressional Sourcebook Series) PAD-77-71 
1977. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



295 

Administrative Services Division Leased Wire System. 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Marketing Services / 12-2500-0-1-352. 
Congretilonal Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations- Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee, 

Data Bate Reference) S -00 204 -001 

Purpose: The leased wire system is utilized to gather and dissemi- 
nate information on supplies, prices, demand, and movement of farm 
commodities. Through speeding the transmission of this information 
over the leased wire system, the market news program can help keep 
all parts of the farm production and marketing system equally well 
informed, keep products flowing to the markets where they are 
needed, and prevent unnecessary gluts and shortages and consequent 
wild price swings. The users of the system benefit directly by having 
timely information available upon which to base market decisions. 
Input: Marketing information is obtained by trained Federal or State 
reporters who visit trading points at the time of transactions or gather 
data by telephone. Information collected by these reporters is 
analyzed and sent immediately over the leased wire network. Con- 
tent: This nationwide network consists of eight separate teletype cir- 
cuits, carrying appropriate information: Eastern Livestock Circuit, 
Midwestern Livestock Circuit, Western Livestock Circuit, Eastern 
Fruit and Vegetable Circuit, Southern Fruit and Vegetable Circuit, 
Southern General Circuit, Central General Circuit, and Western 
General Circuit. The major information carried is prices paid for 
commodities, quantities traded, and supply and demand for each 
commodity. Output: The leased wire system provides reports of 
daily, weekly, monthly, and annual market conditions on a local, 
regional, and national basis. At local market news offices, national 
information received over the teletypewriter is integrated with local 
information. The information is disseminated to agricultural produc- 
ers, handlers, and shippers by the news media as well as by mimeo- 
graphed reports, telephone tape recorder, and telegraph. 
Availability: The information is publicly available. 

Agancy Contact! Administrative Services Division; 14th St. and 
Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-2104. 



396 

Agricultural and Rural Economic and Social Information. 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Economic Research Service / 12-1700- 
0-1-352. 

Congrotilonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on .Appropriations; Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bai* Reference: S-002 19-001 

Purpose; The mission of the Economic Research Service is to 
develop and disseminate economic information for use by public and 
private decisionmakers concerned with the allocation and use of 
resources in agriculture and rural America. Input: Principal sources 
of data are the USDA's Statistical Reporting Service and the Bureau 
of the Census. ERS also uses a wide variety of data sources in carry- 
ing out its analyses. Content: The Service develops and maintains 
national and worldwide estimates of current resource use and availa- 

Food 



bility, output and distribution of food and fiber, 2) identifies the 
interrelationships among economic forces, institutions, and govern- 
mental policies and programs affecting resource use, production and 
distribution of food and fiber; 3) develops short term forecasts and 
long-range projections of resource use, production and distribution 
of food and fiber for both probable and possible future events; 4) 
evaluates the performance of the food and fiber sector in meeting the 
needs and wants of consumers and goals of society concerning such 
matters as resource ownership and use, quantity and quality of goods 
and services, income and income distribution, and quality of life; 5) 
identifies probable and possible adjustments in the food and fiber 
sector and rural America and evaluates their economic and social 
impacts on all segments of society, 6) evaluates and provides plan- 
ning assistance on the use, conservation, development and control of 
water and land resources as they affect economic growth and the 
environment; 7) maintains current information on the principal so- 
cial and economic factors and their interrelationships affecting life in 
nonmetropolitan areas and identifies and evaluates alternative public 
and private actions which impact on these areas; 8) provides direct 
assistance and coordinates the USDA's program to aid agricultural 
development in lower income countries; and 9) disseminates eco- 
nomic information on a timely basis for use by individual consumers 
and decisionmakers in the food and fiber sector and rural areas. Out- 
put: Twenty-three separate periodicals are published; frequency of 
publication ranges from monthly to annually. Numerous other publi- 
cations are produced each year to disseminate the research results. 
Availability: Any individual or organization is eligible to receive the 
Agency's publications. 

Agency Contact: Economic Research Service; 500 12th St. SW, 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8066. 



297 

Agriculture On-Llne Access f AGRICOLA}. 

OMB Funding Tills/Code: National Agricultural Library / 12-0300- 
0-1-352. 

Congresilonctl Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations. Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Rvhrane*; S-002 17 -002 

Purpose: AGRICOLA (formerly CAIN On-Line) was estab- 
lished in 1973 as an on-line interactive bibliographic search and 
retrieval service to provide information on publications in the Na- 
tional Agricultural Library to scientists and researchers. It includes 
a family of data bases created by N AL; CAIN, FNIC, and AGECON 
(a data base created by the Economic Research Service, USDA). 
Input: Data are derived from cataloging-indexing records pertaining 
to books and journal articles acquired by the National Agricultural 
Library through purchase from publishers and dealers, gifts from 
individuals, societies, and other noncommercial sources, and ex- 
change with foreign research organizations and governing bodies. 
Gontent: Records include NAL call numbers, ID number, title of ar- 
ticle, language, author, journal title abbreviation, volume, number, 
pages, date, and type of document. Tapes are up-dated monthly. 
Geographic coverage is worldwide. Output: Principal products are 
the magnetic tapes issued monthly for sale. Derived from the sale 
tapes are the commercially published Bibliography of Agriculture 
and the National Agricultural Library Catalog. The tapes are also 
loaded in several commercial on-line information services which are 
used for current awareness service and retrospective literature sear- 
ches. Availability; Monthly tapes are for sale; the data base is on- 
line with Lockheed Information Systems, Systems Development 

85 



297 



Federal Information Soureet and Syttamt on Food 



Orp.iraijnn. and Bibliographic Retrieval Services and can be 
searched b> remote terminal The data base can be queried onsite at 
NAL 



Agey Contort; Library Services; 10301 
Belwille. MD 20705; (301) 344-3834. 



Baltimore Blvd , 



S 

fyple Breeding System. 03 

OMB Funding TlnVCode: Agncultural Research Service / 12-1400- 

01-352 

Conuroiilotidl Relevant*: House Committee on Agnculture, 
Haute Committee on Appropriations. Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestr>, Senate Commutee on Appropriations- Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data bit* Rtt*r*nc S 00213-018 

Purpose: This is a system that reports the progress in apple quality 
improvement Input: Input comes from coding sheets, cards, mag- 
netic tape, and data acquired from James M. Thompson, USDA- 
ARS, Byron, GA Content: The system is geared for the southern 
apple producing areas. The file is updated annually, contains data 
back to 1963, and includes 10,441 accessions and 35 descnptors. 
These include Farm, Orchard, Row, Tree, Year Planted, Seed Num- 
ber, Fruit Diameter, Fruit Depth, Fruit Form, Fruit Symmetry, Fruit 
Color, Color Pattern, Color Intensity, Maxim, Average, Russet Ap- 
pearance, Rower Color, Coarseness, Texture, Acidity, Aroma, 
Sweetness, PO Solution, Quality, Harvest Date, Scab Reaction, Cork 
Reaction, Bloom Year, Number Blooms, Bloom Date, Number Fruit 
Generation, Boot-Canker Reaction, and Progency. Output: Output 
is produced annually and includes all data collected to date. Availa- 
bility- Output is for internal use only. 

Contad: Data Systems Application Division; National 

-" 1 brafy BIdg " Room 13 ' Bcl K v Me, MD 20705; (3011 
4-3937. v ' 



299 

ASCS Pratne Village Commodity Office. 

** Credit Corporation Fund / 

strenBlhening 



Cor,g rt ,cnal RMev^ce: ff otise Committee on 

Se^TZ"" on A r priations: A*""' 

In nd gj * 1 "*: ** Committee on Agriculture, Nut * 

rc "d RdSf 1 ^ ?r ilt " n APP'^tions: Agricu . 
lure and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Dota Bat* fttf*rmc: S-00209-001 



480 primari y for Of . Public Law 83 ' 





f* Inp U t7o7grS' ri^Zr W."*M* Service ft. 

[-4pvirs^ 

e. Other u 



*archou mcn , 



bids, storage, handling, transportation, processing, packaging, and 

sales. Examples of elements in the system are the name of the com- 

modity, where stored, quality factors, quantity, storage rates, han- 

dling rates, specifications for bid&, submitted bid data, sale prices, 

summary totals of inventories, transportation data, loss in transit 

data, and accounting information, Operational program reports arc 

prepared to control the day to day operations. These reports are 

primarily status reports on purchases made or to be made, inventory 

and merchandizing lists, deliveries, and the like. Program manage- 

ment reports primarily contain summaries of program activity. Out- 

put: Most reports are microfiche, microfilm, hardcopy computer 

printouts, or other hardcopy medium. Frequency varies from drtily 

to annually. Most operational reports are weekly or monthly, and 

most management reports are monthly. Availability: Most output is 

available to the public under the Freedom of Information Act. Re- 

ports containing personal information about individuals arc generally 

not available to the public. Trade secrets and commercial or financial 

information are not generally available to the public. None of llie 

reports are classified, 

Agency Contact: Data Systems Division; P. O. Box 2415, Room 
5741-S, Washington, DC 20013; (202) 447-7561. 

300 

Bean Germplasm System. 03. 

OMB Funding TfHe/Codei Agricultural Research Service / 12*1400- 

Congratiional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture' 
Horn Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related' 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculliirc Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations' Aericul. 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bat* Rafmne! S.QQ213-011 



The system records inventory of the world ben n colic* 
tion. The system contains historical information, laxonomlc and 
agronormc data The file is use d by bean improvomon scicaU? , from 
a over the world, Input: The data are compiled by the USD A- ARS 
Western R e g,onal Plant Introduction Station at Pullimn WA fl* 
tor* The content is international in scope. The file i updated rvcri. 

- he ycan Thc nic contaim bca(1 i 

^"" 1 ^ 8 "" 8 *' 0118110111 thc * 
, accessions and 43 descriptors. These include 
W. Number, Prefix, Family, Genus, S 









344-3937. 



901 



MD 20705; 



st em (B1CS). 

Animai and piant H 






n jand 
e and 



AgricuHurc, Nutri- 



Federal Information Sourest and Syiterm on Food 



305 



Data Bats Reference; S-G0205-001 

Purpose: The system is to provide an automated data processing 
facility to keep track of slaughtered infected animals in order to 
indemnify their owners. The major functions of this system are to 
validate daily input data; merge new data into the master file; and 
produce audit listings, monthly reports, active animal ledgers, paid 
animal ledgers, available payment animal ledgers, and various con- 
trol counts and numbers Input; The data are derived from Veteri- 
nary Services reports of slaughtered brucellosis-infected animals and 
related test data and from the indemnity claims of their owners. Con- 
tent: From July 1976 the master file contains a record for each ani- 
mal branded as a reactor, including test number, herd number, 
county, date branded, date tested, date slaughtered, type slaughter, 
claim date, and paid date. The file is updated weekly. Output: Com- 
plete audit lists of all data are produced daily. The monthly output 
includes active animal ledgers, paid animal ledgers, and available 
payment animal ledgers. All documents filed by batch number can 
be retrieved by a computer listing of batch numbers. Availability: 
Output is used to meet internal information requirements, those of 
State Departments of Agriculture, and selected other agencies, e.g., 
Treasury Department, to whom indemnity payment forms will be 
mailed. 



Agency Contact: Management Improvement Division; 
Belcrest Rd., Hyattsville, MD 20782; (301) 436-8058. 



6525 



302 

Crop and Livestock Estimates. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Statistical Reporting Service / 12-1800- 
0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bae Referni S-00221-001 

Purpose.- The system is to provide statistical and economic data 
on food and agriculture essential to farmers, processors, and handlers 
in making production and marketing decisions and to legislators, 
administrators, and others concerned with developing and adminis- 
tering programs. Input: The data are obtained through sample sur- 
veys of farmers and persons who do business with farmers. Content: 
The SRS administers the Department of Agriculture's program of 
collecting and publishing national and State agricultural statistics. It 
is also responsible for the coordination and improvement of the 
Department's statistical practices. Survey work performed for other 
Federal, State, and private agencies on a reimbursable or advance 
payment basis is also a significant part of the SRS program. The 
Service maintains a central office in Washington, DC, but a large part 
of the crop and livestock estimates program is carried out through 44 
State offices serving the SO States. Most State statistical offices are 
operated as joint State and Federal services through cooperative 
arrangements with various State agencies. Data are gathered on such 
subjects as field crops, fruit and vegetables, cattle, hogs, poultry, 
prices received by farmers, prices paid for commodities and services, 
indexes of prices received and paid, parity prices, farm employment, 
and farm wage rates, Output: Forecasts on approximately 150 crops 
and 50 livestock items are included in 500 national reports and 9,900 
official reports Issued each year. Availability: Reports of crops and 
livestock estimates are distributed to persons on mailing lists and in 
response to individual requests. 

Agency Contact: Crop Reporting Board; 14th St. and Independence 
Ave. SW, Room 0233-S, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-2130. 



303 

Crop Cancer. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-14QO- 
0-1-352, 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee 

Data BaiB Reference! S-002 13-006 

Purpose: This system is designed to create, maintain, and provide 
searches on a collection of plant parts and materials which have been 
sampled for the purpose of testing their resistance to cancer. Sear- 
ches on this data base provide crop cancer researchers ready access 
to a collection of over 50,000 tests. Input: Input is from a shipping 
list prepared on the plants tested. Content: Updating is on a random 
basis, on the average of five times per year. Output: The reports are 
in hardcopy and are produced on an as-required basis Availability: 
Output is publicly available. 

Agency Contact; Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3817. 



304 

Crop Diversification Matrix. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Ba Reference! S-00213-002 

Purpose: The system provides a worldwide crop diversity survey. 
The system depicts various areas in the world where crops are grown. 
Countries may access the file for potential crops. Input: Input 
comes from coding sheets. Data are compiled by James A. Duke, 
USDA-ARS, Beitsville, MD 20705. Content; The content is inter- 
national in scope. The file contains current data only and is updated 
monthly if not weekly. The file has 33 descriptors on 25,000 acces- 
sions. These include: Family, Genus, Species, Location in Country, 
Longitude, Latitude, Altitude, pH of Soil, Annual Rainfall, Number 
Rain Days/yr, Relative Humidity, Min-Temperature, Max-Temper- 
ature, Mean-Temperature, Frost Days/yr, Langleys, Life Zone, 



Food 



303 



Federal Information Source* and 5yt*mi on Food 



,*.* The i) stem *as created m t P onse to Ihe recordkeep- 
, ,.,/j, , r (h . a ,,p !n <uram:e program. The roajoi functions of the 
i^'.n j.-c'to si.cpi or reject applivaUons for insurance, process 
/ ," Ijl , m bill inured producers, process indemnity clams for 
ti^~ -V nimiam actuarial statistics, and produce various account- 
>rg an d ^u:al diw lft. Data are derived from insurance ap- 
r' >.|.,ni aaog: reports, premium collections, claims, and 
ir^-M, panuenM OwiHif: The crap insurance system is acorn- 
p'eiet) ii/oraicd siiiem for program services. Every acceptable 
ft-pt'.ituin for insurance, addition of crops to an existing policy, 
L*'< J VJ niri change, or cancellation of a policy submiued by 
a fin \s a.i-cp'ed by the computer system and a notice of accept- 
tr..e IT chinas ttswd ftam the National Service Office in Kansas 
GJJ Anua! ^eftification or reporting of planted acreage of each 
vh.p i-4ud is processed through the system; premium dollars are 
0^7 ,-.ed arid entered into accounts receivable; h'abifity is calculated 
and itorcd. IW the preparation of annual statistical tables and anal- 
>sin f>{crmu.-n billing utilizes a turnaround scannable document The 
Ciuis> Office accounts teceivable file (debt register) is also a scann- 
aftt d> , unient t.i be transmitted wuh any premium payment. Pnnci- 
pil subject rralter areas in the files include contract number, name 
aid aJ^ress cf insured, crop endorsements, acreage insured, ac- 
u'-uritt receivable, premium collections, indemnity payments, and 
tfawuoal and actuarial data Output: The frequency of system out- 
f jt \arics *ith the particular output, but most internal records are 
updated weekly Representative output is: Accounts Receivable De- 
ta:) (Ir.termittentl), on microfilm), Accounting Posting Media 
f Monthly, m hardcopy), Notice of Indemnity (Weekly, in hardcopy), 
Billing Summary (Weekly, in hardcopy), Summary of Protection 
(Weekly, in hardtopy), and Report of Contracts in Force and Crops 
Irmiied (Annually, in hardcopy) Availability: Output is not pub- 
!My ava;Iable as it is primarily utilized to meet internal requirements 
of administering the crop insurance program and producing required 
citcrnal summary reports 

Aflsney Contort: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation; 14th St. and 
Independence Ave SW, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-7665. 

304 

Cnps Rfplocemeni 03. 

QHB FndlB9 TWa/GxUt Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 

0-1-352 

Conflrtulonol Jt*Uvone: House Committee on Agriculture; 

House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 

Agencies Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 

tion, and Forestry, Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 

ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee, 

CMa Bat* Rtf*r*<K: S-00213-Q03 

Purpose; Use of this system enables ARS to provide reliable and 
timely responses to requests for crops replacement information. The 
manpower requirements for providing this service are also reduced 
wilh use of this system Input: Data are from currently accessed 
data bases containing uxonomic, bioenvironmental, and geographic 
data. Conttnk The system utilizes custom software and software de- 
signed to inicrfccc with System 2000 data base managemenv system. 
U 8 awj analyits files to determine crop replacement or to 
Wtt^ aluirrtuve crops for those which are discouraged because of 
DWCOUO or became of economic decline. Output: Crop replace- 
moil report! we produced as required. Availability: Output is pub- 
licly available 



DalB s ye Application Division; National 
brary Bldg, Room 408, BeUsville, MD 20705; (301) 



307 

Cumt Awareness Literature Service (CALS), 03. 

omFund1g7lle/Cod: Agricultural Research Service / 12.1400. 

C.n8n.H.l JW.wiM* Committee on 
jS Committee on Appropriations: Agnoulturc 
Agencies Subcommittee; Sena* Committee on Agriculture, Nuln- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Approprialmm: Agricul- 
ture' and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bow Rflterencfli S-00213-010 

Purpose: Thesystem provides retrospective and current coverage 
of the scientific literature through user-defined, computer Pressed 
search profiles. The retrospective coverage provides lists of bibl n- 
uaphte citations from the past, and the current coverage proves 
searches of each data base issue as received. Users receive individual 
printouts by data base Inpuit CALS includes scientist-went en pro- 
files and vendor-created databases. The daia bases include Biological 
Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Food Science and Teelmolo&y Afc- 
streets, World Textile Abstracts, Engineering Index, the National 
Technical Information Service file, and the CAIN tapes of the Na- 
tional Agricultural Library. Content: The system attempts to cover 
the major, machine readable data bases available to support aU BKfti 
of agricultural research. Coverage is international, and the eadtal 
files date back to 1969. Files are updated with the same irctiucncy 
as the vendor tapes are issued 1 , weekly> biweekly, and monthly. A 
complete user's guide for the system is available from the Dntn 
Systems Application Division. Outfut: The major output is Ihe peri- 
odic lists of citations sent.to each wser. These arc hardcopy and arc 
issued with the same frequency as the dnta base being searched, 
Queries are accepted from any individual in L/SDA. /tvailalrilttj; 
Output is available only to USDA personnel and formal cooperators 

Aganey Contact: Data Systems Application Division; Nfltionnl 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Bcltsvillc, MD 20705; (30V) 

344-3817. 



308 

Current Research Information System (CKfS). 
OMB Funding TUIe/Code; Cooperative State Research Service / 12- 
1500-0-1-352. 

Congrauional Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Baig Retenneftt S-00214-OOI 

Purpose: Begun in 1 967, the system exists to serve as the 1JSDA- 
State research project system, improve communictUioiu among 
agricultural scientists especially in regard to ongoing research, find 
provide agricultural research planners with up-to-date coordinated 
planning information on the programs of USDA and the State 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Input; The data come from forms 
submitted by the 6 research agencies of the USDA, 55 State Agricul- 
tural Experiment Stations, 13 forestry schools, 16 1890 institutions, 
and Tuskegee. All agricultural research sponsored or conducted by 
the preceding organizations is listed in CRIS. Content; Each work 
unit/project consists of one fixed length administrative record and 
five variable length textual records. The administrative record in- 
cludes items such as project number, performing organization, re- 
sponsible organization, Investigators and coinvestigators, locution, 
title, classification, and various fund and staff support data. The text 
records include such items as: objective, approach, keywords, pro* 
gress, and publications. The system has nationwide coverage and Is 
updated at least twite a month. Output: Both techniccl and manage- 
ment reports are provided on demand basis. Annually the system 
produces a publication entitled "Inventory of Agricultural Research, 
Volumes I, II, and III." Output is generally In hardcopy although 
computer tape and microfilm can be provided as required, Avottabil* 
ity: Output service is available to all scientists of the USDA-Slat* 



Food 



Federal Information Source* and Syitemi on Food 



311 



research organizations Information is generally provided to all Gov- 
ernment organizations as well as State colleges and universities. All 
text information is provided to the Smithsonian Science Information 
Exchange for availability to the general public 

Agency Contact: Cooperative State Research Service, 14th St. and 
Independence Ave. SW, Room 6818-S, Washington, DC 20250- 
(202) 447-7273. 



309 

Data Entry and Reporting System, 403/404. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- 
vice / 12-1600-0-1-553 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
house Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Base Reference! S-00205-002 

Purpose: The system is designed to provide accurate, reliable, and 
timely statistics and other critical information bearing on the man- 
agement and evaluation of the domestic meat inspection program. 
The system maintains two major data bases: 1) Establishment data 
base, which maintains data by individual meat establishment; and 2) 
State data base, which maintains the same data aggregated for each 
State. Input: Data are derived from the following Meat and Poultry 
Inspection Forms: 1) MP-403, Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem In- 
spection Summary (from inspection at slaughter plants); 2) MP-404, 
Processing Operations at Official Establishments; 3) MP-407, Meat 
and Meat Products Condemned on Reinspection and Destroyed; and 
4) MP-407-4, Materials Rejected for Use. Content; The data bases 
include the following files: Establishment (or State) Master File, 
Slaughter Totals File, Product Totals File, Disease Totals File, and 
Meat Condemned on Reinspection and Materials Rejected for Use 
Totals File. Primary information includes descriptive data such as 
name and address of establishment; and number of kills, pounds of 
processed meat produced, incidence of diseased carcasses and parts, 
incidence of meat and materials rejected on reinspection by reporting 
period. Output: System output is produced weekly and includes: 1) 
The Missing Reports Report which lists those establishments failing 
to sumbit a 403 and/or 404 report during report week; 2) the Slaugh- 
ter Report which lists by species, and within species by State, the 
total slaughter reported for the report week; 3) the Products Report 
which lists by product code the total number of establishments re- 
porting the products and the total pounds reported during the report 
week; 4) a Year to Date Slaughter Report; and 5) a Year to Date 
Products Report. Availability; System output is used primarily to 
meet internal information requirements. 

Agency Contact! Management Improvement Division; 6525 
Belcrest Rd., Hyattsville, MD 20782, (301) 436-8058. 



310 

Export Sales Reporting- 

OMB Funding Tltle/Codet Commodity Credit Corporation Fund / 
12-4336-0-3-999. 

Congreiclonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations; Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reference! S-002 10-001 

Purpose: The system is to provide automated support for publica- 
tion, on a weekly basis, of "U.S, Export Sales." Section 812 of the 
Agricultural Act of 1970 as amended by the Agriculture and Con- 
sumer Protection Act of 1973 requires all exporters of wheat and 
wheat flour, feed grains, oilseeds, cotton and products thereof, and 
other commodities the Secretary may designate' produced in the 
United States shall report to the Secretary of Agriculture, on a 



weekly basis, various information regarding any contract for export 
sales entered into or subsequently modified in any manner during the 
reporting period, Input: Exporters submit one, two, or three forms, 
giving various export sale and exportation information. Content: 
Forms list such information as commodity name; country; marketing 
year; exporter name and number; quantity sold during reporting 
week; quantity exported, as well as other types of changes, e.g., 
change in destination or cancellations. Numeric codes are shown on 
the forms for commodity, country, and marketing year for entry into 
the data system. Weekly updating of the data base occurs after publi- 
cation of the "U.S. Export Sales" report and upon receipt of report- 
ing forms indicating changes in the status of previously reported sales 
and/or new sales. Output: AH reports are produced weekly. Balance 
Sheet, Zero-Plus, Audit Summary, Firm Listing, Audit Summary, 
and Camera Copy are produced as hardcopy. Camera Copy is photo- 
graphed and made into the publication "U.S. Export Sales." Interac- 
tive query of the data base is accomplished through a terminal, using 
a variety of programs to provide various output formats. Availability; 
"U.S. Export Sales" is mailed to addresses on a mailing list main- 
tained by the Department's Plant and Operations Division The Au- 
dit Summary is available for public use under the Freedom of 
Information Act but is not widely disseminated as a natural course. 
The other reports contain detailed information from the individual 
reports and are required by law to remain confidential. 

Agency Contact: Export Sales Division; 14th St. and Independence 
Ave. SW, Room 6536-S, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-5651 



311 

Extension Management Information System (EMIS). 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Extension Service / 12-0502-0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 

House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 

Agencies Subcommittee; House Committee on District of Columbia; 

Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Senate 

Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related Agencies 

Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. 

Data Bate Reference! S-002 15-001 

Purpose: The system is a composite of State Extension Manage- 
ment Information Systems (SEMIS) designed to collect, store, and 
retrieve data for the needs of the State Extension Service agencies. 
The system provides program managers with data to make decisions 
related to priorities, resource allocation, and resource management; 
categorize planned and expended effort; and evaluate the effective- 
ness, impact, and efficiency of Extension's expended effort. Input; 
The data are derived from plans of work, activity reports, personnel 
actions, and statements of accomplishments prepared by professional 
and paraprofessional extension employees. Content: Three of the 
five interdependent components are derived from and mirror the 
extension program development process. The components are: 1) 
Computer Assisted Plan of Work File-1976-related directly to the 
long-range Extension program. It sets forth the annual objectives 
planned for the next 12 months and is to be updated throughout the 
year, 2) Computer Assisted Activity Data File-1976-the daily activi- 
ties of all Extension staff efforts toward the accomplishment of the 
annual Plan of Work objective(s). It is updated every six months. 3) 
Accomplishment of objectives-a narrative qualitative and quantita- 
tive assessment of the situation and clientele change. Comprehensive 
reviews, program reviews, and program audits also provide informa- 
tion relevant to program accomplishments. It is updated annually. 4) 
The SEMIS Computer Assisted Personnel Subsystem-a. current per- 
petual inventory of only the "professional" Cooperative Extension 
staff. It is updated monthly or as personnel action occurs; and 5) 
Optional Subsystem-State Special Use File-can be developed into 
specific data elements needed and used at the unit, area, or State 
level. Output: Output is produced upon request only. It includes ma- 
chine printouts for specific problems or questions and related display 
tables. Availability; Output is not publicly available since it is 
primarily utilized to meet internal requirements of the State and 
Federal Extension Services. 



Food 



89 



311 



Federal Information Sources and Syttemi on Food 



Agency Contact: Management Operations, 14th St and 
Independence Ave SW. Washington. DC 20250; (202) 447-6781. 



312 

federal Aimtance Programs Retrieval System (FAPRS). 
OMB Funding Titlo/Cods: Rural Development Service / 12-0800- 
0-1-452 

Congraiilonaf Relavanee: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Commiitee on Appropriations. Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry, Senate Committee on Appropriations Agricul- 
ture arid Related Agencies Subcommittee 

Data Bat* Rtftrtnt*: S 00202-001 

Purpose. The system identifies all Federal domestic aid programs 
that can be used to meet specific development needs of communities 
and of individuals Programs whose basic eligibility requirements 
have been met by the requestor and that are funded for the fiscal year 
are listed The system enables someone unfamiliar with the Federal 
aid process to employ a single source of Federal program eligibility 
information rather than conducting extensive research The system 
is earned nationwide by private time sharing networks and is availa- 
ble in almost all State Cooperative Extension Services offices for a 
small fee. Input: The system is interactive in nature, requesting the 
user to make choices from 37 subcategones of need. A data base of 
counties (by Slate) is used to assist the requestor in answering eligi- 
bility questions concerning the county in which the aid program is 
to be applied The requestor must supply the applicant type and 
population of the area in which the program is to take place. Content: 
The information consists of a list of the agency numbers and names 
of funded aid programs for which the requestor has met the eligibility 
requirements. All program titles and number identifications are 
keyed to the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance which is used 
in the initial screening of programs At the user's request, the system 
will provide a modified text of a specific program as it appears in the 
catalog Coding of each program as to appropriate subcategones and 
eligibility criteria is verified by each program's manager prior to 
entry m the FAPRS data base Program eligibility criteria are up- 
dated a minimum of every six months concurrent with the publica- 
tion of the catalog and catalog update Additional updates to the 
system are made when necessary on a program by program basis. 
County el.gibil.ty updates are made through listings provided by the 
Federal agencies involved. Output,- The frequency and amount of 
output are determined by the individual user. On an overall basis 
usage has averaged 3,000 queries monthly. The output consists of a 
hardcopy hstmg of the agency name and identifying number of each 
federal program and, when requested, a hardcopy listing of the 
cm!,.. , wt { a spcclfic program AnllaWI System QU 

va,lablc in two ways: 1) By signing a contract with one of 
eshanno mmm*:.. i : . n . n ~,. 



Data flaw ftoferenca; S-002 17-003 

Purpose: The system is designed to disseminate information on 
food service training. FNIC was developed cooperatively by the 
National Agricultural Library and the Food and Nutrition Service of 
the Department of Agriculture, Input: The center assembles find 
maintains a collection of materials useful in training personnel for 
food management of Child Nutrition Programs, School Lunch, 
Breakfast, and other nonschool food service programs. Content; The 
collection includes films, video cassettes, programmed instructional 
material, audiotape manuals, guides, pamphlets, books, and journal 
articles. Output: Principal output is a hardcopy catalog of current 
holdings, categorized to show the collection's coverage, Availability: 
The staff provides training material for loan to school and other food 
service personnel Users have access to the total resources of llie 
National Agricultural Library, books, periodicals, microforms, and 
related materials on agricultural subjects and sciences, including food 
and nutrition. 

Agency Contact. Food and Nutrition Information and Educational 
Materials Center; 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705; 
(301) 344-3719. 



314 

Food Coupon Accountability Report, 040-R-3188. 
OMB Funding TItle/Codej Food Stamp Program / 12-3505-0-1-604. 
Congretilonnl Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bam Utterance: S- 00207 -001 

Purpose: The Food Coupon Accountability Report is designed to 
account for coupon book inventory, transfers of inventory between 
reporting points, actual versus authorized issuance of food coupons, 
and deposits of cash receipts from the sale of food coupons. It is used 
to prepare numerous informational reports and in the billing process 
(State agencies are liable for lost and stolen coupons and for coupon 
ovenssuance and cash undercollection errors committed by issuance 
personnel), Input: The data are derived from information obtained 
from Advice of Shipment, Advice of Transfer, and Food Coupon 
Remittance, prepared by local coupon vendors and storage .points. 
Additional information is obtained from executed program authori- 
zation documents (Authorization to Purchase and/or Household Is- 
suance Record Cards). Content: The report contains monthly data 
concerning food coupon inventory, food coupon transfers, actual 
coupon sales and collections, and authorized sales and collections, 
Output: The Food Coupon Accountability Report is produced 
monthly. AvailaUlttyi Systems reports are not publicly available, as 
they are utilized to meet internal information requirements along 
with those of selected external agencies such as the Treasury Depart- 
nicnt* 



w ..> Contac * : Food Stam P Division; 500 12th St, SW 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8982, 

315 

Arjjpi Xirtutara/ Cwwwrf/0, //*, System, 

OMB^ndlng Title/Code: Foreign Agricultural Service / 12-2900- 

once: House Committee on Agriculture; 
Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
n nH p n t o Jfii ' S 't Wa/e Commi " ee on Agriculture, Nutri- 

ture and R^M A e mmiUee On A P^priation S : Agricut- 

mre and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bai* Rennet: S-00212-001 



Food 



Federal Information Sources and Syitemt on Food 



317 



Purpose: The system is required by the Agricultural Act of 1954, 
Public Law 83-690, Title VI. Its objective is to maintain an agricul- 
tural commodity intelligence system designed to: 1) Provide infor- 
mation to assess foreign supply and demand conditions, 2) help 
promote foreign markets for U.S farm products, 3) support effective 
participation in trade policy negotiations, and 4) contribute estimates 
of the current situation and forecast export potential for specific U.S. 
agricultural commodities. The scope of coverage is worldwide, de- 
pending on the importance of the specific commodity in an in- 
dividual country. The system is designed both to serve the interests 
of the general public and to provide analytical support to agency 
programs. Input: Worldwide agricultural information is obtained 
primarily through a continuous program of reporting by agricultural 
attaches assigned to 67 posts throughout the world, covering over 
100 countries. In addition to the scheduled reporting system, at- 
taches alert Washington to significant developments and problems in 
their areas of responsibility by cable communications Content: 
Content and coverage include: Economic (production, consumption, 
imports/ exports, stocks, prices); Scientific (weather conditions, dis- 
ease and insect factors, market situation for production inputs); and 
Policies and Programs (tariff and nontariff barriers-subsidies-rebates 
and export taxes, standards and regulations-sanitary and health 
measures, labeling and packing). Commodity supply and distribution 
data are on an annual basis and at the country level of aggregation 
Updates range from monthly to annually. Trade data for major trad- 
ing countries are on a monthly basis. The system uses a combination 
of disc, tape, and manual storage. Output; The primary output is 
published commodity specific circulars containing text, statistical 
tables, and charts. The commodity circulars are published on a regu- 
lar basis ranging from monthly to annually. In addition, historical 
series of production, supply, and distribution data are publicly availa- 
ble on computer tape through the Department of Commerce. Pro- 
duction, supply, and distribution data are available for internal 
agency use on CRT display. Availability: "Foreign Agriculture" 
magazine is available from GPO, Commodity circulars are dis- 
tributed to agencies. Production, supply, and demand tapes are used 
within the Department of Commerce. 

Agency Contact! Foreign Commodity Analysis; Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-7233. 



316 

Foreign Production. Supply, and Utilization Information System. 
OMB Funding Title/Code! Foreign Agricultural Service / 12-2900- 
0-1-352, 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations- Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bai Refer*nc; S-00212-003 

Purpose: The requirement for the system is the Agricultural Act 
of 1954, Public Law 83-690, Title VI. Its objective is to maintain an 
agricultural commodity Intelligence system designed to: 1) provide 
Information to assess foreign supply and demand conditions, 2) help 
promote foreign markets for U.S. farm products, 3) support effective 
participation in trade policy negotiations, and 4) contribute estimates 
of the current situation and forecast export potential for specific U.S. 
agricultural commodities. The scope of coverage is worldwide, de- 
pending on the importance of the specific commodity in an in- 
dividual country. The system is designed both to serve the interests 
of the general public and to provide analytical support to agency 
programs. Input; Worldwide agricultural information is obtained 
primarily through a continuous program of reporting by agricultural 
attaches assigned to 67 posts throughout the world, covering over 
100 countries. In addition to the scheduled reporting system, at- 
taches alert Washington to significant developments and problems in 
thetr areas of responsibility by cable communications. Content: 
Content and coverage include: Economic (production, consumption, 
imports/exports, stocks, prices); Scientific (weather conditions, dis- 
ease and insect factors, market situation for production input); and 

Food 



Policies and Programs (tariff and nontariff barners-subsidies-rebates 
and export taxes, standards and regulations-sanitary and health 
measures, labeling and packing) Commodity supply and distribution 
data are on an annual basis and at the country level of aggregation. 
Updates range from monthly to annually The system uses a combi- 
nation of disc, tape, and manual storage. Output: The primary out- 
put is published commodity specific circulars containing text, 
statistical tables, and charts The commodity circulars are published 
on a regular basis ranging from monthly to annually. In addition, 
historical series of production, supply, and distribution data are pub- 
licly available on computer tape through the Department of Com- 
merce. Production, supply, and distribution data are available for 
internal agency use through interactive display terminals. Availabil- 
ity: "Foreign Agriculture" magazine is available from GPO. Com- 
modity circulars are distributed to agencies. Production, supply, and 
demand tapes are used within the Department of Commerce. 

Agency Contact: Foreign Commodity Analysis; South BIdg., 14th 
St. and Independence Ave. SW, Room 508 1-S, Washington, DC 
20250; (202)447-3510. 



317 

Grain Licensed Inspector Supervision System or Gram Monitoring 
System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Inspection and Weighing Services / 12- 
4050-0-3-352. 

Congrenional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reference! S-00223-001 

Purpose; The system was developed to provide an accurate and 
objective method for monitoring the inspection activities of Licensed 
Inspectors (Li's) and Agricultural Commodity Graders (ACG's). 
This monitoring method is based on statistical methods of selection 
and is an aid in observing grading trends, identifying training needs, 
and detecting and correcting grading problems before they become 
serious threats to the inspection activities. Input: The primary 
source of input is the "Grain Sample Ticket." These forms are filled 
in by FGIS personnel in the field offices and at the Board of Appeals 
and Review (BAR) and are sent to the Washington office where the 
data are keyed to magnetic tape. Each form contains information on 
one supervision inspection: where and by whom it was performed, 
grain, the type of carrier, and the results for each factor graded. A 
secondary source of input is data concerning the licensed inspectors, 
ACG's, inspection points, and field offices. These data are entered 
and updated by people in the Washington office on an "Update 
Transmittal Sheet" and are keyed to magnetic tape for entry into the 
system. This file contains names and descriptions of the graders and 
offices. All input data are private. Content: The data from the forms 
are used to update the Control Chart Master File, Good GR-189 
File, and the Supervision Workload Master File; the Update Trans- 
mittal Sheet data update the Names File and Inspection Point File. 
The Tolerance Table Master File is a statistical table which is used 
to normalize the differences in grading results so they may be plotted 
on a control chart. This file was developed by the Statistical Services 
Group, Technical Services Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, 
Department of Agriculture. The Control Chart Master File contains 
the grading data which are used to create the Control Charts. This 
file contains the grader code, location, and result of the original 
inspection; the grader code, location and results of the supervision 
inspection; as well as the grain, inspection date, and sample number. 
This file is updated every four weeks and contains the 60 most recent 
results for each inspection point and factor. Two years worth of 
historical data are contained in the Good OR- 1 89 Data File. This file 
reflects all the data entered from the forms. The Supervision Work- 
load Master File contains data on the numbers and types of supervi- 
sion inspections performed by each field office on a current-period 
and year-to-date basis for each type of grain, movement, and carrier 
type. The file is updated every four weeks. The Names File contains 

91 



317 



Federal Information Sourcet and Systems an Food 



current data on the licensed inspectors, ACG's, inspection points, 
and field offices, and maintains some relatively static data (valid 
grains, factors) for data validation. Each entry contains a code num- 
ber, name, and description (such as assigned field office or licensed 
grams). The file 'is updated every four weeks. Output: The system 
produces the following monthly hardcopy reports- Control Charts 
and Supervision Workload Reports for the current period. These 
hardcopy reports may be obtained on request' Historical Control 
Charts, Licensed Inspector Directory, Inspection Point Directory, 
Year-to-Date Supervision Workload Reports, and Names File List- 
ing The system has no on-line query capabilities. Availability: Out- 
put is for internal FGIS use only and is distributed to Inspection field 
offices 

Agency Cent ad: Agricultural Marketing Service, 14th St. and 
Independence Ave SW, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-3075. 

318 

Historic Wheat Disease Test System. 03 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture, 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bai 



flt S-00213-009 

Purpose: The system records responses of wheat varieties to ma- 
jor diseases. The file is used in wheat improvement programs. When 
potential commercial varieties are developed, the responses of the 
parents of the variety to diseases are checked for disease susceptibil- 
ity. Input: The data are supplied on coding sheets and compiled by 
the International Rust Nursery Program, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, 
MD. Content; The system is international in scope. Major updates 
occur annually, but many minor updates occur throughout the year 
when need demands The file contains records on 46,165 wheat 
accessions, dates back to 1918, and has 13 descriptors. These in- 
clude: Year Tested, Crop, Nursery, Years in Nursery, Entry Num- 
ber, CI/PI Number, Source, Pedigree, Powdery Mildew Reaction, 
Stem Rust Reaction, Leaf Rust Reaction, and Strips Rust Reaction. 
Output: There is no scheduled report. The system responds to in- 
dividual specific queries in batch mode. The responses are then for- 
warded to the requestor either via correspondence or computer 
listing. Availability: Output is publicly available. 

Agency Corttactt Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705- (3011 
344-3937. v ' 



319 

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LAC1E). 

OMB Funding Title/Cod*: Foreign Agricultural Service / 12-2900- 

U*I-j Ji, 

CongMulenal Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture- 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data hue Refarancat S-00212-002 

Purpose,' The LACIE is a joint effort by the Department of 
i ^ ti0nal Ae uti " "1 Space AdminTstra- 
' N *, UonaI Ceanic Atm spheric Administration 
impr Ve lhe ca P abilit y of the Foreign Agricultural Ser- 
T Id a S. ricultural Production through the use of 
ote awng and automated data processing tech- 

^ 1 ' the LACIE Wi " P^ide better and more 
on the area, yield, and probable production of 

^ ""'I"' Wheat haS been ***** " * * crop 
ment program. Input: Primary data sources for LACIE 

92 



are NASA's Landsat satellites, World Meteorological Organization 
Network, NOAA's environmental satellites, and current historical 
data and ground truth collected from USDA. Content: When opera- 
tional, a LACIE-based system would provide estimates of wheat 
acreage, yield, and production for major wheat producing countries 
The reports would be updated at least monthly throughout the grow- 
ing season. Coverage could later be extended to other crops. During 
the current development phase, coverage is limited to the U.S. Great 
Plains, Canada, and selected regions outside North America. Our- 
put: When operational, the reports will be monthly and will include 
wheat acreage, yield, and production estimates by producing country 
and/or region. In addition, special reports on unusual situations such 
as drought and flood, which significantly affect production, will be 
produced. Availability: Reports produced during experimental and 
developmental phases are internal to the project until they have been 
evaluated, after which they are available on request. In an operational 
system the reports would be available to the public. 

Agency Contact: LACIE Project Office; Auditors Bldg., Romn 
3200, Washington, DC 22030; (202) 447-5937. 

320 

Livestock Management Reporting System (Livestock MRS). 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Marketing Services / 12-2500-0-1-352. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Rclnlcil 
Agencies Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reforancei S- 002 04 -002 

Purpose; The Livestock MRS is an information reporting system 
which produces reports showing workload, achievements, and per- 
sonnel utilization at four levels of management, ranging from the 
plant to division level. Input; MRS input is extracted from the US- 
DA-AMS Accounting System. It includes payroll-number of hours 
reported by person and type; validation-waiting time, pounds ac- 
cepted, number graded, grading codes; receivables-revenue hours; 
billing code, time; and cost-clerical units of accomplishment. Con- 
tent: All files are updated every four weeks. The files arc; 1) Plntlt 
Master File-number of animals killed, number of carcasses graded, 
grading volume, grade, yield, pounds and production hours for super- 
vision and sampling, waiting time, travel time, revenue hours, days 
of service; 2) Assignment Master File-available hours, revenue 
hours, volume, production hours, supervision and sampling pounds 
and hours, types of hours (i.e., regular, standby, night differential); 
3) Mainstation Management File-revenue conversion, performance 
index, men used to service assignments, number of permanent grad- 
ers staffed, overtime hours, standby hours, intermittent hours, Mnr- 
ket News hours, Consumer Protection hours, planned and actual 
retraining hours, clerical pieces-hours-rate; and 4) Mainstation De- 
tail File-(current and cumulative) number of beef slaughtered, beef 
graded, yield, pounds graded. Output! The Livestock MRS gener- 
ates the following reports every four weeks: Plant Workload Report, 
Reimbursable Hours Variance Report, Assignment Conversion Re- 
port, Revenue Conversion Report, Performance Index Report, Fed- 
eral Acceptance Program Report, Men Needed to Service 
Assignments Report, Beef Quality Grading Consist Report, Beef 
Yield Grade Pieces Report, Beef Yield Grade Tonnage Report, No- 
tional Report-Meat Graded and Accepted, Mainstation Manage- 
ment Report-Summary of Factors for Mainstation, and Species 
Weight Report. This system does not have query capabilities. A\<all* 
ability: MRS reports are for internal Livestock Division use only. 

Agency Contact: Technical Services Division; 14th St. and 
Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-3075. 

Food 



Federal Information Sources and System* on Food 



325 



321 

Monthly Report oj Food Stamp Participation and Coupon Issuance 
040-R-3220. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Food Stamp Program / 12-3505-0-1-604. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee 

Data Bate Reference: S-00207-003 

Purpose; The system determines the extent of monthly certifica- 
tion and participation in the Food Stamp Program and provides data 
relative to the volue of coupons issued to participants. Input: The 
data source is the transacted authorization to purchase (ATP) cards 
which indicate the level of eligibility of certified participants. Con- 
tent: The reporting document is based on source input from project 
arcns, which may be a State, independent city, county, or construc- 
tion of counties, and indicates total participation by public assistance 
and non-public assistance categories and the value of coupons issued 
(i.c. h the total value of coupons less the purchase requirement or cash 
rcceivetl in payment for coupons). Output: There is a monthly re- 
port which provides estimates of current participation and accrued 
expenditures. Availability: The output is publicly available and un- 
classified. 

Agency Contact: Program Reporting Staff; 500 12th St. SW, 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8275. 



322 

National Agricultural Library (NAL). 

OMB Funding Title/Code: National Agricultural Library / 12-0300- 
0-1-352. 

Congnmlonal Relevances House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bait Rferonci S-00217-001 

Purpose: The National Agricultural Library was established in 
1 862 under the Organic Act of 1862 establishing the Department of 
Agriculture. Its mission is "to acquire and diffuse among the people 
of the United States useful information on subjects connected with 
agriculture in the most general and comprehensive sense of the 
word.". Input: The library assembles and maintains a collection of 
published materials in all subjects pertaining to agricultural research. 
Content: The resources of the library consist of books, periodicals, 
manuscripts, and materials in nonprint forms. Output: The principal 
reports include; Agriculture On-Line Access (AGRICOLA) 
(monthly Capes); Bibliography of Agriculture (monthly hardcopy); 
National Agricultural Library Catalog (monthly hardcopy); Serial 
Titles Automated Research (STAR) (updated monthly; computer 
paper printout, microfiche); Serials Currently Received (annual 
hordcopy); and various bibliographies in hardcopy published irregu- 
larly. Amiletbility: The products and services of the National 
Agricultural Library are available to Department of Agriculture per- 
sonnel, the worldwide agricultural community, other Federal agen- 
cies, land-grant universities, and others with an interest m me 
library's resources. 

Agency Contact: National Agricultural Library; 10301 Baltimore 
Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 344-3778. 



323 

National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSU 03. _ 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and JWta ed 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutn- 

Food 



tion, and Forestry, Senate Committee on Appropriations Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee 

Data Bate Reference: S-002I3-004 

Purpose: The system is to create and utilize a computer accessible 
file for searching, publishing inventories, and laboratory manage- 
ment of the seed matenal stored at the National Seed Storage 
Laboratory (NSSL), Fort Collins, CO The current inventory of 95,- 
000 plus samples is increasing daily. In addition to assisting in labora- 
tory management, the system is an invaluable tool in providing 
reliable plant breeding information. Input: Data are compiled by 
personnel at the NSSL from submissions by seed donors, literature 
citations, and examination of material under scientific observation 
Content: Data are distributed throughout the national and interna- 
tional plant science community. Data are updated periodically, ave- 
raging four times per year. The system utilizes both customized 
software and the MIRADS data management package from Marshall 
Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL Output. Output is generated 
only on demand Availability: Information is publicly available 

Agency Contact: Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3817 



324 

Participation in Food Programs by Race System. 040-R-3659. 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Food Stamp Program / 12-3505-0-1-604; 
Food Donations Program / 12-3503-0-1-604. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reforance: S- 0020 7- 00 7 

Purpose: The system was established after enactment of the Civil 
Rights Act of 1964 {Title VI, sections 601-602) and the Code of 
Federal Regulations [Title VII, section 15.5(b)] which establishes a 
system for collecting participation data by racial/ethnic groups. In- 
put: The data are derived from forms submitted by State and/or local 
counterpart offices to the Food and Nutrition Service. Content: The 
information consists of the name of the State, name of the food 
program, name of the project area, name and address of the reporting 
welfare or distributing agency, reporting month, and the number of 
participants-by-race as follows: Negro or black, Spanish surnamed, 
American Indian, Oriental, white (other than Spanish surnamed), all 
' others, and total number of participants. Output: The semiannual 
output (Family Food Assistance Programs-Racial participation) in- 
cludes number of participants by program, State/region, and by ra- 
cial category. It also compares family food assistance participation to 
the U.S. population, segmented by racial category and State/region. 
Availability: Output is available to the public. 

Agency Contact: Food Stamp Division; 500 12th St. SW, Room 650, 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8982. 



325 

Peanut Germplasm System. 03, . ~ / n 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12- 

Gowulenol Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Rela ed 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations. Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 



Data Bai Reference) S-002 1 3-0 1 3 



93 



325 



Federal Information Sources and Syttem* on Food 



Purpose: The system inventories accessions held in the world 
peanut collection The agronomic and disease information is used by 
peanut improvement scientists both nationally and abroad. Input: 
Data are collected by the USDA-ARS Southern Regional Plant In- 
troduction Station on coding sheets and magnetic tape. Content: 
The file is updated when sufficient information has been added, The 
system contains 11 descriptors and 4,2 10 accessions These include: 
Identification Number, Genus, Species, Origin, Cultivar, Maturity, 
Plant Type, Pod Type, Seed Size, Testa Color, Seed/Pod, Shelling %, 
Genreal Vigour, Dormancy (Fresh), Dormancy (+14), Branching,, 
Leafspot, Thrips, S. C Rootworm, Sting Nemalode, N.R.K. Nema- 
tode, and P R.K. Nematode. Output: The system responds to spe- 
cific queries and summaries using batch mode. A catalog is produced 
annually or when sufficient information has been added to warrant 
a new catalog. Availability: Output is publicly available 

Agency Contact: Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg , Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3937. 



326 

Pear Breeding System. 03 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352 

Congreulonai Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations' Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Refarnce: S-00213-019 

Purpose: The system reports progress, summarizes results, and 
stores historical information on major pear improvement research 
programs within the United States Input: Data are supplied by 
icientists at USDA-ARS stations at Wooster, OH; Byron, GA; and 
Beltsville, MD. Data are supplied on magnetic tape, forms, and cod- 
ing sheets. Content: The system serves major pear producing areas 
in the United States and is updated annually. Subsystems are progeny 
numbers and parentage, cultivars and selections, seedling tree data, 
seedling fruit data, and cultivar fruit quality The system contains 6 1 
descriptors on 400,000 accessions. These include. Progeny Number, 
Seed Parent Code, Polen Parent Code, Location 1, Location 2, Loca- 
tion 4, Code Number, Name, Fire Blight Score, Species, % Pyrus 
Communis, Year, Flowering, Blossom Blight, Stem Diameter, Twig 
Blight, Fabrea Leaf Spot, Pollen, Pear Psylla, Leaf Scorch, Trunk 
Swelling, Yield, Blister Mite, Harvest Date, Pressure Test, Date from 
Storage, Evaluation Day, Length, Width, Sample Size, Shape, Sur- 
face Contour, Stem Length, Stem Thickness, Stem Angle, Color, 
Blush Percent, Blush Color, Russet Rating, Russet Type, Russet 
Location, Russet Color, Appearancce, Flesh Color, Flesh Texture, 
Flesh Juiciness, Grit Rating, Grit Location, Grit Size, Flavor Rating, 
Flavor Description, Flavor, Aroma, Skin Thickness, Skin Taste, Core 
Size, Internal Breakdown, Scald, Block, Cultivar, and Tree Number. 
Output: A statistical summary report is produced annually from each 
of the five subsystems. Each report contains calculated pear quality 
indices, means, frequency distributions, analysis of variance, correla- 
tions, and chi-square analyses. The system possesses multifield 
search capabilities. Availability: Output is publicly available. 

Agency Contacts Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agrictural Library Bldg., Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705: (301) 
344-3937. 



327 

Plant Introduction File (PI File}. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Coda; Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congretilonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

94 



Dale flaw Reference: S-002 13-005 

Purpose: This system maintains and searches a file of all plant 
material introduced to the United States from foreign lands since 
1969, The current file size now exceeds 56,000 plants, It is essential 
that this basic data be maintained in an automated system for (lie 
purpose of tracing plant source, collector, and identification informa- 
tion. Input: Input is from all Agricultural Research Service field sta- 
tions and other Government agencies. Content: These data 
represent the only data available on plant material introduced to the 
United States at the time of its introduction. It becomes the source 
data to which all further information taken from performance evalua- 
tions is appended. Output: Output is generated only on demand. 
Availability: Information is publicly available. 

Agency Contact: Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3817. 



328 

Plant Pest Information System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- 
vice / 12-1600-0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reference! S-00205-003 

Purpose: The system is to provide necessary information to Plant 
Protection and Quarantine officials, State and foreign regulatory 
officials, and others having a need for plant peat information, frtpttt; 
Data are derived from weekly reports from 44 States. The reports 
contain specific information concerning pest activity within the Slate 
during the reporting period. Other sources of information arc cflUl* 
logs, literature, and bulletins. Content: The file contains descriptive 
information on observations of insect activity, populations, ami con- 
trol activity and trap data, includfng numbers and types of insects by 
trap locations. At present, there are approximately 800,000 entries 
in the plant pest file. Approximately 20,000 bits of information nrc 
added to the file each year. The information is recorded on mi- 
crofilm, An attempt is being made to develop an automated plant 
pest information system, in cooperation with Agricultural Research 
Service. The system is not expected to be operational for at least 
three years. Output: The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is 
produced biweekly and summarized annually. Availability; The 
Cooperative Economic Insect Report is distributed to States, oilier 
Federal agencies, and private individuals (including industry) having 
a legitimate interest in plant pest information. 

Aeeney Contact: Plant Protection and Quarantine; 6506 Belcrcsi 
Rd., Room 665A, Hyattsville, MD 20782; (301) 436-8373. 

329 

Program Evaluation System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Departmental Administration / 12-0120- 
0-1-352. 

Congrettlonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data fiaie Reference! S-002 00- 003 

Purpose: The system was established to provide the Office of lh 
Secretary and program policy officials with information concerning 
the cost/effectiveness of USDA operating programs in achieving 
their objectives and their impacts. Input: Input is from program ad- 
ministrative records for program costs, output, and program clientele 
characteristics; data from USDA and other general purpose, statisti- 
cal series; and, where appropriate, data from special surveys of pro- 

Food 



Federal Information Sources and Systems on Food 



333 



gram clientele or users Input varies by type of program and scope 
of specific evaluation studies Content: Program evaluation results 
include estimates of past and current program costs, benefits, impacts 
on tnrget groups and others, effectiveness with respect to achieve- 
ment of program objectives and the goals of USDA missions, and 
other impacts. Comprehensiveness or depth and timing of evaluation 
output varies according to departmental need for program policy 
decisionmnking purposes. Information produced relates to national 
programs of the USDA or their major components. Output; Hard- 
copy program evaluation reports are produced on an "as needed" 
basis. Report findings are also summarized and assessed in hard copy 
Program Evaluation Inventory Records. Availability: Output is gen- 
erally not publicly available. It is primarily utilized internally but is 
made available to OMB, GAO, the Congress, and other users in the 
Government. 

Agency Contact: Office of Management and Finance; Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-6667. 

330 

Rainfall Data. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congrenlonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Refartncai S-002 13-001 

Purpose: This system maintains a series of tapes which contain 
data collected over a 20-year period from weather stations across the 
country. These data require periodic revision and expansion. This 
collection or data is used by scientists to study and predict weather 
patterns. Input: The input is data from raingauges at 114 weather 
stations, Content: It provides a daily record for the 20-year period; 
7,305 records for each station. The minimum and maximum temper- 
atures for the day and the amount of precipitation are provided. Out- 
put; The principal reports are the count of records for each station 
'and the report of sequences of wet days for stations for specific 
number of days. 

Agency Contact) Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3817. 

331 

Receipt and Distribution of Donated Commodities, 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Food Donations Program / 12-3503-0- 
1-604; Elderly Feeding Program / 12-3511-0-1-604; Child Nutrition 
Program / 12-3539-0-1-604. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Dora Bate Reference: S-002 07-00 8 

Purpose: This system was established to provide information re- 
garding the distribution of food by the State distributing agencies. 
The major function of this system is to maintain an accurate record 
of the receipt, distribution, and inventory of USDA donated foods 
at the State level. Input: The data come from reports submitted by 
State distributive agencies. Content: The master record file provides 
information on the commodity, purchasing authority, package size, 
beginning and ending inventory, foods received during the month, 
transfers of food, gains and losses in inventory, and the distribution 
of foods by eligible outlet. Output: Output is produced monthly on 
a computer listing. Availability: Output is available to the public as 
well as all interested parties within the Department. 

Agency Contact: Food Distribution Division; 500 12th St. SW, 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8406. 

i 

Food 



332 

Rice Germplasm System. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture, 
House Committee on Appropriations' Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations' Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reference S-00213-014 

Purpose: The system locates and describes major collections of 
rice germplasm both within the United States and abroad The inven- 
tory control section of the system directs the requestor to where seed 
of desired nee cultivars may be obtained The agronomic quality and 
disease resistance portions of the system aid in selecting potential 
parents for new rice cultivars. Input: Data are compiled at three ma- 
jor locations on coding sheets. These are done by Prentiss Schilling, 
LSU, Baton Rouge, LA; Jack Oakes, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, 
and T, C. Chaing, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. 
Content: The content is international in scope. The file is updated an- 
nually. The subsystems are base classification file, agronomic file, 
disease file, chemical file, and seed charactenstics file The file con- 
tains 1,600 accessions and 26 descriptors. These include: CI/P! 
Number, Suffix, Name.Source Code, Source Name, Origin Code, 
Oeifin Name, Year, Day to Head, Kernel Length, Kernel Width, 
Kernel Ratio, Kernel Color, Endosperm Type, Amylose Content, 
Starth/ Iodine, Alkaline Content 1.7, Alkaline Content 2.5, Biuret 
Protein, Parboil Loss, Kjeldahl Protein, Lysine of Protein, Lysien of 
Sample, W.C. No., Hull Color, and IRRI Number. Output: The sys- 
tem responds to specific queries and summaries using batch mode 
and is capable of multifield searches. Inventory catalogs are pro- 
duced annually. Availability: Output is publicly available. 

Agency Contact! Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3937. 



333 

School Feeding Programs Operations System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Child Nutrition Programs / 12-3539-0- 
1-604; Special Milk Program / 12-3502-0-1-604. 
Congressional Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agnculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bo to Reference; S-002 07-006 

Purpose: The system is an electronic data base of management 
and fiscal information. The main functions of this system are to 
validate all new input data by comparing them to the existing data 
base; review the data base for program trends and take appropriate 
action when necessary; make appropriate additions and reductions to 
the base; indicate inconsistencies between input data submitted by 
School Food Authorities and accepted program practices; measure 
the level of program performance against Federal and State mone- 
tary expenditures, and produce various other fiscal, accounting, pro- 
gram control, and statistical records. Input: The data used to 
maintain the system are derived from fiscal and programmatic re- 
ports forwarded to FNS on a regular basis by those School Food 
Authorities participating in programs. The major categories of input 
data include the level of State and Federal spending, program partici- 
pation, number and category of meals served and type of school food 
authority (public vs. private, nonprofit), and level of non-food assist- 
ance funding and commodity assistance. Content: The Performance 
and Monitoring System for the School Feeding Programs consists of 
a monthly listing of total schools operating and approved, participa- 
tion levels, total meals served, and Federal reimbursement claimed. 
Also listed are the number of needy schools and students participat- 
ing in each program and the amount of additional reimbursement 
claimed in terms of the number of free and reduced price meals. The 

95 



333 



Federal Information Sources and Syitemt on Food 



system states the level of Stale and local funding used to match 
Federal expenditures and olher non-Federal expenditures to operate 
the programs effectively. The system lists total program funds availa- 
ble at the beginning of each month and subtracts total program costs 
during that period to give FNS a monthly closing net operating 
balance for each School Food Authority. This gives FNS the infor- 
mation needed to make statistical comparisons from one month to 
the next The system also lists on a monthly basis the total amount 
of non-food assistance made available by FNS to promote school 
feeding programs in areas which do not operate a program and to 
upgrade meal service in others Also included is the level of com- 
modity assistance provided to School Food Authorities to determine 
the level of ancillary benefit these foods provide. Output; System 
output is produced monthly and includes computerized master re- 
cord files for each of the programs These files contain data on 
approved outlets, average attendance and participation, total meals 
served, and funding levels. Availability: Output is available to the 
public at all times. 

Agency Contact: Child Nutrition Division; 14th St and 
Independence Ave SW, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8130, 

334 

Small Grains Rust Nurseries. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352 

Conflfenlonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations. Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee 

Data Bate Rfmn: S-002 13-008 

Purpose; The purpose is to maintain data resulting from research 
to find new genes or combinations of genes in small grains which 
condition resistance to populations of rust fungi throughout the 
world and to test new varieties and promising selections of wheat, 
oats, and barley developed by plant breeders and pathologists for 
resistance to rusts. Input; The sources are World Collection of 
Small Grains (USDA) and new cultivars supplied by plant breeders/- 
pathologists Content: The geographic coverage is worldwide; the 
data are collected at 58 locations in 33 countries on five continents 
and include reactions of 600 varieties of spring wheat, oats, and 
barleys to various disease-producing organisms. Two major reports 
are produced annually, in February-March and August-September. 
Updates to files are ongoing at ali times. Output; The semiannual 
reports are preliminary reports, not for formal publication. The re- 
ports are either photocopies of computer listings or xerox reproduc- 
tions of computer produced print tapes with accompanying text. 
Availability: Output is for staff use only. 

Agency Contort; Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 

344-3817. * ' 



335 

Snow Surveys and Water Supply Forecasting (SNOTEL) 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Conservation Operations / 12-1000-0- 

i'JUZt 

Congressional R| V ance: Bouse Committee on Agriculture- 
House Committee on Appropriations; Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bo is Reference S-00218-001 

Purpose: The purpose is to gather snow and other hydrometeoro- 
tegical data, validate it, and use it for forecasting available water at 
downstream pomts for agriculture water management, irrigation, 
flood control, and the like. Input: Data are collected from remote 
mountain sues m 11 Western States. Content; Data are gathered 
during the snow accumulation period and through the spring snow 



melt period. Data include-but are not limited to-temperature, 
precipitation, snow water equivalent, and battery voltage. Output; 
The principal output is monthly water supply forecasts. There is a 
limited ad hoc query capability.' Availability: Output is distributed, 
to the public. 

Agency Contact! Management Evaluation Division; P. O. Box 2890, 
Washington, DC 20013; (202) 447-2241 

336 

Sorghum Germplasm System, 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congresilonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Reference; S-00213-015 

Purpose; The system is being developed to service sorghum im- 
provement scientists within the United States and to supply informa- 
tion to scientists working in sorghum producing areas around the 
world. The major functions are to supply lists of potential parents and 
disease resistant germplasm. Input: Data will be compiled from no- 
tional and international sources by either the USDA-ARS Southern 
Regional Plant Introduction, Experiment, GA, or National Seed 
Storage Laboratory, Ft. Collins, CO. Coding sheets, cards, and mag- 
netic tape will be the principal devices to record and enter data. Con- 
tent: The content is international in scope. Major updates will occur 
annually. The system will possess the following subsystems: Base (lie 
with identification information, microorganism disease file, agro- 
nomic file, chemical constituent file, entomological file, and morpho 
logical file. To date (March 1977), the files contain 16,000 accessions 
and 52 descriptors. In the near future (1979) the file will contain 
24,000 accessions and close to 200 descriptors, These include: Pani- 
cle Length, Panicle Breadth, Panicle Compactness, Glume Color, 
Glume Covering, Glume Texture, Awning, Tillering, Tlireshnbiliiy, 
Early Vigour, Height, Leaf Breadth, Leafiness, Leaf Drying, Seed 
Color, Seed Size, Length of Primary Branch, No. of Whorls in Pflnl- 
cle, pays to 5% Flowering, 100 Grain Weight, Wt. of Grain Per 5 
PancJle, Vigour After 6 Weeks, Total Number of Tillers, Grain Har- 
diness, Group Number, Subgroup, Leaf Number, Stem Borer, Iden- 
tification Number, Genus, Species, Source, Cultivar, Maturity, Type, 
Plant Uniformity, and Number of Nodes. Output; The system will 
respond to specific queries using batch mode and produce requested 
summaries. A catalog from the base file is planned. Availability 
Output will be publicly available. 

Agency Contact: Data Systems Application Division; Nationnl 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 

344-3937. 

337 

Soybean Germplasm System. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congreitlonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bate Referent*: S-002 13-0 16 

Purpose: The purpose is to report Inventory of current accessions 
of soybeans maintained in the continental United States. The report 
contains identifying information, disease, chemical, and agronomic 
data. Input: Input includes coding sheets, cards, and magnetic tape. 
Data are compiled by Richard Bernard, USDA-ARS, Urbana, IL and 
Edgar Hartwig, USDA-ARS, Stoneville, MS. Content: The content 
is national in scope, and the update cycle is "on demand," Subsys- 
tems include Inline*; maturity groups OO to IV-named varieties; 
wild soybeans; soybean genetic tape collection; maturity Groups III 



Food 



Federal Information Source* and Syitemi an Food 



340 



and IV-germplasm collection; and maturity Groups V to X-germ- 
plasm collection. The file contains varieties developed from early 
1900 lo the present. It contains 6,500 accessions and has 44 descrip- 
tors. These include: Variety Name, Maturity Group, Flower Color, 
Pubescence Color, Pod Color, Seed Coat Lustre, Seed Coat Color, 
HiUim Color, Prior Designation, Source, Year, Flowering Date, 
Maturity Date, Lodging Score, Height, Stem Termination Score, 
Branching Score, Seed Quality, Weight Per Seed, Yield, Protein 
Content, Oil Content, Methionine, SBTI, Linolenic, Lmoleic, Pal- 
mitic, StearEc, Oleic, Iodine No., Phytophthora Rot, Chlorosis Score, 
Matting Score, Shatlering Score, Variety Parentage, Bacterial Pus- 
tale, Frogeye. Reaction, Leaf Hopper Injury, Salt Reaction, and 
Downy Mildew Reaction. Output; The principal output is an inven- 
tory catalog, produced in hardcopy every four or five years. The 
system has a multifield search query capability using batch mode 
Availability; Output is publicly available 

Agency Contact: Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3937. 



338 

Special Feeding Operation Systems, 

OMB Funding Tltle/Codet Child Nutrition Programs / 12-3539-0- 
1-604. 

Congressional Relevance! House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bam Reference! S- 00 2 07- 00 5 

Purpose; The information system is an electronic data base of 
management and fiscal information. This system serves the same 
functions for the Special Feeding Programs as the data system for the 
School Feeding Programs. Input: The data are derived from fiscal 
and programmatic reports forwarded to FNS on a regular basis 
(monthly or quarterly) by participating sponsors in the Child Care 
Food and Summer Food Service Program. The major categories of 
input data include the daily number of children served; total food 
service operating costs to be claimed for reimbursement Including 
food, labor, and any administrative costs; number and type of meals 
served; level of non-food assistance in the Child Care Food Program, 
and commodity assistance levels. Content: The Performance and 
Monitoring System for the Special Feeding Programs consists of 
monthly and quarterly listings of numbers of sponsoring organiza- 
tions; children receiving free and reduced price meals; total children 
served; information on cash income to each child care and summer 
outlet including children's payments for meals, food service fees, or 
funds from other sources identified for use in the food service, re- 
cords indicating amount of food used; program reimbursement; level 
of commodity assistance; and levels of funding for non-food assist- 
ance payments. The system includes the level of State and local 
funding and total program funding at the beginning of each month. 
Total program costs are subtracted to give FNS an operating balance. 
This gives FNS the information needed to make statistical compari- 
sons from one month to the next. Output: System output is pro- 
duced monthly for the Child Care Food Programs and quarterly tor 
the Summer Food Service Program. Output includes computerized 
master record files containing data on approved outlets, attendance, 
meals served, and funding. Availability: Output is available to the 
public. 

Agency Contact. Child Nutrition Division; 14th St. and 
Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8130. 

339 

State Performance Reporting System, 040-R-3190, 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Food Stamp Program / 12-3505-0-l-6y4 
Con fl re1onal Relevance: House Committee on AgncuUure 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and ^Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Mum 

Food 



tion, and Forestry, Senate Committee on Appropriations Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee 

Data Bate Reference; S- 002 07 -004 

Purpose: The Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended, requires the 
participating States to report to the Secretary of AgncuUure on their 
efficiency and effectiveness. The State Performance Reporting Sys- 
tem was created to fulfill this requirement Input: The data file is 
derived from reports submitted to FNS by State personnel. The data 
are submitted from each State as defined in the Food Stamp Act of 
1964, as amended. Content: Themaslerfileconsistsofdalafromthe 
following reports: 1) Quality Control Subsample-statislically valid, 
national level report submitted monthly by each Stale; 2) Quality 
Control Semiannual Report-submitted by each State at 6-month 
intervals and covering error cases and dollar losses; 3) Semiannual 
Corrective Action Report-submitted on a suggested format as con- 
tained in FNS(FS) Handbook 300 and containing a) Consolidated 
corrective action plan for small project areas reviewed during the 
semiannual period; b) State corrective action plan based on quality 
control findings, FNS reviews of Slate operations, FNS reviews of 
State systems, statewide problems found during project area reviews, 
and contents from audits, investigations, and any other applicable 
sources; c) Unachieved correclive action; and 4) Large Projecl Area 
Corrective Action Plans-submitted for project areas with bonus issu- 
ances of $500,000 or more during the last month of the preceding 
fiscal year. The report represents corrective action formulated from 
annual review findings and is submitted within 60 days after comple- 
tion of the review. Output: The output is a subsample output fre- 
quency Quality Control forecast and analysis on a national basis 
(monthly); semiannual Quality Control Report with comprehensive, 
valid statistics for individual reporting States, and a semiannual Cor- 
rective Action Plans from individual States with comprehensive 
composites of corrective action on a State, regional, and national 
basis; and comparalive and special analyses of affected standards and 
associated weaknesses on a State, regional, and national basis. Avail- 
ability; The subsample (used for forecasting) is available to USDA 
personnel. The national semiannual report data by State is made 
available to the public. Semiannual Correclive Action Plan compos- 
ites on a State, regional, and national basis are available to USDA 
personnel and State agencies. 

Agency Contact: Food Stamp Division; 500 12th St. SW, 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8755 



340 

Statistics of Fanner Cooperatives. ,,,, 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Farmer Cooperative Service / 12-0400- 

0-1-352. A . 

Congreiilonal Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations- Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommitlee. 

Data Ba Refni S-00220-001 

Purpose: The Farmer Cooperative Service functions as a central 
storehouse of data about farmer cooperatives in the United States. 
Input: Statistical data are obtained from the 7,600 farmer coopera- 
lives Content: Data include information on number of cooperatives, 
membership, and volume of business (sales by principal products > and 
Tempts from related sources). Data are published by commodmes 
services, regions, and States. They are assembled by the History and 
Statistics Group of the Farmer ^P? hw f' ^J^ 
principal report is an annual publication. Availablity: Cop.es of 
publications are available upon request to the Fanner Cooperative 
Service Information Division. 

97 



340 



Federal Information Source* and Syitamt on Food 



Agency Contact: Farmer Cooperative Service; 500 12th St, SW, 
Room 550, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-8254 

341 

Sugarcane Germpfosm System. 03. 

OMft Funding Title/Codes Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congressional Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations- Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Be IB RefarancBi S-00213-017 

Purpose: The system is to report inventory of current accessions 
of sugarcane maintained in the continental United States. The report 
contains identification information. Input: Data are compiled from 
coding sheets by the Principal Plant Introduction Officer, USDA- 
ARS, Beltsville, MD and Jim Miller, USDA-ARS, Canal Point, FL. 
Content: The content is international in scope, and the update cycle 
is "on demand." Subsystems include an inventory control file and a 
historical information file. The file contains varieties developed from 
1918 to present, approximately 6,000 accessions, and 10 descriptors. 
These include: Variety Name, Import Number, Use Code, Location 
Code, Parents, Block in Field, Tier in Field, Plant Introduction Num- 
ber, and Origin. Output: The principal output is the hardcopy inven- 
tory catalog The system has a multifield search capability using 
batch mode. There is no schedule for output. Availability: Output 
is publicly available. 

Agency Contact t Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg,. Room 13, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3937. 

342 

Survey of Characteristics of Food Stamp Households. 
OMB Funding Title/Code: Food Stamp Program / 12-3505-0-1-604. 
Congressional Relevances House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 

Data Bo i & Reference; S- 00207- 00 2 

Purpose; The system provides nations! and regional data on the 
characteristics of food stamp households. Functions include the in- 
put, editing, tabulation, and statistical analysis of data. The system 
also interfaces with the TRIM model (Transfer Income Model). In- 
put: The input is document-containing data taken from a sample of 
administrative records of food stamp households. Content: An an- 
nual national update and replacement is obtained through sampling 
of households certified in September of the survey year. At present, 
the first update is being done (the second annual survey), and data 
include age, sex, employment status, student status of all household 
members, as well as. household's income and food stamp deductions 
by source and amount. Resource data and other miscellaneous ques- 
tions are included also. Output: The output includes the Agency 
publication, including analysis and several tabulations; special tabu- 
lations, as requested; and a micro-data file, available on request, 
Availability! The output is publicly available and unclassified. 

Agency Conractt Food Stamp Division; 500 12th St, SW, 
Washington, DC 20250; (202) 447-9075. 

343 

U.S. Agricultural Export-Import Data System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Foreign Agricultural Service / 12-2900- 
0-1-352, 

Congmttonol Relevance: House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee. 



Data Bate Reference; S- 002 12- 004 

Purpose: This information system is used to support the agricul- 
tural exports mission. It serves as the automated system of record for 
historical and current information about U.S. exports of agricultural 
commodities to all foreign destinations and imparts from all origins. 
It is used in publication of agricultural trade as well as for statistical 
analysis and projections of exports. Input: Information is obtained 
monthly on magnetic tape from the Bureau of Census. Import data 
originate from information reported on customs input documents 
and are based on tariff schedule (TSUSA) commodity classification. 
Export data originate with the shipper's export declaration form. 
Content: This system carries monthly information for (he most re- 
cent 30 months of U.S. imports and exports of agricultural commodi- 
ties. The monthly information is carried to the lowest level of detail. 
For imports, the content of monthly import data includes com- 
modity, country of origin, customs district of entry, import type, 
economic class, and rate provision. Export monthly data include 
commodity, country of destination, and customs district. Historical 
data are also carried in quarterly summary form from 1967 to date. 
The summary information for exports and imports carries inforntn- 
tion by commodity and country of destination /origin. Both quantity 
and value are carried in monthly and quarterly records. Output: A 
wide variety of output is produced from the system A generalized 
report retrieval system that allows users to specify report subject and 
stub content by parameters is used to vary report subjects and con- 
tent. Fifteen different report formats are available. Reports arc pro- 
duced for publication in FAS circulars and other publications. They 
are produced regularly for use by commodity divisions and agricul- 
tural attaches as well as FAS program managers and other USDA 
agencies. Availability: Commodity circulars are publicly available. 

Agency Contact: Foreign Commodity Analysis; South Bldg,, I4lh 
St. and Independence Ave. SW, Room 5081-S, Washington, DC 
20250; (202)447-3510. 

344 

World Small Grains Collection. 03. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Agricultural Research Service / 12-1400- 
0-1-352. 

Congrestlonal Relevance; House Committee on Agriculture; 
House Committee on Appropriations: Agriculture and Related 
Agencies Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Agricul- 
ture and Related Agencies Subcommittee, 

Data Bate Reference! S-00213-007 

Purpose: The system maintains complete data on small grains, 
wheat, barley, rye, and oats being collected and analyzed by (lie 
Germplasm Resources Laboratory. The data consist of numerous lest 
results primarily for resistance to diseases. The file consists of 76,000 
varieties, Input: Data are accumulated from examination of plant 
material under scientific observation in nursery performance trials 
throughout the nation. Content: Data are distributed nationally and 
internationally throughout the small grains plant science community. 
The file is updated periodically averaging six times per year. Outputs 
Reports are produced annually on wheat, barley, rye, and oats dis- 
ease resistance, as well as on small grains and the laboratory itself, 
Other reports are produced on demand. Availability: Information Is 
publicly available, 

Agency Contact] Data Systems Application Division; National 
Agricultural Library Bldg., Room 408, Beltsville, MD 20705; (301) 
344-3817. 



98 



Food 



Federal Information Sourcet and Syitems on Food 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

345 

Census Bureau Agriculture Statistics. 

OMB Funding Title/Codes Salaries and Expenses / 13-0401-0-1-403; 
Periodic Censuses and Programs / 13-0450-0-1-403. 
Cangre it tonal Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations: 
Stale, Justice, Commerce and Judiciary Subcommittee; House Com- 
mittee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce; House Committee on 
Post Office and Civil Service; Senate Committee on Appropriations: 
State, Justice, Commerce, The Judiciary Subcommittee, Senate 
Committee on Governmental Affairs. 

Data Bat* Reference! S-003 09-006 

Purpose; Agriculture censuses are conducted every five years in 
years ending in four and nine. Input: Survey activities are sources 
of data. Con (en f: Census of Agriculture reports contain data for 
States and counties including such items as number, size, and type 
of farm; crops harvested; value of farm products; and selected farm 
expenditures. Data are also available on machine-readable computer 
(flpes. Each year statistics are collected on cotton ginning and pro- 
duction. Twelve reports on cotton ginned prior to specific dates plus 
an end-of-season report are prepared and issued each year on dates 
prescribed by the Congress. Output: Printed reports and machine- 
readable data files are produced. Availability: Reports are publicly 
available. 

Agency Contact: Agriculture Division; Bureau of the Census, Room 
3015, FB 4, Washington, DC 20233; (30t) 763-5230. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

347 

Food for Peace Title I MIS 

OMB Funding Title/Code; Functional Development Assistance Pro- 
grams / 11-1021-0-1-151. 

Congrilonal Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations. 
Foreign Operations Subcommittee; House Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations; Senate Committee on Appropriations- Foreign Op- 
erations Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 

Data Bate R(. rente: S-0 1 017-009 

Purpose: This system provides for collection of historical infor- 
mation with regard to Public Law 480, Title I agreements with for- 
eign countries. Information is used for preparing and reviewing 
program projections for future years. Input: Sales agreements be- 
tween the Department of Agriculture, (USDA), supplier, recipient 
country, and AID and USDA Public Law 480 budget information by 
country and program comprise the system input Content: Data in- 
clude terms of sales agreements and budgeting information depicting 
the country programs in terms of dollar value and commodity com- 
position for pnor year, current year, and projected year. Information 
is updated daily, and files date to fiscal year 1976. Data include 
country, commodity authorized, value authorized, date of agree- 
ment, purchase authorizations issued against agreements, vessel 
name, date of departure, and port of departure Output: Modules by 
budget, commodity, and program are prepared in hardcopy as 
needed. Availability; Reports are for internal use only. 

Agency Contact: Office of Food for Peace; Agency for International 
Development, Washington, DC 20523; (703) 235-9649. 



DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND 
WELFARE 



346 

Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Statistics, HRS 003. 
OMB Funding Title/Code! Health Resources / 75-0712-0-1-550. 
Congreiflonal Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations; 
Labor-Health, Education and Welfare Subcommittee; House Com- 
mittee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce; Senate Committee on 
Appropriations: Labor, Health, Education and Welfare Subcommit- 
tee; Senate Committee on Human Resources. 

Data Bolt Reference) S-00506-002 

Purpose: This program is the sole source of national morbidity 
data obtained through direct examination and clinical tests of sam- 
ples of the population to measure health status and collect data on 
undiagnosed and untreated diseases. Input: The subject matter is 
gathered through direct examination and clinical tests of samples of 
the population. The information covered Includes cardiovascular dis- 
eases, hypertension, nutritional deficiencies, respiratory diseases, ar- 
thritis, hearing levels, visual acuity, eye diseases, and body 
measurements. Content: This program yields data that permit stand- 
ardized assessment of nutritional status and other nutritional infor- 
mation on high risk groups as well as permitting generalization to the 
entire population between ages 1 and 74. This is an interactive and 
batch oriented system with continuous output requirements. Output: 
The system produces continuous reports on hardcopy and has query 
capability. Availability: The reports are used internally and exter- 
nally. 

Agency Contact: National Center for Health Statistics; 3700 
East-West Highway, Center Bldg., Hyattsville, MD 20782; (301) 
436-8539. 

Food 



348 

Food for Peace Title II MIS 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Functional Development Assistance Pro- 
grams / 11-1021-0-1-151. 

Congresi tonal Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations: 
Foreign Operations Subcommittee; House Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Foreign Op- 
erations Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 

Data feai* Rihrtnu: S-01017-010 

Purpose: This system provides a tracking system for internal 
agency analysis of budget, program and approval, call forward and 
procurement, booking /shipping receipt, and distribution of com- 
modities for Public Law 480, Title II grant food programs to assist 
foreign countries. Input: Statistical data on a worldwide basis in 
support of the system segments are recorded from U.S. private and 
voluntary organizations, Department of Agriculture, UN World 
Food Program, and Title II field posts. Content: Information is or- 
ganized on the basis of country, sponsor (voluntary agency, World 
Food Program, etc.), category (Maternal and Child Health, School 
Feeding, Food for Work, etc.), and commodity with respect to recipi- 
ents, quantity, and value. Shipping information is also available in- 
cluding vessel, sailing data, and port of departure. Data are updated 
monthly back to fiscal year 1976. Output: Output is hardcopy print- 
outs accessed from an on-line terminal or a high speed printer. To 
date major reports relate to budget, program and approval, and call 
forward and procurement. Reports are generated on an ad hoc basis. 
Data base query through use of on-line terminal is done daily. Statis- 
tical data are generated under column headings. Availability: Re- 
ports are for internal use only. Distribution is made to AID offices, 
USDA, OMB, and other entities upon request. 

Agency Contact: Office of Food for Peace; Agency for International 
Development, Washington, DC 20523; (703) 235-9649. 

99 



149 



Federal Information Sources and Syttemt an Food 



349 

Program Evaluation. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Functional Development Assistance Pro- 
grams / 11-1021-0-1-151; Housing and Other Credit Guaranty Pro- 
grams / 72-4340-0-4-151, Advance Acquisition of 
Property- Revolving Fund / 72-4590-0-4-151, Technical Assistance 
/ 11-9998-0-7-151; Security Supporting Assistance / 11-1006-0-1- 
151. 

Congraulonol Ralovanca: House Committee on Appropriations: 
Foreign Operations Subcommittee, House Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations, Senate Committee on Appropriations- Foreign Op- 
erations Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 

Data BQI Rfetn<*: S-01017-013 

Purpose: This system provides a retrospective analysis of the 
Agency's program experience to see if the stated objectives had been 
achieved and to determine how and why events happened as they 
did This is an analysis at a higher and more comprehensive level 
than project evaluation Input: System input consists of' t) Work- 
force effort to evaluate the quality, explicitness, and Rigor of pro- 
ject/program design, 2) The conduct of centrally managed, highly 
selective ex post studies in-depth of the impact of individual projects 
and sets of projects on development goals; 3} workforce effort to 
examine retrospectively program issues which are not country- 
specific. The logical framework matrix is applied to both the pro- 
ject/program design and the evaluation processes. Content: 
Information includes- 1) Baseline data in fields of food and nutrition, 
agricultural research, population planning and health, and education 
and human resources development; 2) prior experience with similar 
projects elsewhere; and 3) application of experimental, quasi-experi- 
mental, or other evaluation approaches Output: Principal output is 
reports on programs /projects, resource allocation and program man- 
agement, comparison of alternate strategies and approaches, and 
reports on sectoral input of programs. Availability: Reports are 
primarily for internal use, but are also available to other foreign 
assistance agencies, developing countries, universities, etc. Evalua- 
tion information is to be included in the Development Information 
System (DIS) 

Agoncy Contort: Office of Program Evaluation; Agency for 
International Development, Washington. DC 20523; (202) 
632-0226. 



350 

yolantary Agency Shipping System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Functional Development Assistance Pro- 
grams / 11-1021-0-1-151. 

Congreulonal Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations: 
Foreign Operations Subcommittee; House Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations; Senate Committee on Appropriations: Foreign Op- 
erations Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 

Data Bat* R(f*rnc*: S-01017-007 

Purpose; The system provides a procedure for recording dollar 
value, flag, weight, and freight charges for Public Law 480 (Food for 
Peace) and other commodities and produces periodic reports from 
these records. Input: Quarterly reports submitted by private volun- 
tary agencies which are registered with AID's Advisory Committee 
on Voluntary Foreign Aid and participate in the overseas freight 
subsidy program comprise the system input. Content,- The private 
voluntary agenc.es report quarterly to AID the dollar value of the 
Public Law 480 (Food for Peace) and other commodities they ship 

%S&S? c iT try J5 which shipped ' the nag of shi p ment - we 'sH 

?^b r .1. ** ^ SyStem is updatcd ^"friy whh cumulative 
Wata for the current fiscal year. Output: Quarterly reports are pre- 

by d " ar value ^ commodLs 
e ' and frei ht costs ' ^ WtoWff* 

n " 8nd f r "* by the Bureau of Ec n " 

Department of Commerce. 

100 



Agency Contact: Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation; 
Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523; 
(202) 632-8098. 



TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 



351 

World Fertilizer Market Information System. 

OMB Funding Title/Code: Tennessee Valley Authority Fund / <5<1- 
4110-0-3-301. 

Congreiilonal Relevance: House Committee on Appropriations 
Public Works Subcommittee; Home Committee on Public Works 
and Transportation; Senate Committee on Appropriations; Public 
Works Subcommittee; Senate Committee on Environment and Pub- 
lic Works 

Data Bate Reference! S-05700-002 

Purpose: The system provides the world fertilizer industry wilh 
detailed data and analyses of fertilizer market trends and new deve- 
lopments. Input; Data on fertilizer production units and distribution 
and marketing facilities are collected from published and unpub- 
lished sources. Data collected by other agencies, such as USDA, 
Bureau of Mines, Trade Commission, Bureau of Census, and FAO, 
are included for analysis and interpretation. Content; This system 
consists of two files: 1) World Fertilizer Production Cnpficity-A 
worldwide inventory of current and future fertilizer production units 
cataloged by company narrie, location, product and capacity, current 
plant status, and scheduled years of operation for projected new 
units. All major fertilizer materials are Included along wilh raw 
materials essential for the manufacture of fertilizers, Time period is 
1967-80 and the file is updated weekly. 2) Annual World Fertilizer 
Production, Consumption, and Trade-This file includes world fertil- 
izer production, consumption, export, and import statistics by pro- 
duct and country for the years 1962-75. This file is updatcd annually, 
Output: The principal output of this system is two biennial publicn- 
tions-Fertiiizer Trends and World Fertilizer Market Review riml 
Outlook. Output can be punched card, tape, hardcopy, or CRT tits- 
play Availability: Information is publicly available from TVA- 
NFDC. All information is available through n commercial computer 
time-sharing direct file access system as well. 

Agency Contact: National Fertilizer Development Center; Muscle 
Shoals, AL 35660; (205) 383-4631. 



Food 



Recurring Reports to the Congress on Food 



Citations in this appendix are extracted from Requirements for Recurring Reports to the Congress, a Directory 
issued by the Comptroller General for the period through June 30, 1976 (1977 Congressional Sourcebook Series) 
PAD-77-61. 1977 



COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 

352 

Annual Budget Estimates. 

Frequency/Due Date; Annually / When President submits budget. 

Agency Contact: Office of Management and Finance. (202) 254- 

3354. 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; House 

Committee on Appropriations; Senate Committee on Agriculture, 

Nutrition, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations. 

Authority: Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 

<P,L. 93-463; 88 Stat. 1390; 7 U.S.C. 4a(h)(l)). 

Data Base Reference; R-07800-001 

This report includes budget requirements for the year for the 
Commodity Futures Trading Commission. (PR) 



353 

Commodity Futures Trading Commission Annual Report. 
Frequency/Due Date: Annually / 120 days after end of fiscal year. 
Agency Contact: Public Information. (202) 254-8630. 
Congresflonal Recipient! House of Representatives- Speaker of the 
House ; House Committee on Appropriations; Senate: President of 
the Senate ; Senate Committee on Appropriations. 
Authority: Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 
(P.L. 93-463; 88 Stat. 1392; 7 U.S.C. 12-2). 
Data Base Reference: R-07800-003 

This report summarizes operations of a new commission charged 
with more effective regulation of the commodity futures market. 
Activities include the regulation of all agricultural and other com- 
modities, including lumber and metals, which are traded on com- 
modity exchanges. (PR) 



354 

Explanatory Notes for the Annual Budget Submission. 
Frequency/Due Dotei Annually / When President submits budget. 
Agency Contact! Office of Management and Finance. (202) 254- 

9524. . . 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Appropriations; Sen- 
ate Committee on Appropriations. 

Authority: Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 
(P.L. 93-463; 88 Stat. 1390; 7 U.S.C. 4a(h)(2)). 
Date Base Reference! R-07800-002 

This report embodies legislative recommendations, testimony, 
and comments on legislation related to the effective regulation of the 
commodity futures market. (PR) 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



355 

Annual Report on Public Law 480. 

Frequency/Due Dote: Annually / April 1. 

Agency Contact! Foreign Agricultural Service. (202) 447- 

Congressional Recipient: Howe Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry- 

Authority! Food for Peace Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-808, 2(e); 80 Stat. 

1537; 7 U.S.C. 1736b). 

Data Bate Reference: R- 00 2 12- 001 

Food 



This report contains narrative and statistical information on what 
the United States has done to expand international trade under Pub- 
lic Law 480 It shows how the United States has helped develop and 
expand export markets for its commodities and how the United 
States has used its abundant agricultural productivity to combat hun- 
ger and malnutrition and to encourage economic development in the 
developing countries, with particular emphasis on assistance to those 
countries that are determined to improve their own agricultural pro- 
duction. Particular emphasis is placed on improving the nutrition of 
pregnant and nursing mothers, babies and preschool children. The 
report details the self-help programs in developing countries, loans, 
educational and cultural exchange programs, common defense, pest- 
control programs, buildings for U.S Government and numerous 
other categories, and includes a section on foreign donations. 

356 

[Commodity Credit Corporation Report of Payments in Excess of $50, 
000]. FI-234. 

Frequency/Due Date: Monthly / Unspecified. 
Agency Contact: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Ser- 
vice. (202) 447-4042. 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Government Opera- 
tions. 

Authority: Requested by the House Government Operations Com- 
mittee. 
Data Base Reference: R-00209-002 

This is a list of each payment by the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion in excess of $50,000 during the month. Each item shows the 
date, amount, name and address of recipient, and a brief identifica- 
tion of the purpose of the payment. 

357 

Evaluation of Emergency Livestock Credit Act of 1974 as Amended. 
Frequency/Due Date: Annually / June 16 MM ^.. ,,, 

Agency Contact: Farmers Home Administration. (202)447-6586. 
Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture, Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 
Authority: Emergency Livestock Credit Act of 1974, as amended 
(P L. 94-35; 89 Stat 214; 7 U.S.C. Free. 1961 NT). 
Data Base Reference: R-00201-001 

This document provides data on the application of the hmer- 
gency Livestock Credit Act of 1974, as amended It includes the 
number of loan applications submitted during the fiscal year, the 
number and amount of loans approved, the financial situation facing 
cattlemen at the time of the report, the effect of this Act on the retail 
marketing of beef and on the farm-retail price spread of beef. At the 
discretion of the Secretary of Agriculture, it may include recommen- 
dations regarding actions to further decrease the price spread and to 
increase beef consumption. (MN) 

358 

Financial and Technical Assistance for Non-Metropolitan Planning 

Districts. 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / September 1. 

Aqency Contact: Rural Development Service. (202)447-9296. 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-524; 84 Stat. 1383). 

Data Base Reference: R-00202-001 . 

This report reflects the efforts of the Department of Agriculture 
(with the cooperation of HUD) to provide information about and 
technical assistance for rural development to small communities The 
reoort details the extent to which land grant colleges and universities, 
the Extension Service, and other Department of. Agriculture pro- 
grams are used to inform and assist the public. (MN) 

101 



359 



Recurring Reports to the Congren on Food 



359 

Foreign Meal Inspection. 
Fiequeney/Dua Dole: Annually / March 1 
Agency Contact: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- 
vice. (202)447-6971. 

Congreitional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture, House 
Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs; House Committee on 
Science and Technology; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Re- 
sources; Joint Committee on Atomic Energy 
Authority: Federal Meat Inspection Act, as amended (P.L 90-201, 
10; 81 Stat. 591; 21 U S.C. 620(e)(l)). 
Data Baie Reference: R-00205-001 

This report contains numerous tables, and provides information 
on the leading countries exporting meat to the United States, by 
number of export plants; plant listing by country, names, and loca- 
tions of foreign plants authorized to have their products imported 
into the United States, the number of inspectors employed by the 
U.S Department of Agriculture to inspect plants authorized to im- 
port products into the United States during the year, and the fre- 
quency with which each plant was inspected; the number of 
inspectors licensed by foreign countries to inspect imports subject to 
the Federal Meat Inspection Act, and facilities in which imports were 
handled; and a detailed report of plants rejected for failure to meet 
standards prescribed by the Act. It also contains tables that provide 
information on the total volume of products imported into the United 
States from each foreign country, with itemization showing the 
volume of each major category of products imported from each coun- 
try, and a report of rejections of foreign products for failure to meet 
standards prescribed by the Act; leading countries exporting meat to 
the United States, by pounds passed for entry, and the types of meat 
imported into the United States. 



360 

A Global Assessment of Food Production and Needs. 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / November 1. 

Agency Contact: Office of General Sales Manager (202)447-5775. 

Congrettional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; House 

Committee on International Relations; Senate Committee on 

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Foreign 

Relations. 

Authority: International Development and Food Assistance Act of 

1975, as amended (P.L. 94-161; 89 Stat. 854; 7 U.S.C. 1736b(c)). 

Data Bate Reference: R-00200-018 

This report provides a global assessment of food production and 
needs, prospects for U.S. food assistance, and the relationships of 
food assistance to other development assistance and other donor 
assistance. It gives particular attention to the food situation in the 
lowest income countries. (MN) 



362 

Orderly Liquidation of Stocks of Agricultural Commodities Held by 

Commodity Credit Corporation and the Expansion of Markets for Surplus 

Agricultural Commodities. 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / Unspecified. 

Agency Contact: Export Marketing Service. (202) 447-5775. 

Congrettlonal Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; House 

Committee on Appropriations; Senate Committee on Agriculture, 

Nutrition, and Forestry. 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1956 (P L, 84-540, 201(b); 70 Stnt 

198; 7 U.S.C 1851(b)) 

Data Bate Reference: R-002 12-002 

This report contains data on the quantities of surplus commfldi- 
ties held by the Commodity Credit Corporation and the methods of 
disposition utilized and the quantities disposed of during the fiscal 
year. It also discusses the methods of disposition to be utilized and 
the estimated quantities that can be disposed of during the following 
fiscal year. It contains a detailed program for the expansion of mar- 
kets for surplus agricultural commodities through marketing and 
utilization research and improvement of marketing facilities, and 
recommendations for additional legislation necessary to accomplish 
these goals. 



363 

Quarterly Report of General Sales Manager. 

Frequency/Due Date: Quarterly / 30 days after end of quarter. 

Agency Contact: Office of General Sales Manager. (202)447-2612. 

Congressional Recipient! House Committee on Agriculture; House 

Committee on Budget; Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, 

and Forestry; Senate Committee on Budget. 

Authority: Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriation Act of 

1976 (P.L. 94-122; 89 Stat. 653; 15 U.S.C. 713a-10). 

Data Bate Reference: R-00200-016 

This report contains statistical and narrative documentation and 
latest information on agricultural exports including grade and quan- 
tity as sold and as delivered. Data relate to both private sales and 
those funded by the Commodity Credit Corporation and Public Lnw 
480. (MN) 



364 

Report of President of Commodity Credit Corporation. FI-300P. 
Frequency/Due Date: Annually / Unspecified. 
Agency Contact: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Ser- 
vice. (202) 447-6681. 
Congrettional Recipient: Congress. 

Authority: (P.L. 80-806, 13; 62 Stat. 1073; 15 U.S.C. 7I4k>. 
Data Bate Reference: R-00209-003 

This report contains data and information on the commodity lonn 
and purchase programs, the feed grain, wheat and cotton programs, 
the supply, commodity export, storage facilities and export sales 
programs, and other financing and operating functions. U contains a 
statement of income and expense, and includes an analysis of deficit 
and net restoration of capital. 



361 

National Advisory Council on Child Nutrition: Annual Report. 
Frequency/Due Dote: Annually / Unspecified. 
Agency Contact: National Advisory Council on Child Nutri- 
tion, (202)447-8211. 

Congressional Recipient: Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutri- 
tion, and Forestry. 

Authority; National School Lunch Act, as amended (P.L 91-248 
9; 84 Stat. 213; 42 U.S.C. 1763). 
Data Bate Reference! R-00207-001 

This is a report on the child nutrition programs administered by 
the Department of Agriculture, including recommendations for ad- 
ministrative and legislative changes. 

02 



365 

Report of Secretary of Agriculture to Congress-Meat and Poultry 
Inspection, 34MP48. 

Frequency/Due Dote: Annually / April 1. 

Agency Contact: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- 
vice. (202)447-4393. 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 
Authority: Wholesome Poultry Products Act (P.L. 90-492; 82 Stat. 
807; 21 U.S.C. 470). 
Data Bate Reference: R-00205-002 

This report deals with the slaughter of poultry; the preparation, 
storage, handling, and distribution of poultry parts; poultry products 
and inspection of establishments concerned with any of these poultry 
related activities. (MN) 

Food 



Recurring Reporit to the Congreit on Food 



372 



366 

Report of Secretary of Agriculture to Congress-Meat and Poultry 
Inspection. 34MP48. 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / April 1. 

Agency Contact: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- 
vice. (202)447-4293. 

Congretilonal Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 
Authority! Wholesome Meat Act (P.L. 90-201; 81 Stat, 600; 21 
U.S.C. 691). 
Data Base Reference: R-00205-005 

This report deals with the slaughter of animals; the preparation, 
storage, handling, and distribution of carcasses; parts of carcasses; 
meat and meat food products; and inspection of establishments con- 
cerned with any of these meat related activities (MN) 



367 

A Report on the Food Stamp Program Submitted to the Congress in 

Accordance with the Provisions of the Food Stamp Act. 

frequency/ Due Date: Annually / January 20. 

Agency Contact! Food and Nutrition Service. (202) 447-8351. 

Congressional Recipient! House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964, as amended (P.L. 90-552; 82 

Stftt. 958; 7 U.S.C. 2025). 

Data Bate Reference! R-00207-002 

This report contains information on major program improve- 
ments resulting from legislation; program participation by recipients, 
retailers, wholesalers, and meal services; compliance monitoring of 
retailers and wholesalers; recipient Fraud, prosecutions, and convic- 
tions; lawsuits; and innovative changes occurring during the year. In 
addition, the report provides information on the emergency issuance 
of food stamps, public assistance withholding, the automatic coupon 
ordering program, mechanical disasters, the outreach program, nutri- 
tion education, and quality control. 



368 

[Report on Title I Allocations, Agreements, Purchase Authorization, Sales, 

and Shipments]. 

Frequency/Due Date: Monthly / Unspecified. 

Agency Contact) Foreign Agricultural Service. (202) 447-5775. 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; House 

Committee on Appropriations; Senate Committee on Agriculture, 

Nutrition, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Appropriations, 

Authotltyi Requested by Senators Hubert H. Humphrey, Mark O. 

Hatfield, and Dick Clark. 

Data Bate Reference: R-002 12-003 

The Department of Agriculture is requested to provide monthly 
reports on aid allocations that have been decided, agreements that 
have been signed, and shipments that have been made. Information 
should be on a country-by-country basis, with cumulative totals of 
actual aid shipments for each country. The report is presented in 
tabular form covering country and commodity, allocations furnished 
by the Department of State, agreements signed, purchase authoriza- 
tions issued, sales registered, and shipments. Countries are grouped 
as those Most Seriously Affected by world economic conditions 
(MSA), and as non-MSA, to indicate the division of resources. 



369 

Report to Congress on Egg Products Inspection Act. 

Fwiueney/Due Date: Annually / March 1. 

Aancy Contort. Agricultural Marketing Service. (202) 447-4476. 

Congressional Recipient. House Committee on Agnculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Poetry. 

Authority: Egg Products Inspection Act (P.L. 91-597, 26; 84 Mat. 

1634; 21 U.S.C. 1054). 

Data Bate Reference: R-00204-001 

Food 



The report deals with the continuous inspection of liquid, frozen 
and dried egg products in plants to determine that such products are 
wholesome, unadulterated and processed under sanitary conditions, 
and the periodic inspection of shell egg packing plants and hatcheries 
to determine the disposition of their restricted eggs. It contains dala 
on volume of eggs, inspectors involved, tests performed, registration 
of hatcheries and other information. 



370 

Report to Congress- Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / Unspecified. 

Agency Contact; Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (202) 447- 

3197. 

Congressional Recipient; House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 

Authority: Federal Crop Insurance Act, as amended (P.L. 80-32, 

1; 61 Stat. 719; 7 U.S.C 1508(a. 

Data Bate Reference: R-00211-001 

This report summarizes the operations of the Federal Crop Insur- 
ance Corporation as to premiums and indemnities to each crop in- 
sured. The report also includes the experience of the current year, 
and accumulative insuring experience. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



371 

Statement of Expenditures for All Appropriations for Propagation of Food 
Fishes. 

Frequency/Due Date; Annually / Beginning of congressional ses- 
sion. 

Agency Contact: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion. (202) 634-7269. 
Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Merchant Marine 

and Fisheries. 

Authority: (24 Stat. 523; 16 U.S.C. 744). 

Data Base Reference: R-00306-016 

This report is a detailed statement of expenditures for the propa- 
gation of food fishes. (MN) 



DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND 
WELFARE 



372 

Annual Report of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare in the 

Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (P.L 89-755). 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / Unspecified. 

Agency Contact: Office of Program Implementation. (301) 443- 

63 1 3 

Congressional Recipient: House Committee on Interstate and Fo- 
reign Commerce; Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and 

Authority: Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (P.L. 89-755, 8; 80 

Stat. 1301; 15 U.S.C. 1457). 

Data Base Reference: R-00505-002 

During the fiscal year, a vigorous program of implementing and 
enforcing the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA) has con- 
tinued. Among the many areas in which the Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration has taken steps to determine compliance or to effect 
compliance with FPLA are inspections, wharf examinations, the col- 
lection of domestic samples, the collection of imported samples 
examinations of domestic and imported items, seizures, recalls, post 
inspection letters, special investigations, and import detentions. This 
report provides statistical data on these activities, with figures given 
for food, drug, and domestic actions. 

103 



373 



Recurring Reports to the Congreti on Food 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 



373 

[Enforcement of the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act] 
Frequency/Due Date: Annually / Unspecified, 
Agency Contact: Employment Standards Administration. (202) 
523-8493 

Congresdonal Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; House 
Committee on Education and Labor, Senate Committee on Agricul- 
ture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Senate Committee on Human Re- 
sources 

Authority! Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act Amendments 
of 1974 (PL 93-518; 88 Slat. 1658; 7 US.C. 2048(a)). 
Data Bate Reference: R-00904-OOl 

The purpose of this report is to describe the activities of the 
Department of Labor with regard to enforcement of provisions of the 
Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act. The report includes but is 
not limited to, a descnption of efforts to monitor and investigate the 
activities of farm labor contractors, the number of persons to whom 
certificates of registration have been issued, the number of com- 
plaints of violations received by the Department and the disposition 
of these complaints, and the number and nature of any sanctions 
imposed 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



374 

Report on Activities Pursuant to Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act 
of 1975. 

Frequency/Due Dates Annually / April 1. 
Agency Contact: Trade Assistance. (202) 632-3800. 
Congret ilonal Recipient! House Committee on Appropriations; Sen- 
ate Committee on Appropriations. 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-161; 89 Stat 
866; 22 U.S.C. 2220e). 
Data Bate Reference: R-Q1017-018 

This report is to summarize activities pursuant to Title XII of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1975 which were undertaken during the 
year and project activities for the next 5 years. Consideration is also 
to be given to activities of the Board for International Food and 
Agricultural Development. (PR) 



ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 

375 

Pesticides in the Aquatic Environment. RJN8500.081A. 
Frequeney/Dua Date: As required / Upon occurrence of event. 
Agency Contorts Office of Water Programs. (202)755-7014. 
Congrau ional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; House 
Committee on Public Works and Transportation; Senate Committee 
on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry; Senate Committee o n Com- 
merce, Science and Transportation; Senate Committee on Environ- 
ment and Public Works. 

fo*?^?? 1 5S 8ter P llution Contro1 Act Amendments of 
1972 (P.L. 92-500; 86 Stat. 823; 33 U.S.C. 1254(0(2)) 

Data Bate Reference: R-02303-003 

This report on water pollution details the latest scientific knowl- 
edge available in indicating the kind and extent of effects on health 
and welfare that may be expected from the presence of pesticides in 

on C r S T 8 .; q r tities ' Ue report al80 C0ntains info ation 
on the methods available to control the release of pesticides into the 

environment, and on the persistency of pesticides in the water envi- 
ronment Sections of the report are specifically devoted to discus- 

iT 



are discussed, ie., cultural methods, such as sanitation and farm 
management; physical and mechanical methods, such as the use of 
light traps in insect control; use of resistant varieties of crop plants 
s,uch as wilt resistance in tobacco plants; biological agents Tor pest 
control, such as boll, tomato and corn earworm control with a virus- 
and several other methods' 



FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 



376 

Annual Report of the Farm Credit Administration and the Cooperative 

Farm Credit System 

Frequency/Due Date: Annually / End of fiscal year. 

Agency Contact: Information Division. (202) 755-2170. 

Congret ilonal Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture; Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. 

Authority! Farm Credit Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-181, 5.18(3)- 85 Seal 

622; 12 U.S.C. 2252(3)). ' ' 

Data Bate Reference: R-02600-005 

This report is a comprehensive summary of the activities of the 
Farm Credit Administration, and of the banks and associations it 
supervises. Administration included revision of regulations, a sindy 
of management development, and reaffirmation of the ban on parti- 
san politics Financial statistics for the year arc provided in ihc 
appendix. 



GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE 

377 

Audit of Commodity Credit Corporation. 

Frequency/Due Date: Tricnnially / Upon occurrence of event. 

Agency Contact: Community and Economic Development Divi. 

sion. (202) 447-6358, 

Congroiiional Recipient: House Committee on Government Opera. 

Eions; Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. 

Authority: Government Corporation Control Act (P L 7Q.24R' SO 
Slat. 599- 31 USiC 85I)> * ^ 

Data Base Reference; R-30400-008 

This report contains information from an audit of the Commodity 
Credit Corporation. Data include selected highlights of fiscal year 
operations, amount of operating loss, volume of activities, change} in 
loans and inventory balances, reimbursable costs, and chances in 
receivables. (PR) 



OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 

378 

Annual Report to the Congress by the Office of Technology JaeanuAt. 
Frequency/Due Datet Annually / March 15. 

f Tcchllol 8y Assessment. (202) 224- 



^ disp 8al and acoidental -PUk Al 

and t edse identit y of the * P^ticides 

and the,r movements in water. The various methods of pest control 



104 



Con 9 re.,lonol Recipient* House of Representatives: Speaker of ihe 
House ; House Committee on Science and Technology; Senate 
President of the Senate , 
Authority: Technology Assessment Act of 1972 (P.L, 92-484; 86 

Data Base Reference! R-3Q700-001 

This report describes multidiaciplinary assessments of technology 
m the Following fields; energy, food, materials, the oceans, health, 
ReSCflrch and d *vclopment policies and P ri ri ( i 



Food 



Recurring Reports to the Congress on Food 379 

VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 

379 

Dairy Products Acquired from the Commodity Credit Corporation for Use 

in Veterans Administration Hospitals. 

Frequency/Duo Date: Semiannually / Unspecifed. 

Agency Contact: Procurement Division. (202) 389-3521. 

Congraiiional Recipient: House Committee on Agriculture, Senate 

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L. 83-690, 202(a); 68 Stat. 

900; 7 U.S.C. 1446a(a 

Data Base Reference: R-06505-004 

This report describes Veterans Administration participation in 
utilizing dairy products made available by the Commodity Credit 
Corporation. Such dairy products acquired under price support pro- 
grnms are provided as the VA Administrator certifies that they are 
required for rations of butter, cheese, and other dairy items for hospi- 
tals under his jurisdiction. 



105 
Food 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



n77\ 
197/). 



ix are extracted from Federal Program Evaluations; July 1, 1975 through June 30, 1977. 
^ourcebook Series, PAD-77-5, 1976; 1977 Congressional Sourcebook Series, PAD-78-27, 



AGENCY FOR 



380 



DEVELOPMENT 



h Company Advisory Tean 



11 ' A8ency for International Develop - 



( Agency for International Develop- 



AflKjr Momtflbitt Pwor O 

ment, Kabul (Afghanistan) 

Program* Evaluated: Food a r*d Nutrition-Near East 

Budget Function, In crnational Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 

lumcinl Assistance (151). 

Authority. Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 

U.S.C. 2151 ct scq.). v 

Public Avallabllltyi AID Reference Center 

The performance f the Afghan Fertilizer Company (AFC), al- 
though not perfect, represented a great improvement in fertilizer 
distribution over the system earlier used. AFC had demonstrated 
that a government entity or gan i ze d along corporate lines could oper- 
ate with considerably greater efficiency than any other governmental 
organization. The Agency for International Development (AID) em- 
phasised the Importance of a study of the proper application rate of 
phosphatlc fertilizers, a study -which the Government had agreed to 
carry out under n covenant In the Fertilizer Loan Agreement. AFC 
agreed thai the study should be initiated as soon as possible. AFC's 
projections ami their implications were discussed, and it was decided 
that AFC would develop annual projections which could then be 
adjusted on the basis of experience. AFC also reported the proposed 
formation of n nntional seed company for the purchase, multiplica- 
tion, and certification of improved seed varieties. AID was ready to 
continue Its support to A. Ft: but cautioned AFC against establishing 
unrealizable output goals because these would cause difficulties in 
annual operiitionnl and investment planning. AFC is interested in 
continued ndvlsory services, continued participant training, and the 
establishment of n soils laboratory. 



331 

Agency for International J&ev&iopment Loan and Grant Assistance to the 
Agricultural Sector (Guat&frtafa); Project No. S20-T-026, 
Fred Mann. October 1975- 22 pp. 

Aflncy Sponiortng Evaluation; Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Pra0rami Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Guatemala City &\xatemn\a) 
Program* Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget FuneHom International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (15 l>. 
Authorltyt Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 

U.S.C. 2151 cl seq.)- 

Public Availability; AII> Reference Center 

An integrated Agenoy f r International Development (AID) as- 
slslance program for tra<i itional agricultural sector development was 
Initiated in 1970. Under t"H= BANDESA/DIGESA Agricultural Pro- 
duction Credit and Technical Assistance Program loans, participant 
training and technical ass* stance increased. This program appears to 
have been significant in a* 1 f arm sizes and m al1 "S/ons. A separate 
evaluation of the Cooperatives Agricultural Credit Program con- 
dudes that, in general tb goals and purposes of AID assistance over 
the 1971-75 period hav t>esn achieved in most instances and signifi- 

Food 



cantly exceeded in some Human Resources Development Program 
training has, in general, been consistent with program purposes and 
at adequate levels of magnitude. Under the Agricultural Research 
Program, research is being conducted at five experiment stations. 
Both the Grain Storage and Marketing Program and the Artisanry 
Development Program have been below target. Remaining Joan 
funds have been re programmed for use in production credit Some 
problems that require further attention are soil erosion, inadequate 
linkages to available markets, the relative ineffectiveness of the Sec- 
tor Planning Unit, increasing delinquency rates, and the advisability 
of subsidizing interest rates. 



362 

Agricultural Credit Project No. 621-11-1140-117. 
Eugene E. Schroepfer, James K. Kellond. Dempex Assoc., Inc.; 
Agriculture Research Corp. of America. June 17, 1977. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment. 

Agency Managing Prog ram t Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) 
Programs Evaluated! Food and Nutrition-Africa 
Budget Functions International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (LSI). 

Authority! Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 
2151 et seq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



363 

Agricultural Research Project No. 621-11-110-107 (Tanzania). 
Lloyd Clyburn, M. B. Russel, Lloyd Tatum. TZ 630.72 C649. May 
1976. 2 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
menu Bureau for Africa. 

Agency Managing Program! Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) 
Programs Evaluated; Food and Nutrition Africa 
budget Function! International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority] Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C 2151 etseq.)- 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

The evaluation discusses scope of work and methodology. The 
research strategy, methods, input, and output are reviewed. The 
research program, manpower resources and development, adminis- 
tration, and goals are described. After considerable delay the project 
was started up in 1973, short of programmed input but with a scien- 
tifically sound approach. The project has produced highly significant 
output in its first 2 years' operation and is progressing well in spite 
of the fact that the project staff provided for in the basic project 
agreement is 80 percent complete. Recommendations include draft- 
ing a statement of goals and objectives of the agricultural research 
service; devising a system of planning, budgeting, and implementing 
that harmonizes with national crop development purposes, input, 
and procedures and those of the regional research institutes; placing 
more emphasis on the development of manpower for the research 
program; placing emphasis on the development of manpower for the 
research program; placing more emphasis on informal, on- 1 he-job 
training of research colleagues; continuing development of high ly- 
sine maize and short-season maize; and including sorghum, and millet 
research in the project. 

107 



384 



Federal Program Evaluatloni an Food 



384 

Application of a Field Guide for E\aiuatian of Nutrition Education in 
Thrie Programs in Brazil 
March 1976 

Agency Sponioting Evaluation: Agency for Internationa! Develop- 
ment Bureau for Technical Assistance. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment Bureau for Technical Assistance 

Program i Evaluated: Population Planning and Health-Latin 
America 

Budget Function: International Affairs Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U S C. 
2151 et seq) 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



387 

CARIS-Current Agricultural Research Information Service; Project ffo. 
931-0974 

February 1977. 2 vols. (6 pp.). 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment Bureau for Technical Assistance. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop* 
ment: Bureau for Technical Assistance 
Progroms Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Worldwide 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic find Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 ILS C. 
2151 et seq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



385 

Assessment and Field Review of Water Management Research by 
Colorado State University (Pakistan). 

Howard Haise, and others PK 333.913 H153. February 1976 80 
PP 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment Bureau for Asia 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Islamabad (Pakistan) 
Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Asia 
Budget Function; International Affairs Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151) 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
USC, 2151 et seq) 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

The Colorado State University (CSU) Water Management Re- 
search Project consists of several subprojects The project has held 
a course, and each piece of work has focused on the target of research 
on onfarm water supply and use. The CSU approach is based on the 
concept of technical and socioeconomic research on information 
needs of farmers and policymakers, extenders who carry the message 
to farmers, and a package of knowledge and activity. Farmers re- 
searchers, and extenders all contribute to and draw upon this pack- 
age Experiments were conducted in an acceptable and innovative 
manner which located and pointed out the nature of technical, social 
and economic constraints. The project has developed field and sur- 
vey methods and techniques which can be tested for repllcabillty It 
was recommended that 10 components of the CSU program be con- 
tinued and that technical assistance to facilitate formation of farmer 
associations and input of fertilizer and credit be provided The Gov- 
ernment of Pakistan needs an organization with water management 
knowledge, or the loan effort may fail. 



388 

Central African Livestock Production and Marketing Project,' Assale 
(Chad)/Serbewel (Cameroon), 
George B. McElroy. November 22, 1975. 30 pp. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Africa. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, N'Djamena (Chad) 

Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Africa 
Budget Function: International Affairs; Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C. 2151 etseq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

The project, evaluated during the first of two planned phases, is 
to improve livestock production efficiency by introducing packages 
of production practices to traditional livestock produce through 
producer associations. On balance, project iinplemenlnllon hni pro- 
ceeded at an acceptable rate. The joint multidonor arrangements 
between the Agency for International Development, UNDP, and 
FAC have worked well. Infrastructure and institution building arc 
well underway. Good progress has been made in animal lien It U and 
water development, Increased livestock numbers highlight tho dan- 
ger of further resource degradation from overstocking and the need 
for more rapid involvement of producers. Recommendations Tor ihe 
remainder of Phase I are to shift emphasis to those project compo- 
nents which increase offtake and retard resource degradation; give 
high priority to marketing as a means of optimizing herd offtake; 
expedite organization and training of appropriate personnel in pro- 
ducer associations; concentrate extension activities only on the most 
promising activities; restructure participant training in support of 
project requirements; and make a production model of project calllc. 
The major consideration for Phase II project design is the need for 
a new strategy aimed at increasing the efficiency of diversified or 
mixed livestock and agricultural production. 



386 



Sm " 



*+* 



November 15, 1976. 193pp. 



Agency for International 



E " luotdl Food flnd Nutrition-Latin America 

Affairs: Foreign Economic and 



Public Availability: AID Reference Center 
108 



389 

The Central Helmand Drainage Project (Phase I). 

? tSa*?! 1 D ,T ld W ' Re!U * Ra y mond Hookcr - 
627.54 B239. July 31, 1976. 27 pp. + 2 annexes. 

Agency Scoring Evaluation. Agency for International Develop- 
ment- Bureau for Near East 

tm ?*??"? Pro a rami A e e "cy for International Develop- 
ment, Kabul (Afghanistan) 

Progranw Evaluated; Food and Nutrition-Near East 

Affairs: Forei * n 



Act of 1961 ' as Bended (22 



Food 



federal Program Evaluation! on Food 



394 



public Availability] AID Reference Center 

This evaluation seeks to diagnose existing problems and issues 
which affect project implementation and to offer specific recommen- 
dations far their resolution, The project planning concepts and objec- 
tives remain sound Increasingly close communications and a 
developing team spirit now characterize the working relationship 
between. Helmand-Argtiandab Valley Authority (HAVA) and the 
Agency for International Development (AID). Reasonable agree- 
ment exists on objectives, although priorities seem to differ. General 
project implementation was delayed by lack of forceful, continuous, 
full-time management on the part of AID. Drain construction comp- 
leted to date has been of acceptable standards and according to 
specific as ions, but targets have not been met. Master planning for 
Phase II has been overshadowed by the heavy pressures on HAVA 
and the Soil Conservation Service to demonstrate progress on physi- 
cal construction. Specific recommendations are made regarding AID 
project inanngcmcnt, HAVA project management, design produc- 
lion, field data collection and analysis, farm drain construction, main 
drain construction, and planning tor Phase II The primary conclu- 
sion is that there is insufficient basis to recommend a go-ahead deci- 
sion on Phase II until there is clear evidence that expanded physical 
output is likely and planning has clearly delineated implementable 
project content. 



Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U S C 
2151 et seq.) 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



393 

Evaluaaon Final del Programa de Desarrollo Agropecuano (1971-1974). 
La Academia de Centro America. 106 pp. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, San Jose (Costa Rica) 

Program! Evaluated! Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs- Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151) 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U S C 
2151 et seq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



Central Veterinary Laboratory (1961-1976) Ministry of Production, 
Bamako, Mall-Project 625-610 
Shcrwin Landfield, November 1976. 93 pp. 
Aflimcy Spon taring Evaluation! Agency for International Develop- 
ment. 

Afloncy Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Bamako (Mali) 

Program* Evaluated: Food and Nutrition- Africa 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority! Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 
2151 et scq,). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



391 

Colombia Small Farmer Technology. 
Development Alternatives, Inc. October 22, 1975. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Afleney Managing Program! Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Bogota (Colombia) 

Program* Evaluated! Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 
Authority) Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (^ u.a.c. 

2151 et scq.)- 

PubHc Availability: AID Reference Center 



392 

The Emergent Population Program in Bangladesh; Consultant Report, 
Pl-Chao Chen, BG 301.32 C518. January 6, 1977. 23 pp. 
A fl *ncy Spending Evaluation. Agency for Internat,onal Develop, 
merit: Assistant Administrator for Population and Humanitarian As- 

Ancy' Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Assistant Administrator for Population and Humanitarian As- 

Program. Evaluated. Population Planning and Health-Asia 

Food 



394 

Evaluation Model for Joint U.S and Mexico Cooperative Screwworm 
Eradication Program 
November 1975. 

Agency Sponwring Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service: Animal Disease and Pest Control Div 
Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 

Service 

Program* Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control-Screwworm 

Program (APHIS) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352), 

Authority: Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1306). Act oFFebruary 28, 

1947 (21 U.SC H4b-114d). Act of September 6, 1961 (21 U.S C 

il4g-114h). Act of June 16, 1948 (21 U.S.C. 114e-114f). P.L 92- 

1S2. 

The current program to maintain a screwworm barrier zone along 
the U.S. border will cost about $13.9 million in fiscal year 1976. 
Current U.S. livestock losses from screwworm average about $5 
million per year with periodic losses of $12 million or more. In the 
absence of a program, losses could approach $205 million annually. 
The ratio of U.S. benefits to U.S costs for the current program during 
the years 1970-75 was approximately 19.89. The joint US.-Mexico 
screwworm program is expected to eradicate screwworms in Mexico 
north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec by 1 982 at a total cost of $ i 29.3 
million. Annual costs to maintain the new barrier zone are estimated 
at $3.2 million Benefits from the joint program include reduction , m 
U S program costs and losses as well as reduction of Mexico s S32.2 
million annual livestock losses from screwworm. The overall bene- 
fit/cost ratio for the joint program is estimated at 3.01. Under the 
80/20 cost sharing agreement, the benefit/cost ratio to the U.S. alone 
will be about 1.63, while the estimated ratio of benefits to costs for 
Mexico is 12.27. The basic data and assumptions used to estimate 
losses from screwworms were not fully documented, although loss 
estimates appear to be consistent with results of prey.ous studies. 
Continuation of a program to keep screwworms out of the US 
appears to be economically justified. However, the low ratio of bene- 
fit* to costs for the U.S. from the joint U.S.-Mexico program to move 
the barrier zone to Tehuantepec indicates that this program should 
be closely monitored and reevaluated frequently for possible pro- 
gram adjustments. 

109 



395 



Federal Program Evaluation i on food 



Evaluation of Experience under Improved Management Practice for 

Com. 

February 19, 1975 

Agartcy Sponsoring Evaluation: Federal Crop Insurance Corp. 

Agancy Managing Program; Federal Crop Insurance Corp 

Piogjami Evaluated: Federal Crop Insurance (10.000) 

Budge! Function: Agriculture- Agricultural Research and Services 

(352) 

Authority: Federal Crop Insurance Act (P.L. 75-430). 

Do fo Bate Reference: E-002 11003 

The use of improved management practices for corn as a means 
of increasing guarantees to farmers and reducing the loss-ratio was 
successful The improved practices included early planting, mini- 
mum and maximum plant populations, maximum maturity date for 
corn, and minimum nitrogen fertilizer applications. The loss-ratio for 
farmers under the improved practices were .16 in Wisconsin and .14 
in Minnesota versus 24 and 37 respectively for farmers using stand- 
ard practices Guarantees were increased up to 40 percent above 
normal for the improved practices with the same or reduced premi- 
ums These findings suggest that the improved practice approach for 
insuring farmers crops should be expanded in an orderly way to other 
crops, such as tree fruits, cotton, and peas, which are responsive to 
improved practices. 



396 

Evaluation of Extension Activity and Recommendations. 
Francis A Kulish. DR 630.715; K97. August 1975. 23 pp. 
Agnty Sponioring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment' Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) 
Programi Evaluated; Food and Nutntion-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U S.C 

2151 et seq.). 

Public Availability; AID Reference Center 



Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C 

2151 et seq.). 

Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



399 

Intercountry Evaluation of Agency for International Development Land 
Sale Guaranty Programs (Ecuador and Costa Rica). 
Bernice A. Goldstein, Robert W. House. EC 333.32 G624. June 
1975. 65pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Programi Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America 

Programi Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi> 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C. 2151 etseq.). 
Public Avallobllityi AID Reference Center 

The programs have had limited impact insofar as the land sale 
guaranty feature is concerned, although the complementary portion 
of the Agency for International Development's (AID) assistance 
package under the two loans did benefit small farmers who otherwise 
might not have been reached. If similar projects arc contemplated in 
the future, they should be undertaken only in the context of an active 
and supportive host government land tenure program and the clear 
identification of significant private land sale opportunities. More- 
over, there should be full recognition that such projects ore complex 
in design and that they require a range of services which may seri- 
ously overburden host government capabilities. There should also be 
full host government involvement in the initial design of land! sale 
guaranty projects. In both Costa Rica and Ecuador, there were dif- 
ficulties over the AID requirements which prevent the guaranty 
funds from being disbursed until there is an actual call on Ihe guar- 
anty. Both loans were ultimately amended to shift AID funds from 
the guaranty to agricultural production credit. Five recommenda- 
tions were made about host government policy and supporting infras- 
tructure, supply and demand for private land transfer, target 
population, and the guaranty concept. 



397 

Food Waste-Sanitation Cost-Benefit Methodology. 

C. Frank Consolazio, and others. September 1976. 16 pp 

Ag.ney Sponwrlna Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 

ment: Bureau for Technical Assistance. 

Agency Manoglng Program: Agency for International Develop- 

ment; Bureau for Technical Assistance 

Proarami Evaluated: Population Planning and Health-Worldwide 



(22 U.S.C. 



of 1961, 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

398 

Guatemala Small Farmer Development. 
Development Alternatives, Inc. November 13, 1975. 



d and Nu 'ri<i*-Latm America 



110 



400 

Intercountry Evaluation of Small Farmer Organizations (Ecuador and 
Honduras). 

Judith Tendler. EC 334 T291a. November 1976. 52 pp. 
Agancy Sponioring Evaluation: Agency for International Dcvelop- 
'ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Programi Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America 

Program! Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

n U c"l? rl ^l Forelgn Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C. 2151 etseq.). 

Studies of nine Agency for International Development (AID) 
programs in Ecuador and Honduras make recommendations on 
small farmer groups, groups and land acquisition, federations and 
otner group-assisting organizations, credit unions and their federa- 
tions, credit programs for small farmer groups, self-sufficiency and 
Aiu-supported organizations, interagency coordination, and moni- 
toring and implementation of small farmer group projects. Small 
,ZrI, 0r8an ! Za ?^f tend to do better when the y organize around a 
SS u A -1 pro ? rams to Or 8nize small farmer organize 
K!i considerably less impact than they might have. AID- 

uT ns ^HT- 12 ? 1 !, " 8 P' ayed important roles as brok "- Credit 
unions and their federations, m contrast to cooperative federations, 

nVvfc. more * ucces sfol cases of AID institution building, and 

Sit t s'Tf beUCr 'f an ther fmandal Dillon, .1 get.ing 
credit to small farmers. It was concluded that AID should take a 



Food 



F*daral Program Evaluations on Food 



405 



sequential or evoluntionary approach to small farmer organizing. It 
should focus on certain organization-building tasks, rather than on 
certain organizational forms. AID should take more advantage of the 
small farmer's interest in organizing temporarily to achieve certain 
limited and concrete goals 



401 

Joint Review Team for Agricultural Research in Pakistan in Relation to 
the Loan Agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the United 
States. 

Musahibuddin Khan, and others. April 2, 1976. 73 pp. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Asia 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Islamabad (Pakistan) 
Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Asia 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C. 2151 etseq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

It is recommended that the Agricultural Research Loan Project 
be continued without modification for one additional year. Although 
the program of work is too ambitious, the project is soundly con- 
ceived and consistent with current and long range national goals for 
strengthening research capability for overall improvement in the 
agricultural sector. Changes in personnel and location of staff, plus 
the absence of a regularly appointed director general, seem to have 
seriously restricted program implementation. Implementation of 
training, commodity procurement, and logistic support was inade- 
quate Due to problems regarding acquisition of land for the Pakistan 
Agricultural Research Center (PARC), no construction has begun. 
Despite problems encountered, however, the Agricultural Research 
Council (ARC) has moved ahead in the development of a national 
research program. Specific recommendations regard administration 
of ARC* training, commodity procurement, technical assistance, 
ARC building and housing, PARC, national administration and im- 
plementation of research, research in agricultural departments in the 
provinces, and research in agricultural colleges and universities. 



403 

Liberia Agricultural Programming. 
Robert R. Nathan. December 30, 1976. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment Bureau for Africa. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Monrovia (Liberia) 

Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Africa 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority! Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C, 
2151 etseq.). 
Public Availability! AID Reference Center 



Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 

U.S.C. 2151 et seq). 

Public Availability: AID* Reference Center 

The project was to achieve a high level of net offtake in the Masai 
District. To date little has been accomplished with respect to attain- 
ing the condition expected at the end of the project There is little 
evidence that production indices such as increased calf drops, larger 
animals, younger animals being marketed, and increased net offtake 
have materialized. This shortfall is due to slower than anticipated 
progress in physical development, implementation of improved graz- 
ing practices, and lag in the cattle improvement program. The as- 
sumptions respecting achievement of project purposes have not been 
borne out Progress is being made with respect to animal health and 
disease control, but there has been no evident change in Masai atti- 
tudes about development of a market orientation. Recommendations 
indicate that the contractor for the Masai Team should be changed; 
the training program should be accelerated; the participant training 
program should be modified; the range management capability 
should be expanded to bring it into balance with that of the water 
component; the sociological input should be redirected to provide a 
means of monitoring progress and change among the Masai; and the 
hydrogeologist should give priority to identifying promising borehole 
sites, Fifteen other recommendations are presented. 



404 

The Morocco Family Planning Program. 

John C. Robbins, Roger P. Bernard, David Mutchler, Laurie S. 

Zabin American Public Health Association. 301.32 R634. Febru- 

ary 1976. 134 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 

ment: Assistant Administrator for Population and Humanitarian As- 

sistance. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 

ment, Rabat (Morocco) 

Programs Evaluated: Population Planning and Health-Near East 

Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 

nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 

U.S.C. 2151 etseq.). 

Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

Based on national figures and observations, it is evident that in 
10 years the Moroccan National Family Planning Program had al- 
most no demographic effect. Any modest fall in the birth rate is more 
the result of social change than the extension of family planning. 

vpr. the basic futures F 



mvior*>ea- 



403 

The Masai Livestock and Range Management (Kenya); Project No 
621-11-130-093. 

TZ 036 US9, February 1976. 82 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) 
Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Africa 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151), 



Food 



405 



Federal Program Evaluation* on Food 



Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment Bureau for Technical Assistance 
Proqranu Evaluated: Health-Worldwide 

Budget Function: International Affairs- Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151) 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U S.C 
2151 et seq), 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment- Bureau for Africa. 

Afloncy Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau Tor Africa 

Programi Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Africa 
Budget Function: International Affairs- Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 US.C 
2151 etseq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



406 

Nutrition Planning Workshops. 

Malcolm Young, and others Development Associates, Inc Febru- 
ary 28, 1977 153 pp + appendices. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau Tor Technical Assistance 

Agency Mannaing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment- Bureau for Technical Assistance 
Programs Evaluated: Health-Worldwide 

Budget Function: International Affairs- Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151) 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S C 
2151 etseq.) 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



407 

The Progress of the National Mane Projecl at the End of One Cropping 
Season m Morogoro and Arush Regions (Tanzania). 
November 1976. 33 pp 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation; Agency for International Develop- 
ment. Bureau for Africa 

Ag&ney Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) 
Programi Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Africa 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151)' 

Authotlfy: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C, 
2)51 etseq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

The National Maize Plan appears to be handling the logistical 
problem of supplying villages with input in a reasonably organized 
and efficient way. The program was successful in teaching farmers 
about good maize production practices. However, in both conception 
and implementation , the program suffers from some critical flaws- At 
no point in the program is serious consideration given to developing 
a local capacity to continue the project functions. As it now operates, 
the project reinforces a pattern of passive village dependency on the 
government. The problems connected with paying for input should 
be carefully reviewed. This includes the economic return to inputs at 
unsubsidized prices, the extension of credit, and improving the tran- 
sport and marketing systems. Local people and local conditions must 
be included as a central consideration of the project. Recommenda- 
tions made to farmers must be locally appropriate. Package sales 
must be locally evaluated. The local need for credit should be eva- 
luated. The extension effort should be adopted to local conditions. 
Local people must be involved in the planning and operation of the 
project Unless these things are done, the plan will be just another 
one-shot bandaid project which contributed little or nothing to deve- 
lopment. 



408 

Regional Organizations Development: Africa Cooperative Savings and 
Credit Association/Directed Agricultural Production Credit; Evaluation 
Project 698-0391. 

Russell W. Bierman, Karen M. Poe, Ronald E. Babel, AFR G- 
1079. June 1977. 103 pp 

112 



409 

Report to ROCAP-Agro Business Evaluation (Small Farmer Participa- 
tion). 

Jack Heller. Regional Rural Agribusiness Development Loan.- 
March 31, 1976 20 pp 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment 1 Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Program! Agency for International Develop- 
ment 

Programs Evaluated! Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S C 
2151 et seq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



410 

Review of Governmental Affairs Instttute~Agrictttttiral Sector Iniflfetnea- 
tation Project; Project No. 931-0936. 
CSD-3630. October 30, 1975. 27 pp. + enclosures. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop' 
merit: Bureau for Technical Assistance. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment; Bureau for Technical Assistance 
Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Worldwide 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (131). 

Authority! Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U SX\ 
2151 et seq.}. 
Public Availability! AID Reference Center 



411 

Rural Cooperatives in Guatemala: A Study of Their Development owl 
Evaluation of AID Programs In Their Support; Volume l-Sumtory anil 
General Evaluation, Volume 2~valuation Team Study papers on 
Specific Projects. 

William H. Rusch, and others. <3T 334.683 R951. March 1976. 2 
vols(101 pp.). 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Guatemala City (Guatemala) 
Programs Evaluated] Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and PL- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C. 2151 etseq.). 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

This is a study of rural cooperatives in Guatemala, with special 
reference to four principal programs receiving Agency for Interna- 
tional Development (AID) assistance; FENACOAC, FECOAR, 
FUNDACIOH DEL CENTAVO, and independent coopcraitvw. 
The study contains a history of AlD-supported and other coopera- 
tive development and the present status of development; a brief 
analysis of AID goals and purposes; and an analysis of profum 
benefits to small farmers and achievements in institutional develop- 

Food 



Fadaral Program Evaluations on Food 



ment II discusses major issues in future programming. Major find- 
ings are that the cooperative movement is successful in reaching the 
small farmers and helping them to increase production and income 
and that cooperatives have potential for helping more farmers in 
more ways. Major shortcomings are that cooperatives overempha- 
size credit and fertilizer and give insufficient attention to technical 
assistance, agricultural diversification, and marketing and that the 
programs are independent and parallel. Strengths and weaknesses of 
tlit individual programs are described. Recommendations include 
harmonizing the various cooperative programs; providing more tech- 
nical assistance, marketing, agricultural diversification, and educa- 
tional services; involving independent cooperatives more, trying 
harder to meet the needs of the marginal farmer; studying cause and 
cure for delinquency and bad debts; placing greater emphasis on 
medium and longer term credit; and giving greater emphasis to 
buildup of quantum credit available. 



412 

Secretaria tie Estatto de Agricultural Programa National de Desarrollo 
Agncula para el Pequeno Agricultor (Agricultural Sector-T-027). 
1975. 155 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) 
Program* Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function! International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 
Authority! Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 

2151 ct scq.). 

Public Availability: AID Reference Center 



413 

Small Fanner Risk Taking; Project No. 931-1093. 
Development Alternatives, Inc. October 1975. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Durcati for Technical Assistance. 

Agency Managing Program! Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Technical Assistance 
Programs Evaluated: Agriculture-Worldwide 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 
Authority: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S C. 

2151 ct scq.). 

Public Availability! AID Reference Center 



414 

Technical Assistance-Agricultural Economic Research and Planning; 
Project 237, L 

September 13, 1975. 22 pp. + appendix. 

Afleney Sponsoring Evaluations Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Burcati for Near East. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment, Tunis (Tunisia) 

Program* Evaluated! Food and Nutrition-Near East 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authorltyt Foreign Assistance -Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 
2151 et scq.). 
Public Availability* AID Reference Center 

Food 



415 

The Thaba Bosiu Rural Development Project in Lesotho 
James B Davis, James J. Acres, William A Daley LT630968 
D262. October 31, 1975. 71 pp. + 8 appendices 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment 

Programs Evaluated: Rural Development-Africa 
Budget function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151). 

Authority: Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.SC 2151 etseq,)- 
Public Availability; AID Reference Center 

Thaba Bosiu has made a significant contribution to agricultural 
development in Lesotho in evolving a process by which the Govern- 
ment of Lesotho (GOL) can reach and influence rural people to 
accept change. It has surfaced a great deal of information on the 
motivation of the Basotho and the reasons for low agricultural pro- 
duction. With the possible exception of profits to some villages from 
fish ponds, it has not yet caused any increase in rural income, and 
with the exception of a few households, it will not bring about any 
appreciable increase during the life of the project It has demon- 
strated that Basotho personnel employed by the project, and presum- 
ably others, can be trained for technical tasks. Given the lime, 
money, machinery, and skilled manpower, conservation measures 
can be installed in a workmanlike manner. The approach which 
should come into play now is modifying traditional farming systems 
and adopting cropping and husbandry practices which are consistent 
with soil and range conservation. It is recommended that the Agency 
for International Development, GOL, and the project management 
broaden the search for high income crops, livestock, poultry, and 
management systems. Twenty-one other specific recommendations 
deal primarily with administration and personnel. 



COMMUNITY SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 



416 

A Pilot Program for Improving Food Acquisition and Utilization Practices 
of Selected Participants m the Food Stamp Program in Missouri. 
Alane K. Dryden. Technical Education Research Centers, Inc., 
Waco, TX. LN-1780. October 1, 1975. HO pp. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Community Services Administra- 
tion: Kansas City Regional Office, Public and Private Relations Div. 
Agency Managing Program: Missouri: Dept. of Social Services, 
Div. of Family Services 

Programs Evaluated: Food Stamp Program (10 551) 
Budget Function: Health: Health Research and Education (552); In- 
come Security Public Assistance and Other Income Supplements 

Authority: Community Services Act of 1 974, title II (P.L. 93-644; 42 
US.C. 2790 et seq.). Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, as 
amended. . 

Public Availability! Community Services Administration Library; 

Washington, DC 20506 

Data and followup interviews present overwhelming evidence 
that the Food Stamp Program for Jackson, Buchanan, and Platte 
counties is operating effectively and efficiently among a selected 
segment of the population, primarily that portion already involved in 
welfare. However, the evidence is equally overwhelming that no 
effective and efficient systems are being utilized to provide useful 
information concerning the Food Stamp Program to the marginally 
poor or to those persons undergoing unexpected economic stress due 
to current economic conditions. This failure to provide information 
has been the subject of several national studies completed recently, 
including the report of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Hu- 
man Needs of the United States Senate, which found that only 38 per 
cent of those eligible are participating in the Food Stamp Program 



across the nation. 



113 



416 



Federal Program Evaluatloni on Food 



COUNCIL ON WAGE AND PRICE STABILITY 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



4)7 

Government Regulation of Milk Markets. 
Dr Thomas M. Lenard December 3, 1975 29 pp 
Agency Sponjorlng Evaluation: Council on Wage and Price Stabil- 
ity Office of Government Operations and Research. 
Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 
Program* Evaluated: Federal Market Order Program-Milk; Federal 
Milk Price Support 

Budget Function: Agriculture- Farm Income Stabilization (351); 
Agriculture. Agricultural Research and Services (352) 
Authority: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (7U.S C 
601-602; 7 U S.C. 608a-608e, 7 U.S.C. 610; 7 U.S C. 612). Agricul- 
tural Act of 1949 (7 U S C 1446). 
Public Availability: Council on Wage and Price Stability 

This report reviewed some of the arguments that bear on the 
question of Federal regulation of milk markets and some of the recent 
attempts which have been made to assess its impact. It discusses the 
costs and benefits of two major aspects of the Federal regulatory 
structure: the Federal market order program and the system of price 
supports. The available evidence suggests that regulation of the dairy 
industry is costly in terms of inefficient use of resources and in- 
creased costs to consumers. A conservative estimate of the net social 
cost of the Federal order system and the price support program is 
$1 65 million annually. Estimates of transfers from consumers to 
producers are in the neighborhood of S700 million annually. The 
Council suggested that consideration be given to phasing out the 
current regulatory system. 



41 B 

Review of Economic Literature on M!lk Regulation 
Tanya Roberts, Public Interest Economics Center. December 1975.- 
66 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Council on Wage and Price Stabil- 
ity. 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture 
Program! Evaluated: Federal Milk Marketing Order Program; Anti- 
trust Policy Promotion Activities (Regulatory Area) 
Bud gal Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351); 
Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services (352). 
Authority; Agricultural Marketing Agreement Actof 1937 (7 U.S.C. 
601-602; 7 U S.C. 608a-608e; 7 U.S.C. 610; 7 U S.C. 612), Coopera- 
tive Marketing Associations Act of 1922 (7 U.S.C. 291-292), 
Public Availability! Council on Wage and Price Stability 

This study reviews much of the economic literature discussing the 
pros and cons of milk regulation and provides a general introduction 
and background on two main aspects of milk regulation-Federal 
Milk Marketing Orders and the exemption of dairy cooperatives 
from the antitrust laws, The study concludes that the combination of 
the marketing order system and the monopolistic position of some 
co-ops affects consumers and dairy farmers as well as the efficiency 
with which resources are used in the dairy industry. There is no clear 
evidence that prices are stabilized except in the context of establish- 
ing and enforcing minimum prices based on the classified system of 
pricing. In addition to the transfer of income from consumers to the 
dairy farmers, there is some net economic loss to the society from 
which neither group gains. The net resource loss attributable to Fed- 
eral Orders and monopoly power of co-ops is estimated at roughly 
$200 million annually. Resources are used up in inefficiency, ad- 
ministrative expenses, lobbying, political contributions, and 
managerial perquisites, etc. U.S. consumers have the potential of 
producing and consuming J200 million more goods and services if 
Federal Milk Marketing Orders and monopoly power were elimi- 
nated from the drinking milk industry. 

114 



419 

Acceptability and Suitability of the Expanded Thrifty Recipe Flyers by 
Low-Income Families. 
April 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: Food Stamps (10000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525). P.L. 91-671. 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207022 



420 

Analysis of Individual Underwriting Progress and Problems. 

February 19, 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Federal Crop Insurance Corp. 

Agency Managing Program: Federal Crop Insurance Corp. 

Programs Evaluated: Federal Crop Insurance (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority: Federal Crop Insurance Act (P.L. 75-430). 

Data Base Reference: E-00211002 

This analysis evaluates Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 
(FCIQ pilot tests of alternative approaches to individual underwrit- 
ing for crop insurance. The use of a coverage adjustment table m 
1974, which in addition to rates based on land productivity and 
general risk recognizes the actual insurance experience of the grower, 
successfully reduced policy cancellations from previous years and 
from surrounding counties not using the table. It also provided a 
means of reducing losses from unfavorable insurance experience. The 
modified coverage adjustment used on sugar beets also was favorably 
accepted in some new counties and will be extended in 1975 for 
further testing. This method establishes a minimum 60-66 percent 
guarantee of the normal yield and adjusts it up 3 percent for each year 
without a loss to a maximum of 75 percent, and down 3 percent for 
each consecutive toss beyond the first, with no increase for I wo years 
following a loss year. A third approach based on actuarial maps was 
unsuccessful. It did not improve the loss-ratio experience in the test 
counties. The approach created many more rate and coverage combi- 
nations than before. It complicated presenting the insurance program 
to farmers and in some cases led farmers to unintentionally report 
misleading crop yield projections to FCIC. Tentative findings suggest 
that policy cancellations can be reduced and loss ratios Improved by 
expanding personalized insurance rates and coverages to Individual 
growers based on relatively simple low cost techniques, Further Icsl- 
ing and evaluation, including expansion to more crops, are desirable. 



421 

Analysis of the Effects of Federal Milk Marketing Orders on the Economic 

Performance of U.S. Milk Markets, 

W, D. Dobson, B. M, Buxton. Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dcpt. of 

Agricultural Economics. 144-H 321, August 1977. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agricultural Marketing Service: 

Dairy Div. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service; Dairy 

Programs Evaluated: Federal Milk Marketing Order Program 
Budget Function: Agriculture (350); Agriculture: Farm Income Sta- 
bilization (351), 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1 937, title VII, 
as amended (P.L. 75-137; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq,). 
Public Availability: Department of Agricultural Economics, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 

Food 



Federal Program Evaluation i on Food 



426 



The basic objectives of this study are to measure the degree of 
consumer milk price enhancement caused by classified pricing; ex- 
amine the extent to which Federal milk orders stabilize consumer 
prices, producer prices, and producer incomes; and measure the gains 
and losses of consumers' surplus and producers' surplus associated 
with classified pricing. 



APHfS Evaluation Task Force on McGregor Report; The Emigrant Pest. 
June 1974. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Piogfam* Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control (10.000); 
Plant Disease and Pest Control (10.000); Import Inspection (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Federal Plant Pest Act (P.L 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 147-148; 7 
U.S.C. ISO). Plant Quarantine Act (P.L. 62-275; 7 U.S.C. 151-164a). 
Terminal Inspection Act (P.L. 63-293; 7 U.S.C. 166). Mexican Bor- 
der Act, as amended (P.L 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 149). Department of 
Agriculture Organic Act of 1944. Mexican Pink Bollworm Act. 
Golden Nematode Act. Honeybee Act Halogeton Glomeratus Act. 
Federal Noxious Weed Act P.L. 65-40. P.L. 80-645. P L. 87-539. 
P.L. 82-529. 7 U.S.C. 145. 7 U.S.C. 281-282. 7 U.S.C. 1651-1656. 7 
US.C. 2801-2813. 
Data Base Reference: E-00205004 



423 

Appraisal of SCS Wind Erosion Damage Assessment and Reporting 
Alternatives for Improved Damage Assessment. 
September !974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Office 
of Planning and Evaluation. 

Agency Managing Program: Soil Conservation Service 
Proflfonn Evaluated! Great Plains Conservation (10.000) 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Conservation and Land Management (302); Agriculture: Agricul- 
tural Research and Services (352). 

Authority! Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (P.L. 
84-1021), 
Data Base Reference: E-00200003 



The study appraises standards and procedures used to assess 
potential and actual damages from wind erosion in the Great Plains 
and the cost-effectiveness of the reported information. Wind erosion 
hazards and activity were very low in most of the 250-300 counties 
reported in the last three wind erosion seasons ending May 1974. 
Cropland damaged in excess of 15,000 acres was reported in. only 
25-30 counties. Only 5-13 counties had land damaged equivalent to 
1 00 or more farms. In 40-50 percent of the reporting counties, actual 
land damage was less than a third of the land reported to be in 
condition to blow. For the region as a whole from 1955 to 1974, the 
annual ratio of land damaged to the reported potential ranged from 
1 percent to 862 percent. The median ratio was 24 percent. Report- 
ing standards and procedures varied from county to county. "Land 
damaged" is weakly defined. Its significance to agricultural produc- 
tivity is unclear and confusing. It is reported only in terms of acres 
damaged with a wide range in the amount of actual damages In- 
curred. Producers ordinarily are aware of wind erosion conditions as 
they develop on the land they farm before the reports are available. 
Local reports and news releases based on the wind erosion reports 
primarily offer supportive information for what producers are doing 
to cope with those conditions. Annual costs of reporting were $10,- 
990, including about 2,000 man-hours. The weakness in the reporting 
methods suggests that the reports are not sufficiently accurate or 
reliable to provide a sound basis for national policymaking. The 
utility of the reported wind erosion information for Soil Conservation 



Service (SCS) purposes is also very low but probably sufficient to 
justify the small costs. Costs could be further reduced by more dis- 
criminating selection of counties for reporting. Definitions of and 
procedures for reporting should be improved. 



424 

Appraising the Effects of the Agricuftural Act of 1970 upon Oklahoma's 
Economy, 

R. Lynn Harwell, and others. July 1972. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Program i Evaluated: Feedgrains and Products (10.000); Wheat and 
Products (10000); Upland Cotton (10.000) 
Budget Function! Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (PL. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). 
Public Availability: Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, 
Vol. 4, No. 1 
Data Bae Reference: E-00209006 

This is an evaluation of the impact of the Agricultural Act of 1970 
and the 1971 farm commodity programs on gross farm income in 
Oklahoma and the multiplier effects on the nonfarm community The 
base year is 1970, and the analysis compares 1971 farm income to 
1970 farm income. Principal commodity programs involved are cot- 
ton, wheat, and feedgrains. The study estimated that both variable 
costs and sales increased 15 percent, while farm income increased 
about 3 percent, and Federal expenditures were reduced about 3 
percent. The short run effects were beneficial to farmers, the general 
Oklahoma economy, and Federal budgets. But, the longer run effects 
raise concern because the Agricultural Act of 1970 and the 1971 
program gave farmers greater freedom to determine level of produc- 
tion, and thereby increased uncertainty about production outcomes 
and future price levels. The income multiplier applied to the $7 
million increase in farm income generated an estimated S 1 1 million 
direct and indirect benefits throughout Oklahoma with an additional 
$7 million from income induced effects. The study provides support- 
ing evidence that under given conditions (Oklahoma, 1971) a Gov- 
ernment program providing greater freedom for farmers to choose 
production patterns can result in improved income. It cautions, how- 
ever, that unless demand is sustained over time, commodity price 
fluctuations can be more difficult and expensive to control. 



425 



Food 



426 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



Authority; Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L 88-525) 
Data Bate Reference: E-00219008 

The liberalization of the Food Stamp Program in 1970 had a 
significant effect in expanding demand for food, especially beef and 
other animal products Bonus food stamps are about twice as effec- 
tive as cash grants in increasing food expenditures On the average, 
a dollar of bonus stamps generates 50-60 cents in additional food 
expenditures at retail, depending on family size and income; it de- 
creases with rising incomes and is higher for large families than for 
small ones In 1973, over 12 million people received about S2 billion 
in bonus stamps, which was equivalent to about 1.5 percent of total 
U S food expenditures; this represented an increase in food expendi- 
tures of 75to 90 percent About 80 percent of the increased expend- 
itures for food went to red meats, more than half of which was beef 
Study implications are that bonus food stamps have a potential for 
maintaining food consumption at levels higher than those which 
would have existed in the absence of the program, especially among 
the lowest income group Effectiveness will probably diminish as 
income eligibility standards are raised. While nutritional effects were 
not directly measured, it seems likely that they would be less than 
proportional to expenditures, since most of the increased expendi- 
tures were higher cost products (red meats), and other studies sug- 
gest that protein deficiency is not a characteristic nutritional problem 
among U S. poor. 



Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 

1954 (PL. 83-480). 

Data Base Reference: E-002 12001 

This analysis was to test the hypothesis that if a Government 
marketing agency attempts to maximize its revenues from the mar- 
keting of imported and domestically produced wheat, the results will 
be less than socially optimal, The study focused on Colombia during 
the 1955-71 period. It was found that as a result of the marketing 
agency's internal pricing policy over the period (prices received by 
Colombian producers averaged 20 percent lower than the socially 
optimal price), Colombia imported 1.4 million tons of wheat which 
could have been produced locally at lower cost. Based on (he es- 
timated lower production cost relative to import cost, Colombia lost 
157,000 tons of "free" domestic production. Public Law 480 imports, 
which totaled 1,023,000 tons over the period, had an average gift 
component of 28 percent of the import value plus internal distribu- 
tion costs. In effect, Colombia received 286,000 gift tons of imported 
wheat. Although the net gains in Colombia from Public Law 480 
were probably positive, the internal pricing policy that eliminated the 
major portion of domestic production cost the country the greater 
part of the potential benefits for the aid program. Allocation of Public 
Law 480 assistance without regard to recipient countries' internal 
pricing and distribution policies can have adverse impact on (he 
achievement of U S. foreign economic development goals. 



427 

Capitalization of Farm Program'Senefits into Land Values. 
Robert D. Remsel, Ronald D Krenz. ERS-506. October 1972. 
Ageney Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agnculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Ageney Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Program! Evaluated: Feedgrains and Products (10.000); Wheat and 
Products (10.000); Rice (10.000); Upland Cotton (10.000); Tobacco 
(10.000); Peanuts (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture. Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). 
Data Bate Reference: E-002 19001 

In 1970, the total capitalized value of past farm program, benefits 
was about $165 billion, or 8 percent of the value of farm real estate. 
Since 1955, land buyers have paid an estimated $5.9 billion to buy 
program benefits, but only $2.7 billion of this amount remained 
unrecovered in 1970. The difference between unrecovered invest- 
ment and opportunity value-S14 billion-represents an increment to 
value above the actual investment of land and allotment owners. The 
study challenges the common assumption that most farm program 
hpnpfiu arc nmiiaii-7H mto i an d values at rates similar to farm mort- 
1 'mating that most of the short term ear-nines 



429 

Cash Gram Price Reporting in the United Slates. 
Richard Heifner, James Driscoll. February 1977. 4 pp. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 
Programs Evaluated: Grain Market Reporting 
Budget Function: Agriculture (350); Agriculture: Agricultural Re- 
search and Services (352). 
Authority: Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. 
Public Availability: Economic Research Service; Document No. 
ERS-648 

The U.S. commercial cash grain market is a dispersed market 
with most sales made to buyers located away from the major termi- 
nals, It is primarily a market in contracts for deferred delivery; these 
are entered into verbally by telephone and followed by written con- 
firmation. The typical country elevator sells to only a few buyers and 
relies upon telephone contact with buyers, along with radio and 
teletype reports of future prices as sources of information for making 
pricing decisions, Much of the basic information needed by traders 
is assembled by the Agricultural Marketing Service and distributed 
to users by commercial services. These findings indicate that groin 
market news reports provide useful information to the grain trade, 
They suggest that more emphasis should be placed on reporting 
prices outside the traditional terminal markets. More attention 
should be given to reporting prices for deferred delivery rather than 
spot delivery, and the delivery periods involved should be specified 
in the reports. 



430 

Citrus Blackfly Program Evaluation, 
1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation; Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Programs Evaluated: Plant Disease and Pest Control (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture; Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Federal Plant Pest Act (P.L. 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 147-148; 7 
U.S.C. 150). Plant Quarantine Act (P.L. 62-275; 7 U.S.C. 151-I64a). 
Terminal Inspection Act (P.L, 63-293; 7 U.S.C. 166). Mexican Bor- 
der Act, as amended (P.L. 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 149), Department of 
Agriculture Organic Act of 1944. Mexican Pink Bollworm Act. 



Food 



Federal Program Evaluation! on Food 



438 



Golden Nematode Act Honeybee Act. Halogeton Glomeratus Act 
Federal Noxious Weed Act. P.L. 65-40. P L. 80-645. P.L. 87-539. 
P.L 82-529 7US.C 145 7 U.S.C 281-282. 7 U.S.C. 1651-1656.7 
US.C. 2801-2813. 
Dcila Bate Reference: E-00205003 

There is no question but that the citrus blackfly will eventually 
become established throughout the five citrus-producing areas of the 
United States. The only uncertainty lies in the date of this eventual- 
it/. The present program may delay the permanent establishment of 
the pest in the United States by 10-32 years, but it cannot prevent 
it entirely Once established, the citrus blackfly would cause about 
$173 million per year in yield losses and grower pesticide control 
costs if there were no Federal or State program. The present program 
could produce an estimated benefit/cost ratio of 84:1 by delaying the 
spread of the pest and would cost $54.9 million over the life of the 
program The 1973 program technology will not achieve the stated 
objective of eradicating citrus blackfly from the border areas of Mex- 
ico and the United States and preventing reestablishment. The study 
strongly supports the need for continuing research to improve tech- 
niques to control or reduce losses from the pest. Program cost-effec- 
tiveness should be reevaluated frequently, and alternative strategies 
or program designs should be more carefully assessed. 



431 

Comparison of Type A Pattern and Nutrient Standard Approaches to 
School Food Service Menu Planning. 
September 1973 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604) 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207012 



432 

Computer Associated Menu Planning (CAMP). 
September 1972. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Program* Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207018 



433 

Cost Structure of the School Lunch Program, 
June 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Prog r ami Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207013 



434 

Cost Survey of Foods Purchased by the USDA and Local School Systems, 
May 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Pood and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 



Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-Q0207009 



435 

Demand of Low-Income Families for Food: Food Stamps and Nutritional 
Achievement. 
November 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluations Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: Food Stamps (10.000); Special Supplemental 
Food (10.000); Direct Distribution of Food (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604) 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525). Child Nutrition 
Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-642). Agricultural Adjustment Act (P.L. 73- 
10). P.L. 91-671. P.L. 75-137. 
Data Base Reference: E-00207020 



436 

Demonstration Project for Summer Special Food Service Program for 
Children. 

December 1972. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: Non-School Food (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L 79-396). 
Data Base Reference: -00207026 



437 

Distribution of Farm Program Payments by Income of Sole Proprietors. 
Thomas L. Browning, Edward I. Reinsel. April 1973. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated! Feedgrains and Products (10.000); Wheat and 
Products (10.000); Upland Cotton (10.000); Wool (10.000); Long- 
Term Land Retirement (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351), 
Authority! Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). 
Public Availability: Agricultural Economics Research; Vol. 25, No. 
2 
Data Base Reference: E-002 19002 

This study evaluates the effect of 1966 farm commodity and long 
term land retirement programs' direct payments to sole proprietor- 
ships on the distribution of their incomes. The payments had a slight 
tendency to reduce the inequality that existed in income distribution, 
The distributive impact of direct payment for the individual pro- 
grams, however, was not uniform. Direct payments for the land 
retirement, wool, wheat, feedgrains, and wheat-feedgrains programs 
moved the total income distribution to a greater degree of equality 
than the cotton program, or a combination of feedgrain and wheat 
with cotton. The combination of feedgrains with cotton actually 
exaggerated the Inequality. The findings suggest that incentive pay- 
ments made primarily to stimulate land retirement tend to be only 
moderately compatible with an objective to obtain a higher degree 
of income equality among farmers. 



438 

Dual Operation in State of Washington. 

October 1972. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 



Food 



117 



438 



Federal Program Evaluation* on Food 



Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Progromi BvaliraM Food Stamps (10000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture- Agncultural Research and Services 
(352), Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 

AuthoW Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525) P.L. 91-671. 
Data Bate Refine* E-00207023 



439 

Economic Consequences of Federal Farm Commodity Programs, 1953- 

72 

Frederick J Nelson, Willard W. Cochrane. Apnl 1976. 
Ageney Sponsoring Evaluation: Agncultural Stabilisation and Con- 
servation Service. 

Agency Managing Program! Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Program Evaluated: USDA Price Support Programs (ASCS); Farm 
Commodity 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351) 
Authority: 7 U.S.C. 1301 7 US C. 1305-1307. 7 U S.C. 1421. 7 
U.S.C. 1428. 7 US C 1441-H42. 7 U.S.C. 1445a. 7 U.S C. 1342a. 
7 USC 1344b 7 US.C. 1350.7 U S.C 1375. 7 U.S C 1444. 1 
U.SC 1334a-l. 7 US.C. 1379 15 U.S.C. 714b-c. 

This study suggests some possible impacts if USDA commodity 
programs had been terminated in 1953. Farm prices would have 
dropped for several consecutive years until they averaged 33 percent 
below actual levels by 1957. Aggregated farm prices would have been 
stable but low until after 1964, when they would have risen to a level 
averaging 35 percent above the actual figure in 1972. Net farm 
income would have fallen 55 percent below the actual level by 1957, 
but it would have reached 58 percent above the actual level in 1971. 
Residual returns to owners of farm real estate would have been 
negative m 1954-62. Quantity of assets, value of capital expenditures, 
and farmland prices all would have been lower than actual levels 
throughout 1953-72, as a result of farmers' response to the initial and 
subsequently lower expectations, and increased risk and uncertainty. 
Land and labor input would have increased relative to other input, 
and the rate of decline in agricultural employment and number of 
farms during 1953-72 would have been reduced. Crop resources 
productivity would have dropped under historical levels in all years 
after 1958, to be down 17 percent in 1972. Agricultural productivity 
(crops and livestock combined) would have been 1 1 percent under 
actual levels in 1972. These results suggest that the national agricul- 
tural plant can respond to changes in economic incentives of a free 
market, given sufficient time. However, in the interim, long periods 
of substantial disequilibrium can result. 



440 

Economic Effects of the 1976 Beef Grade Changes. 
Kenneth E. Nelson. June 1977. 15 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Programi Agricultural Marketing Service 
Program* Evaluated! USDA Beef Grading and Grade Standards 
Budget Function! Agriculture (350). 

Authority! Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621- 
1627). 

Public Availability! Economic Research Service, USDA; Technical 
Bulletin No. 1570 

Econometric analysis of price data indicates that the new beef 
grading standards adopted in early 1976 have accomplished one of 
their major objectives-the price differentials between quality-yield 
grade combinations have widened, but the overall demand for beef 
has not been affected. 



441 

An Economic Evaluation of School Lunch Systems. 

May 1973. . . . 

Agenty Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service, 
Ageney Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Bvcget Function-. Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604) 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bae Reference; E-00207016 



442 

Economic Impact of Proposed Changes in Beef Grades, 

December 1974 

Ageney Sponsoring Evaluation! Agricultural Marketing Service. 

Ageney Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 

Piosrami Evaluated! Agricultural Product Grading (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

Authority: U.S. Cotton Standards Act (P.L, 67-539; 7 U.S.C 51-65) 
Cotton Statistics and Estimates Act (P.L 69-740; 7 U.S.C. 473d) 
U.S. Grain Standards Act (P.L. 64-190; 7 U.S.C. 71). Naval Stores 
Act (P L 67-478; 7 U.S.C 91-99). Tobacco Inspection Act. Agricul 
tural Marketing Act of 1946. P.L. 74-314. P.L 79-733. 7 U S C. 51 1 
7 USC. 1622. 
Data Bate Reference: E-00204004 



443 

Effectiveness of the 1971-73 Set-Aside Programs (Feedsrdns, Wheat, and 
Upland Cotton). 
July 5, 1974. 

Agency Sponioring Evaluation: Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization ami Conser- 
vation Service 

Program* Evaluated: Feedgrains and Products (10.000); Wheat and 
Products (10.000); Upland Cotton (10.000) 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, nnd Energy; 
Conservation and Land Management (302); Agriculture: Farm In- 
come Stabilization (351), 

Authority! Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L. 81-439), Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). Agricultural Act of 
1964 (P.L. 88-297). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00209001 

The study found that the set-aside provisions were only 38 per- 
cent effective in reducing planted acreage in 1971, but 79 percent 
effective in increasing planted acreage in 1973. Percent effectiveness 
was determined by calculating the actual crop acreage reduction or 
increase for each crop as a percent of the targeted acreage decrease 
or increase of set-aside provisions of the 1971-73 programs, The 
existence of a large, nonrequired, conserving acreage base on oiosi 
farms allowed planted acreage to remain relatively unchanged, while 
set-aside acreage was increased. Also, grazing privileges on set-ositle 
acres led to substitution for previously grazed areas and, thus, greatly 
reduced the effectiveness of the set-aside program in areas where 
large numbers of cattle were raised. The loss in program effectiveness 
could have been improved by limiting the set-aside provisions on 
planted acreage and eliminating several of the liberalizing provisions 
(e.g., summer fallow practices) used in 1971-73. If this is uitflccepla- 
ble, then slippage will occur. 



444 

Effect of the Small Watershed Program on Major Land Uses. 
C, Dudley Mattson. February 1975. 

Agency Spontorlng Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 
Agency Managing Program! Soil Conservation Service 



118 



Food 



federal Program Evaluations on Food 



446 



Program* Evaluated: Watershed Planning (10.000) 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Conservation and Land Management (302); Agriculture: Agricul- 
tural Research and Services (352) 

Authority: Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (P.L. 
83-566) 
Data Bate Reference: -00219007 

This study compares land use changes during 1954-69 within 60 
sample watershed areas (30 completed and 30 incomplete) in three 
regions (Southeast, Mississippi Delta, and Missouri River tributar- 
ies). Tn the Southeast, intensive crop farming decreased in both the 
developed and underdeveloped watershed areas during the 15-year 
period, but not so much as experienced by the region as a whofe; the 
watershed development had no impact on land use. In the Mississippi 
Delta, land use change trends exhibited expansion in agricultural 
production on bottomlands, and static or declining intensity of use 
of uplands; a combination of major flood control and drainage works, 
principally by the Corps of Engineers, with complementary small 
watershed development, resulted in rapid expansion of intensive 
cropping of bottomlands. In the Missouri River tributaries, land use 
was fairly stable over the 15-year period; there was no significant 
impact of watershed development on land use. Work plan projections 
of land use could have been improved by including influences of farm 
organization and availability of capital, trends in farm size, land use 
(rends in available off-farm work, and suitability of flood plain tracts 
for mechanized farming. Actual land uses in protected watershed 
areas differ substantially from those projected in watershed work 
plans for purposes of estimating benefits of watershed development. 
Policy guidelines and procedures for estimating land use change and 
related benefits should be changed to reflect results of this study and 
similar findings of similar studies in other areas. 

445 

The Emigrant Pest; A Report to Dr. Panels J. Malhern, Administrator, 
APHIS. 
May 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation; Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Programs Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control (10.000); 
Plant Disease and Pest Control (10.000), Import Inspection (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority Federal Plant Pest Act (P.L. 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 147-148; 7 
U.S.C. 150). Plant Quarantine Act (P.L. 62-275; 7 U.S.C. 151-164a). 
Terminal Inspection Act (P.L. 63-293; 7 U.S.C. 166). Mexican Bor- 
der Act, as amended (P.L. 85-36; 7 U.S C. 149). Department of 
Agriculture Organic Act of 1944. Mexican Pink Bollworm Act. 
Golden Nematode Act. Honeybee Act. Halogeton Glomeratus Act. 
Federal Noxious Weed Act. P.L. 65-40. P L. 80-645. P.L. 87-539. 
P.L. 82-529. 7 U.S.C. 145. 7 U.S.C. 281-282, 7 U.S.C. 1651-1656. 7 
U.S.C. 2801-2813. 
Data Bute Reference; E-00205005 



444 

Evaluation of the Fiscal Year 1974 USDA Special Beef Purchase. 

April 14, 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture; Office 

of Planning and Evaluation. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 

Programs Evaluated: Section 32 Acquisitions (10.000) 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority: Agricultural Adjustment Act (P.L. 73-10). Agricultural 

Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137). 

Data Base Reference: E-00200004 

From January through March 1974, beef prices began to decline 
sharply. In late March 1974, the Department of Agriculture 
(USDA), under the authority of section 32, announced its intention 

Food 



to initiate a special $45 million purchase of choice grade beef for 
distribution to schools as ground beef. The purpose was to help boost 
prices to cattle producers and feeders. The study found that all cattle 
prices continued to fall during the special purchase period. The price 
for choice grade steers fills only 4 percent while the price of utility 
grade steers fills 18 percent. The spread between choice and utility 
grades widened during the purchase period suggesting that feed cat- 
tle producers probably benefited largely at the expense of producers 
of lower grade beef with no discernible net grain for the beef industry 
as a whole. The special purchase cost the USDA an additional $ 12.5 
million, of which $6.0 million was accounted for by the higher (than 
normal) quality; S6.0 million, because purchases were made before 
utility prices had decreased substantially in the third and fourth 
quarters of 1974; and $.5 million, due to forward contracting and 
thus increased storage costs. The implication is that USDA pur- 
chases of specific grades of beef can achieve limited price objective 
but will do so largely at the expense of the price of other grades of 
beef and possibly pork and poultry. 



447 

Evaluation of Food Delivery Systems Used in School Food Service. 
V. Wilkening, and others. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Sep- 
tember 1976. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service- Child Nu- 
trition Div. 

Programs Evaluated: General Cash -for- Food Assistance for Lun- 
ches 

Budget Function! Income Security; Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

AutKoHty: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396; 42 U.S.C. 
1752; 42 U.S.C. 1759a; 42 U.S.C. 1773a) Child Nutrition Act of 
1966 (P.L. 89-642). 

Nutrient content for test foods varied considerably among sam- 
ples. Variation appeared to be associated with ingredients, recipes, 
and foodservice conditions. Nutrient levels associated with food 
delivery systems were rarely significant, but variations from school 
to school were typically significant. All delivery systems tested were 
capable of producing a microbiologlcally safe meal and were not 
significantly different. Some potential safety hazards existed in some 
schools for each delivery system due to poor quality ingredients and 
lack of proper handling and processing of food. The acceptability of 
the food served was not affected by the delivery systems. Four deliv- 
ery systems and 16 schools were studied. Delivery systems included 
on-site preparation and service, central preparation with hot bulk 
delivery, central preparation with chilled proportioned delivery, and 
frozen proportioned delivery. Appropriate analytical techniques 
were applied, but the sample size was small. This reduced the reliabil- 
ity of the results, but the general findings can be accepted with a 
moderate degree of confidence. Some delivery systems are capable 
of producing a microbiologically safe meal. School-to-school varia- 
tion is largely due to difference in handling and processing food. 
Food service personnel need training in food sanitation and safety. 



448 

Evaluation of Four Completed Small Watershed Projects; South Carolina, 
Maryland Idaho-Nevada, and West Virginia. 
John F. Button. November 1974, 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Soil Conservation Service 
Programs Evaluated; Watershed Planning (10.000) 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Conservation and Land Management (302); Agriculture: Agricul- 
tural Research and Services (352). 

Authority: Watershed Protection and Rood Prevention Act (P.L. 
83-566). 
Data Base Reference: E-00219009 

U9 



448 



Federal Program Evaluationi an Food 



This study is one in a series lo evaluate the work plan estimates 
of benefits and costs of watershed development. Work plan piojec- 
uons of benefits and costs were compared with actual performance 
in the four watersheds. The wort plan projections were generally 
consistent with the results of ex post evaluations for improved dram- 
age, irrigation, and urban flood damage retortion where hulfc change 
occurred m intensily of land use. The work plan projections were less 
than actual performance in case of municipal /industrial water supply 
and urban flood damage where flood plain land use intensification 
occurred The work plan projections exceeded ex post estimates for 
agricultural damage reduction, more intensive use of flood plain land, 
and incidental recreation, Instances of substantial differences in ex 
ante (work plan) projected watershed development impacts and ex 
post observation of experienced impacts should provide a basis for 
(nutating changes in the guidelines and procedures for making the 
projections. The results of this study especially support the need for 
changing methods of estimating changes in land use and related 
benefits. 



449 

An Evaluation of Insurance Experience. 

February 19, 1975. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation; Federal Crop Insurance Corp, 

Agency Managing Program: Federal Crop Insurance Corp. 

Programs Evaluated: Federal Crop Insurance (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture, Agricultural Research snd Services 

(352). 

Authority: Federal Crop Insurance Act (PL. 75-430). 

Data Sate Reference: 11-00211001 

The .90 cumulative loss ratio operating objective was attained 
during 1948-73 when considerini all 22 crops. However, the tree 
fruits, cotton, and peas were exceptions that need additional adjust- 
ments to improve loss ratio experience. Over the cumulative lives of 
the individual crop programs, 14 had a loss ratio less than .90, and 
8 had a loss ratio greater than .90. Since a self-financing insurance 
program requires a loss-ratio in the range of .60 to .70, (to recover 
all administrative and operating expenses) the achievement of the 
Department of Agriculture goal of .90 still leaves a question as to 
whether the current program can become self-financing without 
some fundamental policy changes. Regardless of the level of the 
average overall loss-ratio objective, the equity of significant upward 
or downward variance among the individual commodity loss-ratios 
from the overall average or goal can be questioned. 



450 

Evaluation of Proposed EIA Control or Eradication Program. 
May 1975, 

Aflency Sponsoring Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service: Veterinary Services 

Program* Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control Programs 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) affects an estimated 2.71 percent 
of the U S. horse population. Annual losses to horse owners total 
about $14.5 million or an average $76.30 per horse with the disease, 
Since April 1973, 25 States have initiated requirements for a negative 
Coggins test for horses and other equidae prior to entry into the 
State, and some have additional requirements, A control program 
operated by the States with Federal assistance limited to a laboratory 
approval service would yield an estimated benefitycost ratio of .20. 
A Federal-State cooperative eradication program would have an es- 
timated benefit/cost ratio of .3 1 . The low benefit/cost ratios reflect 
negative benefits attributed to the program options during the first 
few years of operation due to increased losses to owners of horses 
that provide to be reactors and are therefore required to be slaugh- 
tered. This includes a substantial number of horses which, while 
infected, are not clinically ill and may not pose high risk of spreading 

120 



the disease to other horses Concentration of program efforts on high 
risk populations and horses that are moved about the most and most 
likely to spread the disease may increase the estimated benefit/cost 
ratio for the control program. The findings suggest that full-scale 
Federal involvement in EIA control or eradication with available 
technology, would not be cost effective. Since the study was comp- 
leted, incidence of the disease has declined This is probably due to 
improved performance of the recent State programs. Most of the 
costs of these State programs are borne by horse-owners who also are 
the prime beneficiaries 



451 

An Evaluation of Research on Improved Equipment Jot Harvesting and 
Handling Soybeans. 
June 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: 
Agricultural Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture: Agricul- 
tural Research Service 

Progromi Evaluated: Research Activity 11 ISO-Improved Equip- 
ment for Harvesting and Handling Soybeans 
Budget Function) Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

The major technological objective of the Agricultural Research 
Service (ARS) was to develop harvesting and handling equipment 
that would reduce soybean harvest losses from 10 percent to 4 par 
cent of yield per acre. Partial adoption of floating cutter bars and 
other practices reduced actual losses from 10 percent in 1968 to 
about 8 percent in 1973 The net value of soybeans saved during the 
period attributed to ARS amounts to about $167 million. The flirjet 
header is capable of reducing losses to 2.5 percent. It should be 
available commercially in 1977. Projected benefits attributable lo 
ARS from this and continued adoption of the floating culler bar 
during 1974-80 amount to about $332 million in soybeans saved net 
of equipment costs. Total net benefits from 1968 to 1980 arc es- 
timated to approach S500 million while R and D costs for ARS nnJ 
supporting efforts in State experiment stations were only $&SO thou- 
sand during 1968-75. The study adequately documents progress 
made toward achievement of the technological objectives. The ef- 
fects of reduced losses on soybean prices were not accounted for. 
This precludes assessment of separate impacts on producers and 
consumers, and may result in some modest upward bias in beiicfil 
estimates. Projected 1974-80 benefits depend on the uncertain rate 
of adoption of new equipment. Small residual opportunities remain 
for additional gains from further research to reduce losses and dam- 
age in harvesting, handling, and storage of soybeans. 



452 

An Evaluation of Research on Lymphotd Leukosis and March 's Disease. 
June 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture; 
Agricultural Research Service. 

Agency Managing program: Department of Agriculture; Agricul- 
tural Research Service 

Programs Evaluated: Research Problem Area 211-Control of I)Js- 
eases of Livestock, Poultry, and Other Animals (ARS Animal Pro- 
duction Efficiency Research) 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

A vaccine against Marek's disease was developed and WHS com- 
mercially adopted beginning in 1971. This has reduced Hie cast of 
producing broilers and eggs, which has reduced prices. Annual losiej 
due to Marek's disease have been reduced by $180 million, Toiil 
economic benefits amounted to about $615 million up to mid-1975. 
ARS has spent about $15 million on this research since 1939. Toial 
research costs, including efforts by other institutions, amounl la 
roughly $31 million from 1939 to date. Further opportunities ! 
for continuing research to reduce the current level of approximately 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



457 



SlOO million of annual losses in egg and poultry production due to 
lymphoid leukosis and Marek's disease. 



453 

An Evaluation of Special Grant Program to Further USDA Programs- 
CSRS Other External Research-ARS, FRS, CSRS, FS. 
August 1976. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Cooperative State Research Ser- 
vice. 

Agency Managing Program: Cooperative State Research Service 
Piograms Evaluated: Specific Research Grants Program to Further 
USDA Programs 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352) 
Authority: Research Grants Act of 1965 (7 U S.C. 450i). 

Within months after Southern Corn Leaf Blight (SCLB) was first 
observed in 1969, researchers were able to establish a relationship to 
Texas male-sterile (Tins) type hybrid seed and to determine that the 
pathogen was a new biotype of the SCLB fungus (designated Race 
T) Although the disease reached epidemic proportion in 1970, re- 
sulting in an estimated $93 1 million of damage, it was brought under 
control by 1972 with the abandonment of Tms type hybrid seed in 
favor of normal cytoplasm seed parent systems. The Tms cytoplasm 
system had become the predominate technology, accounting for 
85-90 percent of the hybrid seed used in 1970, because it was the 
only known way to produce hybrid seed without having to detassel 
the female parent. It is estimated that the return to detasseling added 
about $ I to the per bushel cost of seed, which amounts to about $25 
million in total. Several different systems for producing hybrid seed 
without detasseling have been developed with the additional re- 
search funds. Although none of these systems are commercial at the 
present time, it is believed that the full $25 million in annual detassel- 
ing costs will be erased by 1978-80. The report is largely descriptive 
in nature. It presents no information on any actual program impact. 
The claim of future cost savings in the event that detasseling can once 
be eliminated is weakened by lack of information which would show 
that such systems do not represent a vulnerability to other diseases 
as the Tms cytoplasm system did to SCLB. The findings could be 
interpreted as indicating that a strong well-balanced research pro- 
gram is the "best defense" against catastrophic crop losses and other 
such problems while crisis-oriented research cannot be expected to 
provide immediate solutions. 



454 

An Evaluation of Subsidy Farms for Soil and Water Conservation, 
Robert Boxley, William D. Anderson. April 30, 1973. 
Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation) Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Programs Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Program* Evaluated] Agricultural Conservation (10.000) 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Conservation and Land Management (302); Agriculture: Agricul- 
tural Research and Services (352), 

Authority: Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 
(P.L. 87-703). 
Data Bate Reference) E-O02 19005 

This study was to determine the stimulating effect of the alterna- 
tive subsidies for conservation investments by landowners. Two al- 
ternative means of stimulating farmer investment in soil and water 
conservation are compared-Agricultural Conservation Program 
(ACP) and the tax incentive under section 175 of the Internal Reve- 
nue Code, Section 175 is preferred to ACP by investors in upper 
income brackets, and ACP is preferred to section 175 by investors 
5n low tax brackets, It was assumed that potential tax savings were 
a factor in conservation investment decisions of those reporting large 
lax deductions. Implications are that a tax incentive under section 
175 ofthe Internal Revenue Code, with appropriate modifications to 
belter accommodate the lower income farm landowners, could be a 

Food 



viable alternative to ACP Also, any further evaluations of ACP as 
an incentive program to encourage conservation investments should 
include provision for acquisition of primary data from program par- 
ticipants and nonparticipants in order to obtain a direct measure of 
the effectiveness of a direct cost-share subsidy for conservation in- 
vestments 



455 

Evaluation of the Italian Identified Soybean Oil Promotion. 
September 1974 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service 
Agency Managing Program: Foreign Agricultural Service 
Programs Evaluated: Foreign Market Development and Promotion 
(10.000) 

Budget Function: International Affairs Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151), Agriculture- Agricultural Research and 
Services (352) 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 (P.L. 83-480). Agricultural Act of 1954 (P.L 83-690). 
Data Bate Reference: E- 002 120 12 



456 

An Evaluation ofthe Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension 
Service, USDA. 

Sydelle Stone Shapiro, and others Abt Associates, Inc , Cambridge, 
MA December 1974 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Exten- 
sion Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture. Extension 

Service 

Programs Evaluated: Expanded Nutritional Assistance and Family 

Education (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority: Cooperative Agricultural Extension Work (P.L 63-95) 

Smith-Lever Act (P.L. 83-83). 

Data Base Reference: E-00215001 

The six-film series, coupled with work materials, reached large 
numbers at low cost ($1.00 per child) compared with other 4-H 
methods (over S 10.00 per child). Nutrition knowledge improvement 
was good when measured soon after viewing. Small increases in the 
frequency of nutrition-related activities were reported. There was no 
discernible impact on food preferences toward a balanced diet, but 
empty calorie foods were less likely to be chosen after participation. 
Only minimal changes may have occurred in food consumption. The 
program was most effective with fourth graders and least effective 
with sixth graders. The image and relationship of the Extension 
Service and the 4-H program with broadcasters, public officials, and 
the public were improved. Twenty to ninety percent of the target 
group (4th, 5th, and 6th graders) were reached in the six research-site 
States. Both the supplementing materials and viewing conditions 
influenced impact. The TV medium appears to offer a cost-effective 
method for transferring information to school-age children and per- 
haps other groups, but evidence is lacking as to the role of TV 
combined with other educational work in permanently improving 
eating habits. Future evaluation contracts for educational programs 
with behavioral change objectives should provide sufficient time and 
money to allow use of techniques that can measure actual behavior 
changes more directly and reliably. 



457 

An Evaluation of the Snow Sumy and Water Supply Forecasting 

Program. 

Agen!y Spooring Evaluation: Soil Conservation Service: Program 

Evaluation Div. . . 

Agency Manafllng Program: Soil Conservation Service 

121 



457 



Federal Program Evaluation* on Food 



Proftrami Evaluated: Snow Surveys and Water Supply Forecasting 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy- 
Conservation and Land Management (302) 

A linear programming model Is applied to three study areas of 
irrigated agriculture to produce matrices of revenues at various com- 
binations of forecast and actual water supplies. Optimization tech- 
niques reveal value of forecast accuracy and the impact of error on 
revenues. Empirical data indicate value of agricultural production, 
number of irrigated acres served, and vulnerability to water shortages 
for each forecast point. Combination of these data reveals potential 
loss of agricultural production due to forecast error and to lack of 
forecast. For various assumptions as to supplemental water supply, 
the model shows net benefit to irrigators of water supply forecasts. 
The model shows potential benefits rather than actual benefits re- 
ceived, since there is insufficient data on the number of irrigators 
using forecasts for farm management decisions. Simple descriptive 
statistics are also used. 



458 

Evaluation of the USDA Food Supply Release, Food Marketing Alett 
January 6, 1975. 

Agency SponioHng Evaluation: Agricultural Marketing Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 
Programs Evaluated: Plentiful Foods (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (P.L. 75-430). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00204003 



459 

Evaluation of the US. Department of Agriculture Food Supply Release, 

Food Marketing Alert 

Eric C, Oesterle. Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. May 1975. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Agricultural Marketing Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 

Programt Evaluated: Section 32 Acquisitions (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority; Agricultural Adjustment Act (P.L. 73-10). Agricultural 

Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137). 

Data Bate Reference: E- 00204001 

Eighty-three percent of the recipients of the monthly Food Mar- 
keting Alert found the information to be of moderate to much use, 
but felt a need for additional information and local details obtainable 
from other sources. Commodity supplies were reported as a more 
influential source of information than Alert. Thirteen percent found 
little use and 3 percent no use for the data because it was too general, 
untimely, or other sources were more reliable. Fifty-one percent said 
they would be unwilling to pay for the information; 30 percent were 
willing to pay $1-5 per year; and 19 percent were willing to pay 
$10-20 per year. Recipients of a special issue reporting commodities 
with seasonally heavy supplies indicated that 62 percent had featured 
such commodities in promotions, of which half were influenced by 
the Alert; suppliers were reported as a more influential source of 
information than the Alert. Eighty-seven percent of the dieticians, 
educators, and institutions found the data useful in providing a gen- 
eral background for their purchasing decisions. However, 59 percent 
were unwilling to pay for the information, and 36 percent were 
willing to pay only $1-5 per year. Information on national supplies 
of farm commodities clearly had some utility as a supplement to 
other sources of information for a sample of the 1 8,000 recipients of 
Alert The willlngness-to-pay data suggest that $17,000 or more of 
the $100,000 annual cost for the program could be recovered by 
charging $5 per year, at $10 per year, only $11,000 could be recov- 
ered. 



460 

An Evaluation of the Witchweed Program. 
May 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program; Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Programs Evaluated; Plant Pest and Disease Control (10.000) 
Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority: Federal Plant Pest Act (P.L 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 147-148;? 
U.S.C. 150) Plant Quarantine Act (P.L. 62-275; 7 U.S.C. 1 5 l-164a). 
Terminal Inspection Act (P.L. 63-293; 7 U.S.C. 166). Mexican Bor- 
der Act, as amended (P.L. 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 149). Department of 
Agriculture Organic Act of 1944. Mexican Pink Bottworm Act 
Golden Nematode Act. Honeybee Act. Halogeton Glonicralus Acl 
Federal Noxious Weed Act. P.L. 65-40. P.L. 80-645. P.L. 87-539. 
P.L. 85-529. 7 U.S.C. 145. 7 U.S.C. 281-282. 7 U.S.C, 1651-1656. 7 
U.S.C 2801-2813 
Data Bate Reference: E-00205001 

Witchweed has not spread from the limited area of infestation in 
North and South Carolina. With the current control technology and 
level of resources applied, the current program can only reduce (he 
amount of infestation along the outer perimeter. Economic losses 
from witchweed are negligible with the program. Without it (he weed 
could spread throughout major corn, sorghum, and sugarcane pro- 
ducing areas in 47-76 years with losses from reduced yields and 
control costs of $918 million per year. The present strategy of con- 
finement has a projected benefit/cost ratio of 13:1-43:1 at a continu- 
ing costof $2.7 million per year. Continuation of the present program 
may generate benefits substantially in excess of Its cost. However, the 
current (1973) program may not achieve the desired goal of witch- 
weed eradication in 30 years. Consideration should be given to an 
intensified program to develop and apply new technology to eradi- 
cate witchweed in a shorter period of time with little change in cost. 



461 

Evaluation Report on the Technical Assistance Effort Dcvotttl to 

Improving Cooperative Firm Operations, Fiscal Year 1973, 

July 2, 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Farmer 

Cooperative Service, 

Agency Managing Program! Department of Agriculture: Farmer 

Cooperative Service 

Program Evaluated: Technical Assistance to Cooperatives (10.000) 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority: Cooperative Marketing Act of 1926 (P.L. 69-450). 

Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (P.L, 79-733). 

Data Base Reference! E-00220001 

This report attempts to derive benefit-cost ratios for 13 studies 
which Farmer Cooperative Service (PCS) did for farmer coopera- 
tives under its technical assistance program, The three highest ratios 
estimated for individual PCS studies were improving the marketing 
of excess fluid milk supplies in Western Pennsylvania 719:1; poten- 
tial for cooperative sugar beet processing in Southern Minnesota- 
527:1; opportunities for a feed manufacturing plant in Montgomery, 
AL-380;!. The three lowest ratios estimated were for improving the 
grain marketing system of Landmark, Inc., Columbus, OH-38:!; 
improving the grain marketing system of Missouri Farmers Asjsocia- 
tion-20;l; evaluation of feasibility study for a proposed Gold Ki$l 
soybean plant-Oil. There remains a need to determine the value of 
FCS-developed feasibility information to cooperatives and society 
generally in relation to the cost of the same services from alternative 
sources. 



122 



Food 



Federal Program Evaluation! on Pood 



4f>7 



462 

Factors Affecting Food Habits 
March 1973 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Program! Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budge* Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security. Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207017 



443 

Farm Programs, Pesticide Use, and Social Costs. 
James W. Richardson. December 1973. 

Agency Sponioring Evaluation: Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service 

Agency Managing Program; Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Crop Supply Adjustment (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). Soil Conservation and 
Domestic Allotment Act (P.L. 87-703). Food and Agriculture Act of 
1965 (P.L. 89-321). Soil Bank Act. P.L. 84-540. 
Public Availability: Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, 
December 1973 
Data Ba* Reference: E-00209004 

Farm programs that divert cropland and support commodity 
prices encourage the substitution of pesticides for cropland. This 
study calculated that to maintain farm output at a specific level, 
pesticide usage increases 7.53 pounds for each one acre decrease in 
cropland used. Applying this calculated rate of substitution to the 
average of 40 million acres of cropland diverted during 1965-69, it 
is estimated that acreage restrictions encouraged use of an additional 
300 million pounds of pesticide per year. The use of marketing 
quotas, as an alternative to cropland diversion, resulted in a more 
nearly economically optimum input mix. The pesticide use impacts 
of cropland diversion and price support programs provided in this 
study are too crude for specific decision purposes. The results de- 
monstrate that significant environmental impacts are associated with 
farm program decisions The results point to the need to consider 
environmental impact when farm program decisions restrict land use. 
In regard to crop supply adjustment program design, marketing 
quotas are found superior to acreage diversion with respect to soci- 
etal costs for nonoptimal levels of input use. 



464 

Five County Food Management Improvement Project, 
February 1974. 

Agency Sponioring Evaluation! Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396), 
Data Bats Reference: E-00207010 



465 

A Fallow-Up Study of Attitudes of Participants in U.S. Department of 

Agrfciilture-Hotelympia 1974. 

July 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service, 

Agency Managing Program: Foreign Agricultural Service 

Programs Evaluated: Foreign Market Development and Promotion 

(10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352) 



Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 (P L. 83-480). Agricultural Act of 1954 (P.L 83-690). 
Data Bate Reference: E-002 12011 



466 

Food for Peace: An Evaluation of Public Law 480-Title //. 
Checchi and Co. July 1972. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Foreign Agricultural Service 
Programs Evaluated; Public Law 480-Title II (10.000) 
Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151); Agriculture: Agricultural Research and 
Services (352). 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 (P.L. 83-480). 
Data Base Reference: E-002 12002 

Maternal and Child Health programs were found to be operated 
more efficiently than anticipated, but effectiveness in terms of nutri- 
tion was questionable. Food for Work activities, in terms of the 
Agency for International Development's (AID's) objectives, ap- 
peared to be worth the commodity support given to them. School 
Feeding programs were among the least effective mechanisms for 
distributing U.S. farm commodities, because they do not reach many 
of the poor who do not attend school and are the most undernour- 
ished. Constraints on commodity availability limited the effective- 
ness of Title II programs in achieving nutritional goals. The study 
agreed with AID's priorities for Title II program selections-1) Ma- 
ternal and Child Care, 2) Food for Work, and 3) School Lunch. 
However, funds have not always been programmed consistent with 
these priorities. The results of the study suggest that voluntary agen- 
cies may not be the best mechanism for achieving U.S. foreign assist- 
ance objectives; and commodity donations may not be the most 
effective form of U.S. support for voluntary agency activities. 



467 

Food Distribution and Pood Stamp Program Effects on Nutritional 
Achievement; Preliminary Report. 
Sylvia Lane. November 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: Food Stamps (10.000); Direct Distribution of 
Food (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525). Agricultural Ad- 
justment Act (P.L. 73-10). P.L. 91-671. 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207002 

The study in Kern County, CA, compared food intake and nutri- 
tional status of food aid participants with comparable nonpar tic ipat- 
ing, low income households. It was found that Food Distribution 
Program (FDP) recipients had $32.55 more food available per month 
and spent $1049 less on food than nonparticipants. Food Stamp 
Program (FSP) participants received $43.70 in bonus stamps, spent 
$25.42 less on food, and had $17.82 more food available than non- 
participants or 41 percent of bonus value. FSP participants who had 
previously been FDP recipients spent $155 for food per month com- 
pared with $115 when they were on FDP. The $40 excess compares 
with S44 in bonus stamps or 90 percent of the total. Food donation 
program households received about $59 worth ofdonated commodi- 
ties each month. FSP participation resulted in significantly higher 
level intakes of calories, protein, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin, 
as compared with nonparticipants. Food distribution participants' 
diets apparently were negatively influenced by the relatively low 
acceptance level for donated commodities (about 70 percent of the 
commodities were accepted), and nutrient intakes did not appear to 
be significantly improved over nonparticipants for any nutrient, 
Calorie and protein content of diets for both participants and nonpar- 
ticipants is adequate or above, on the average. This study supports 
the hypothesis that the Food Stamp Program exerts a positive impact 



Food 



123 



467 



Federal Program Evaluatloni on Food 



on diets and is more effective than food distribution. It also suggests 
that nutritional education may be more cost-effective than further 
increases in FSP subsidies 



468 

The Food Distribution System and Food Stamp Program in Puerto Rico 
P Choudhury. University of Puerto Rico. July 1975. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service 
Agoney Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Progromi Evaluated: Food Stamp Program (10.551) 
Budget Function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

The Food Stamp Program was implemented in July 1974. Food 
Stamps replace USDA commodity donations, which amounted to 
about 8 percent of total food consumption when valued at the retail 
level in 1973 Approximately 69 percent of the families m Puerto 
Rico would have been eligible for participation at the end of fiscal 
year 1975 An estimated 75 percent of those eligible, or about 52 
percent of the total families, will participate in the program. At the 
above rate of participation, the nominal value of the program was 
estimated at S640 million in 1975, with purchase requirements of 
S198 million for a net bonus of $442 million Projections indicated 
ihe program may generate roughly a 15 percent increase in the 
demand for food in 1975, The program could increase food prices in 
Puerto Rico by 14 percent in 1975 and 6.8 percent in 1976. However, 
current price control policies may moderate these price increases. 
Over 50 percent of the food is imported. The quasi- monopolistic 
nature of the sector may contribute to possible translation of the 
pnce effect into shortrun shortages in certain food products. In addi- 
tion the the impact of increased food prices on the Puerto Rican 
economy, the increase in food demand may require increased 
capacity in the food wholesale distribution system and may generate 
significant employment increases in the distribution system. Es- 
timated impacts are largely projections based on only a limited extent 
of data on actual program impact due to the short history of program 
operations in Puerto Rico Further evaluation and analysis of eco- 
nomic and social impacts of the Food Stamp Program in Puerto Rico 
during the initial years of implementation are desirable. The magni- 
tude of the program and its possible effects on both participants and 
nonpartici pants in Puerto Rico should be monitored to identify any 
significant adjustment problems and, if necessary, measures to allevi- 
ate them. 



469 

Food Stamps and Nutrition. 

Kenneth W. Clarkson. American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy 
Research, Washington, DC. April 1975 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program! Food and Nutrition Service 
Projjrami Evaluated: Food Stamps (10.000) 
Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525). P.L. 91-671. 
Public Availability: American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Re- 
search; Washington, DC 
Data Boso Reference; E- 00207001 

This study evaluates the Food Stamp Program in terms of its 
effectiveness in raising farm incomes and improving nutrition, among 
the poor. It finds that participants value their food stamps at only 82 
percent of the equivalent of cash, To compensate for this, they direct 
their spending to purchases of more palatable convenience foods 
(that are not necessarily more nutritious) in high priced service- 
oriented stores or they trade stamps illegally for cash or other goods. 
The costs of achieving the above distortions in food consumption 
were $4.32 per household for Department of Agriculture administra- 
tive costs plus $7.75 per household attributable to the low preference 
for stamps vis a vis cash. The program failed in alleviating hunger in 

io' "il 973 there WCre 263 " hun B er counties" compared to 280 in 
1968. The program failed fa its farm income objectives because most 

124 



of the bonus value of stamps was directed to food related services, 
food quality, and nonfood items, This study provides some inferen- 
tial (but not conclusive) support for the hypotheses that recipients of 
food stamps would be better off with cash than with stamps, and that 
farm income objectives are not fully consistent with consumer wel- 
fare objectives 



470 

Impact of Cashing Out the Food Distribution Program. 
November 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Department of Agriculture Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service; Agricultural Marketing Service 
Programs Evaluated: Section 32 Acquisitions (10.000); Section 416 
Acquisitions (10000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Agricultural Adjustment Act (P.L. 73-10). Agricultural 
Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137). 
Data Baie Reference! E-00219004 

The Department of Agriculture (USDA) purchases nonbasic 
farm commodities to meet part of the food needs of schools and 
institutions and to help support farm prices. The proportions of total 
national demand represented by section 32 purchases are not signifi- 
cant for most commodities; major exceptions are dry peas 25 pcrccn I, 
dry beans 18 percent, prunes 22 percent, processed corn 19 percent, 
pears 14 percent, raisins 12 percent, and white potatoes 12 percent 
Cashing out the section 32 program would have little impact on most 
commodity prices and farmers' incomes. However, for prunes, rais- 
ins, dry beans, and dry peas, cashing out could have a serious effect 
because of the relatively large portion of total supply bought by 
USDA, if it is assumed that managers of schools and other institu- 
tions would not have purchased as much as was donated, i.c o!hci 
commodities would be substituted for these. Even with Ilic over- 
stated effects on prices, the evaluation results suggest lhat cliscon* 
tinuing section 32 purchases of nonbasic commodities would have 
little impact on most commodity prices. 



471 

Impact of Price on Participation In NSLP; A Summary, 

1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Food and Nutrition Service 

Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 

Program* Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple. 

menta (604). 

Authority! National School Lunch Act (P.L, 79-396). 

Data Bate Reference; E-00207015 

472 

Impact of Price on School Lunch Participation-Washington Slate. 
October 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 

Agency Managing Program! Food and Nutrition Service 

Programt Evaluated! School Lunches (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture; Agricultural Research and Scrvictl 

(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 

ments (604), 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 

Data Bate Reference: E-00207014 

Food 



Moral Program Evaluations on Food 



476 



ff3 

Impact of (/if? Food Stamp Program on the US Economy, Fiscal Year 
!9?4. 

R G Forsht, P. E. Nelson, Jr. Ag Econ. Rpt. 331. July 1976- 
Afifcncy Sponsoring Evaluation? Department of Agriculture Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service. Food 
Stamp Div. 

Piogramc Evaluated: Food Stamp Program (10 551) 
Budget Function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

Au1hor!tyi Pood Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525; 7 U.S.C. 2011- 
2025). P.L. 91-671. 

Total business receipts in fiscal year 1974 were $1.2 billion more 
ond GNP $427 million more with the Food Stamp Program than 
lliey would hove been without it. About $36,000 worth of bonus 
stamps netted one new job. Cash instead of bonus stamps option 
would increase business receipts by $280 million and GNP $165 
million compared with no program. Compared to the cash option, 
business receipts were $916 million greater and GNP $262 million 
more under the Food Stamp Option. There were also 49,000 more 
new Jobs created under the Food Stamp Option Data were analyzed 
using an input-output model. It was assumed all fiscal measure is fully 
identified and occurs during the year introduced. Net impact was 
derived assuming that Federal personnel income taxes were in- 
creased by bonus costs. Federal contributions have secondary im- 
pacts on GNP h business receipts, and employment. Impacts are 
greatest with the present Food Stamp Program. Impacts with the 
cash-out option are greater than with no program but less than with 
tlie present Food Stump Program, 



474 

Impact of the Set-Aside Program on the U.S. Wheat Acreages. 
Gail Garat, Thomas Miller. April 1975. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Program* Evaluated: Wheat and Products Program; Cropland Con- 
version Program; Cropland Adjustment Program; Conservation Re- 
serve Program 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351) 
Authority) Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (P.L. 
87-703; 7 U.S.C. 1301; 7 U.S.C. 1305-1307; 7 U.S.C, 1427-1428; 15 
U.S.C. 714). 

Tins study estimated the effectiveness of the wheat acreage diver- 
sion program for 1961-70 and the set-aside program for 1971-74. In 
the period 1961-70, one program acre reduced actual planted acres 
by .75 for spring wheat, 30 for winter wheat, and .61 for overall 
production. For the period 1971-74, the results were, respectively, 
,61, .28 T and .41. Diversion programs were more effective than the 
set-aside programs in reducing acreage planted to wheat. This study 
used a regression model with published USDA data, The correlation 
index for all equations was above .97, and all estimates were signifi- 
cant within a 95 percent confidence interval. No causal factors far 
acreage "slippage" were identified. To be effective for production 
control, wheat acreage reduction programs should be designed either 
to minimize "slippage" or compensate for it. 



475 

Impact of USDA Programs upon Rural Cooperatives. 

Aoirfey Spontorlnfl Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Office 
of Planning and Evaluation. , v armff 

A 8 ny Mn 9 lng P9'" Department of Agneultui^ Farmer 
Cooperative Service; Agricultural Marketing Service; Rural Elec 
trlficatlon Administration; Agricultural Stabilization and Conserva- 
tion Service; Forest Service 

Food 



Programs Evaluated: USDA Programs Dircclcd to Cooperatives 

(10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture Agncultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Data Bate Reference: E-00200002 

This study describes the general effects of Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) programs on cooperative growth and develop- 
ment and evaluates in general terms the impact of fiscal year 1973 
changes in policy, program design, procedures regulations, or priori- 
ties designed to benefit cooperatives As measured by volume and 
share of farm sales from 1950 to 1970, cooperatives generally have 
been prospering in domestic markets and to lesser extent m export 
markets USDA agencies have very little data measuring the effect 
of their programs upon farm cooperatives and related farm income 
and rural development. Some information is available on services 
they offer to cooperatives The Extension Service (ES), Farmer 
Cooperative Service (PCS), Agricultural Marketing Service (AM5) 
programs and related Economic Research Service research on coop- 
eratives have supported the general movement of cooperatives to- 
ward mergers and improved farm market coordination and 
efficiency. The Forest Service has contributed similarly to forestry 
cooperatives. The cooperative-related activities of some Agncultural 
Stabilization and Conservation Service programs and the Foreign 
Agricultural Service (FAS) Export Incentives program appear to 
have made the most direct impacts, but the scale of those impacts 
appears very limited Rural Electrification Administration loans 
have financed the development of rural and electnc cooperauv es for 
years. AMS market orders, concentrated in dairy, fruit and vegeta- 
ble, and nut areas, appear to have contributed significantly to the 
business growth of cooperatives in these areas Except for modest 
efforts of ES, FAS, and PCS, agency responses to Department policy 
to reshape programs to better assist cooperatives were nonexistent or 
very limited 



476 

Impact on the VS. Economy of Federal Contributions to Schools under 

the National School Lunch Program, Fiscal Year 1974 

R G Forsht, P. E Nelson, Jr. Ag. Econ. Rpt No 350 September 

Agency Sponiorlnfl Evaluations Department of Agriculture Eco- 
nomic Research Service. . 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutntion Serv lC e- Child Nu- 
trition Div. 
Program* Evaluated: General Cash-for-Food Assistance for Lun- 

Budgat Function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P L 79-396; 42 U S C. 
1752). 42 U.S.C. 17S9a. 

Effects of Federal contributions to the National School Lunch 
Program (NSLP) on business receipts, employment, and Gross Na- 
tional Product (GNP) are evaluated. Federal cash contnbuUons of 
$ 1 1 billion increased net business receipts by S573 million, ON P by 
$398 million, and created 26,000 more jobs than would have oc- 
curred without the cash contributions. Wholesale trade, agriculture, 
and food related industries gain by the contributions, but retail trade, 
nonfood related manufacturing, and businesses lose. The Universal 
Free Lunch option would have created more additional business 
receiots and GNP than did the current program in 1974. "Hie Poverty 
Only option would have generated less GNP and business activity. 
Commodities contributed generated a net Increase b J 
ceipts GNP, and jobs with largest gams m the food sectors and the 
input suppliers. Data were analyzed using <m input-output modeU 
was assumed that all fiscal measure is fully identified, and full impact 
occurs during the year introduced. Net economic impact was derived 
Smin B taxes were increased by the amount of contributions to the 
S Federal contributions to the NSLP have secondary impacts 
on GNP, business receipts, and employment that vary '"magnm.de 
depending on the amount of Federal contribution!. Food related 
sectors benefit most. 

125 



477 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



477 

Impacts of Federal Funding Requirements on Marketing Research at 

State Agricultural Experiment Stations. 

Emerson Babb Purdue Univ August 1976 

The statutory requirement that 20 percent of Hatch fundings 
(over the base for fiscal year 1955) be used for marketing research 
has had a substantial effect on the mix of research conducted at State 
Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAES). During 1946-65, the mar- 
keting share of the SAES's total research expenditures increased 
from about one percent to slightly more than 10 percent. This was 
followed by a gradual decline to about 8 percent in 1975 The statu- 
tory requirement established a national objective of continued sup* 
port for marketing research which encouraged the SAES's to develop 
a capacity for such research, particularly with respect to graduate 
training, and to maintain most of this capacity for efforts during 
1967-75. While a few SAES's have had difficulties in meeting the 20 
percent requirement in recent years, most have not. To some extent, 
however, such difficulties may have been avoided by periodic ad- 
ministrative changes in the definition of marketing research as well 
as the substitution of Hatch for non-Hatch funding The marketing 
share of non-Hatch projects, which account for about 40 percent of 
SAES research, declined from about 1 1 percent to about 6 percent 
during 1967-15 But there has beer no substitution of Federal for 
State funds on Hatch projects SAES administrators expressed favor- 
able opinions about the value of marketing research, clientele interest 
in the results of marketing research, and marketing's place among 
clientele priorities. The report suggests that removal of the statutory 
requirement would not result in substantial losses in marketing's 
share of SAES research. 



478 

Implications of Discontinuing USDA Commodity Acquisitions and Distri- 
bution Activities. 
January 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Office 

of Planning and Evaluation 

Ageney Managing Program: Department of Agriculture: Office of 

Planning and Evaluation 

Programs Evaluated: Section 32 Acquisitions (10.000); Section 6 

Food Acquisitions (10 000); Section 709 Food Acquisitions (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority! Agricultural Adjustment Act (P.L. 73-10). Agricultural 
Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137). National School 
Lunch Act {P.L, 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference E-00200006 



480 

Import Demand for Rice ijt the EEC; Implications of U.S. Market 
Promotion, 

Y N. Yunghare, and others July 1972. 
Agoncy Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service. 
Agency Managing Programs Foreign Agricultural Service 
Program* Evaluated: Foreign Market Development and Promotion 
(10.000) 

Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Information and F,x- 
change Activities (153); Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Ser- 
vices (352). 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1954 (P.L 83-690). Food Tor Peace 
Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-808). 

Public Availability: Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, 
July 1972 
Data Base Reference: E-002 12003 

An evaluation of the Foreign Agricultural Service generic promo- 
tion program for rice in the EEC found that on a 1968 base, a 1 
percent increase in U.S. expenditures ($2,900) on long groin rice 
market promotion in the EEC increased the import demand by ERC 
for U.S. rice by 0.27 percent, or $76,684, a gross gain of 26 to I. In 
addition the program had the effect of increasing sales of Middle 
Eastern, Latin American, and Surinam rice by 1.23 percent, Jind 1.03 
percent, and 0.40 percent respectively. But it decreased the import 
demand for Asian and Madagascar rice by 0.06 percent ant) f> 57 
percent. Other countries benefited by $103,000 in the aggregate. A 
1 percent increase in the EEC variable levies would decrease tlic 
import demand for U.S. rice by 0,32 percent; and (he import de- 
mands for Asia, Middle East, and Madagascar by 0.17 percent, f>.7<l 
percent, and 0.38 percent respectively, The results of the study sug- 
gest that U.S. commodity promotion expenditures in the EEC can 
provide benefits to competitors and in the face of variable levies 
likely only maintain the U.S. level of exports rather than increase the 
U.S. share. Alternatively, the effect of a 1 percent increase in the 
EEC variable levy for rice could be offset by an increase of nboul 
$3,000 annually in expenditures for Department of Agriculture gen- 
eric promotion, if the coefficients arc stable over time, 



481 

7972 National School Lunch Program Survey. 
1972. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluations Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604), 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207006 

Of the 106,381 schools in the Nation, 79,588 (or about 75 per- 
cent) participated in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in 
1972. The program was available to about 85 percent of the Nmton's 
children. More than 77 percent of the nonparticipating schools were 
m the Northeast, Average enrollment in program schools was 550 
and 290 in nonprogram schools. The reason given most often for not 
participating was lack of feeding facilities. Eighty-six percent of 
NSLP schools prepare food only for their own use. Serving speed was 
slow-most schools served fewer than five lunches per line per mi- 
nute. The national average cost of preparing a lunch was 68.7 cents, 
and the average price charged students was 35,6 cents. A In carte 
food items in addition to the type A lunch were served in about 10 
percent of the NSLP schools. Eighty-nine percent of minority chil- 
dren and 84 percent of all white children in schools arc in NSLP 
schools. The Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance 
programs are reaching the target population, but there is considerable 
program overlap and duplication of both USDA and other Federal 
assistance programs. Federal programs should be more closely coor- 
dinated and revised where necessary to save administrative ant! pro- 
gram costs due to excessive duplication, 



Food 



FedaraL Program Evaluation* on Food 



486 



JS2 

tfaltonat Surrey of Family food Assistance Participants. 
October 1974, 

Afleney Spon taring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agancy Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
togramt Evaluated: Food Stamps (10,000); Special Supplemental 
Food (10.000); Direct Distribution of Food (10.000) 
Sudan! Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authorllyt Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525). Child Nutrition 
Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-642). Agricultural Adjustment Act (PL 73- 
10). PX. 91-671. PX. 75-137. 
Data Bate Reference: E- 00 2070 19 



483 

National Survey of Food Stamp and Food Distribution Program Recipi- 
ents; A Summary of Findings on Income Sources and Amounts and 
Incidence of Multiple Benefits 
Joint Economic Committee. December 1974. 
Aftflney Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Affeney Managing Program) Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluafed: Food Stamps (10 000); Direct Distribution of 
Food (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
incuts (604). 

Authoiltyj Food Stamp Act of 1964 (PX. 88-525). Agricultural Ad- 
justment Act (PX. 73-10). P.L. 91-671. 
Data Btno Reference; E-00207003 

Food stamp recipient household incomes averaged $238 in cash 
per month and $126 in in-kind income (total, $364). Food distribu- 
tion households received $261 in cash and $1 12 in in-kind transfers 
(lotalf $373), Net earnings from wages and salaries, interest, and 
olhcr private sources accounted for about 20 percent of income and 
public cash or in-kind income about 80 percent. About 2/3 of trans- 
fer income came from AFDC, medicaid, social security, and food 
stamp or food distribution. Sixty percent of food stamp and 67 per- 
cent of food distribution households received benefits from other 
public assistance programs. AFDC was the primary source of public 
assistance accounting for 37 percent of food stamp and 34 percent 
of food distribution families' incomes. About 1/3 of food assistance 
households received benefits from the medicaid program. Less, than 
30 percent of nil surveyed households reported earned income during 
November 1973. Nine percent of food stamp and 11 percent of food 
distribution households received per capita benefits in excess of $200 
per month. Two percent of households received benefits from six or 
mote programs Households receiving benefits from only the food 
stamp program amounted to 7 percent and from only the food distri- 
bution program 4,5 percent, Food stamp recipients were typically 
urban residents, and food distribution recipients were typically rural 
residents. Blacks represented 37 percent of food stamp and 23 per- 
cent of food distribution households. Female headed households 
amounted to 66 percent of food stamp and 54 percent of food distri- 
bution households, About 70 percent of adults were not in the labor 
force. 



With respect to the enforcement of the USDA Warehouse Act 
where compliance is voluntary, the USDA task force found that 45 
percent of the grain and 60 percent of cotton warehouse capacity was 
regulated; the benefits to warehousemen are derived mainly through 
the increased credibility of the warehouse receipts issued by them, 
licensed warehousemen pay an initial inspection fee but none for 
subsequent inspections; there has never been a case of loss to the 
producer, though initial defaults occur on a licensed warehouse re- 
ceipt; and warehousemen who wish to participate in CCC com- 
modity storage are required to be regulated if not licensed under the 
U.S. Warehouse Act. The findings represent the consensus of a 
USDA task force which reviewed available data. Very little quantita- 
tive analysis was available. Opportunities for deregulation appear to 
exist by reducing bonding and assets requirements and by shifting the 
onus of financial oversight of warehousemen to private bonding 
agencies Consideration might be given to increasing the annual fee 
for warehouse licensing and inspection to cover the full cost of subse- 
quent inspections 



465 

The Need for Regulating Trade Practices in Marketing Farm Products 
(Chapter II). 
June 24, 1976 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture Packers 
and Stockyards Administration 

Program* Evaluated: Livestock and Poultry Market Regulations 
Budget Function; Agriculture- Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority! Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, as amended 
Agricultural, Environmental and Consumer Protection Appropria- 
tion Act. 5 U.S C. 3109. 7 U.S.C. 2225. 7 U S C. 181-229. 15 U.S.C. 
1601-1665. 15 U.S.C. 1681-1681:. 

A USDA task force found the following regarding USDA en- 
forcement of the Packers and Stockyards Act. Livestock /poultry 
trade practice regulations have helped to create a suitable business 
environment that has contributed to marketing efficiency. They have 
adapted substantially to the changing need of the industry and gener- 
ally do not interfere with efficient market operations There is no 
significant degree of duplication between USDA and other Federal 
or State regulatory activities, although some activities were sus- 
pected to be of low effectiveness. USDA has provided a small claims 
conciliation service that saves producers extensive court costs and 
legal fees. Formal complaints have averaged only about 100 annu- 
ally. Failure to pay for livestock purchased and faulty scales or 
weighing are the most persistent problems in livestock and poultry 
marketing. Dollar losses to producers have been small relative to the 
total value of sales. The Agricultural Fair Practices Act was largely 
redundant for livestock marketing. The findings represent the 
majority views of the members of U"*"^ intern oonrv 



404 

The Need for Regulating Trade Practices in Marketing Farm Products. 

Jwie 24, 1976. 

Agency Managing Programt Agricultural Marketing Service 

Programs Evaluated: Market Supervision and Transportation Ser- 

vices-Public Warehousing 

Budget Functions Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 



Avthorltyt U.S. Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 241-273). Naval Stores 
Act (7 U.S.C. 91-99). Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (7 U.S.C. 
1291). Export Apple and Pear Act (7 U.S.C. 581-590). Federal Seed 
Act. 7 U.S.C, 1561-1610. 



Food 



Federal Program Evaluation* on Food 



USC 2301-2306 

A study of LJSDA's enforcement of fruit and vegetable market 
regulations finds a continuing need Tor regulating trade practices for 
lhat half of the produce that still moves through traditional market- 
ing channels For the remaining half, the need for such regulations 
has diminished because a greater share is produced under contract 
or is purchased at the shipping points by integrated firms. The pri- 
mary USDA role is to settle disputes However, officials sometimes 
appear to exert undue influence on the parties by suggesting "fair" 
terms for a quick informal settlement There is some question about 
the need to continue the current in tensity of regulation of the frozen 
food industry and other buyers for processing, to the same extent as 
the fresh food industry. Grading apples, pears, plums, and grapes at 
export is compulsory, yet, for most domestically marketed fruit and 
for 80 percent of other fruit exported, it is voluntary The findings 
represent the consensus of a USDA task force which reviewed availa- 
ble data Very few quantitative analyses were available. No major 
overhaul of USDA's enforcement policies and practices is required. 
However, a detailed examination should be made to determine the 
degree and the type of trade practice regulations needed for the 
frozen food sector and for producers dealing with integrated opera- 
tions, and to identify overlapping or low priority activities for elimi- 
nation or transfer to State and private agencies, Compulsory export 
grading could be eliminated and the role of USDA officials in repara- 
tions should be reviewed and defined clearly 



488 

A Neoclassical Analysis of the U.S. Farm Sector, 1948-1970. 
Peter Helmberger, John Rosine. November 1974 
Agency Spontoring Evaluation: Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service. 

Agancy Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Commodity Programs (10,000) 
Budget Function) Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilisation (351). 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). 
Public Availability: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 
Vol. 56, No 4 
Data Bate Reference; B-00209005 

The major impact of the 1948-70 form programs wns to increase 
the amount of labor, capital, and operating input used in farming by 
5-8 percent above that expected under free market conditions, but it 
raised the total output only by 2 percent. For each dollar or progtam 
benefits generated, 92 percent accrued to farm landowners and & 
percent to farm labor. Net benefits attained by farmers in 1970 were 
$2.689 billion, and the net cost to consumers and taxpayers clue to 
higher prices and taxes was $4.829 billion. Thus, each dollnr of 
program benefits to the farm sector cost consumers and taxpayers 80 
cents in purchasing power The implications of this study are lhat 
even though a high percentage of the farm program benefits acctue 
to land, they nevertheless, in early years, help farmers because 87 
percent of them are landowners. After the first generation, however, 
new farmers have to pay for the capitalized benefits. 



487 

Tfie Need far Regulating Trade Practices in Marketing Farm Products 

(Chapter IV) 
June 24, 1976 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 
Program* Evaluated: Market Supervision and Transportation Ser- 
vices-Seeds, Tobacco, Naval Stores, and Plant Variety Regulations 
Budge) Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Naval Stores Act (7 U S.C 91-99). Federal Seed Act (7 
USC. 1561-1610), Tobacco Seed and Exportation Act (7 U.S.C. 
516-517). Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U.S C. 2321-2331) 

With respect to USDA's enforcement of the Federal Seed Act, 
Naval Stores Act, Tobacco Seed and Plant Exportation Act, and 
Plant Variety Protection Act, a USDA task force found that the 
current arrangements between State and Federal governments for 
enforcement of seed laws appear to be relatively efficient and com- 
plementary in most areas. Federal investigations of seed irregularities 
represent only about 1-2 percent of the number of seed lots tested. 
The benefits of seed testing and regulation of seed producers and 
seed users are judged to be substantial and in excess of costs USDA 
charges only about one-third of the cost of Federal certification of 
newly discovered plant varieties although the beneficiaries may 
recover many times the current cost of certification. The law ex- 
cludes several vegetables. The Tobacco Seed and Plant Exportation 
Act has failed in its original intent to restrict the growth of foreign 
competit.on. The authority provided by the Naval Stores Act to 
grade, regulate, and provide market news is not needed, The industry 

m U nA , C * e8ula ' in S Findi "fi s P the concensus of a 
USDA task force which reviewed available data and are not based 
on quantitative analysis. More detailed examination than was possi- 
ble by the task force could reveal some opportunities for deregulation 
m seed testing and certification. Federal regulation of naval stores 
could be eliminated by transferring the responsibility to State and 
private agencies. Fees for certification of plant varieties could be 
increased and the exemption of certain vegetables repealed. The 
Tobacco Seed and Plant Act and the Naval Stores Act could be 
repealed. 



128 



489 

Observations Regarding the Promotion of Processed Food Products (n 
Germany and the United Kingdom. 
October 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Foreign Agricultural Service 
Program* Evaluated] Foreign Market Development and Promotion 
(10.000) 

Budget Function: International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151); Agriculture: Agricultural Research and 
Services (352), 

Authority: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 (P.L. 83-480). Agricultural Act of 1954 {P.L. 83-690). 
Data Bate Reference; E-002 12008 



490 

Oilseeds and Products Program Evaluation. 
November 1976, 

Agency Spontoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service: Mar- 
ket Intelligence and Commodity Service, 
Agency Managing Program: Foreign Agricultural Service 
Program* Evaluated: Market Intelligence and Commodity Service 
Budget Function; Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352), 

Authority: 7 U.S.C. 2201-2202, 

A survey of recipients of Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) 
information on oilseeds and products found that the direct audience 
includes about 1,800 individuals and/or firms in private trade, media, 
associations, and educational institutions, but few farmers, Farmers 
were a primary target of much of the information passed on by Ihc 
direct audience. Eighty-five percent of the private trade audience 
surveyed was familiar with FAS information on market opportuni- 
ties; higher percentages were familiar with the other types of infer- 
rnation. Over 90 percent of the private trade that was familiar with 
r-A!j information and needed information on production, consump- 
tion, imports/exports, and stocks used this FAS information. About 
75 percent used FAS information on other subjects. The FAS Entor- 
mation was rated as comparable in usefulness to that from other 
sources by about 65 percent of the audience; 30 percent rated FAS' 
information as more useful. Accuracy of the FAS information was 
rated as good or excellent by over 90 percent of the audience. But 

Food 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



494 



nearly 45 percent considered timeliness as poor or fair, while other 
quality factors were favorably rated. Information accuracy did not 
affect its use or usefulness, however, timeliness and coverage did 
The findings were based primarily on survey data received from a 
random sample of over 500 recipients of the FAS information. All 
results were statistically significant. The study provides some basis 
for USDA lo continue to provide foreign trade information on oil- 
seeds. However, the study does not indicate whether the benefits of 
this information justify USDA costs It also suggests that the pursuit 
of excessive data accuracy may have little or no utility. Timeliness 
and coverage seem to be more important. 



ttl 

Phase 11 Foad Survey of Institutions, 
June 1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Manoglng Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Progromi Evaluated: Direct Distribution of Food (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: Agricultural Adjustment Act (P.L. 73-10). P.L. 75-137 
Base Reference: E-00207025 



492 

Poultry Marketing Regulations 201.100-201.104. 

August 1975. 

Agncy Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Packers 

and Stockyards Administration. 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture: Packers 

and Stockyards Administration 

Program* Evaluated! Poultry Marketing Regulations 

Budget Function: Agriculture; Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority) Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, as amended. 

Agricultural, Environmental, and Consumer Protection Appropria- 

llon Act. 5U.S.C. 3109. 7 U.S.C. 181-229. 15 U.S,C. 1601-1665. 15 

U.S C. 1681-16811. 7 U.S.C. 2225. 

Poultry Marketing Regulations 201. 100-201.104 give the poultry 
contracting firms guidelines as to necessary provisions in contracts, 
necessary records, and procedures related to settlement. The most 
important objectives are assuring a written contract between the 
grower and contracting firm, specifying all factors affecting payment, 
and assuring accurate and complete accounting. The study finds that 
the Agency has sharply decreased its activity in poultry work since 
the regulations became effective in fiscal year 1972. Expenditures for 
poultry work during fiscal years 1968-71 averaged $137,000, or 
about 4.4 percent of the Agency's total budget The man-years al- 
located to poultry work averaged 8.6 or 4.6 percent of the Agency's 
total personnel time. In fiscal year 1974, about 5.1 man-years and 
$1 10,000 were allocated to the poultry program. This is a reduction 
of 41 percent in personnel time and 20 percent in total expenditure 
despite inflation. One nonmeasurement benefit was the additional 
informalion available to contract growers about alternative contracts 
and settlement terms. Before the regulations, firms generally did not 
give out enough information so that growers could effectively evalu- 
ate other growout opportunities. However, there is still no market 
news information available on contract broiler and turkey payments 
(not a function of this Agency). Enforceable market regulations 
which establish positive guidelines for avoidance of unfair or illegal 
practices can improve business practices between producers and con- 
tract buyers and lower the cost of Government regulations and need 
for Government intervention. 

Food 



493 

Presidential Objective on Child Nutrition Programs. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Program! Evaluated: Child Nutrition (10000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority: National School Lunch Act (P.L 79-396). Child Nutri- 
tion Act of 1966 (P L. 89-642) 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207008 

Tins study was requested by the Office of Management and 
Budget to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the National School 
Lunch Program (NSLP). For the 1973 program, the study reported 
that a 10 percent increase in lunch price would reduce paid participa- 
tion between 3 percent and 6 percent, with the average rate near 5 
percent. Some 24.6 million children participated in the 1973 NSLP. 
including 8.2 million who received free lunches and 2 million who 
paid reduced prices The cost per lunch was 84 cents. Total Federal 
costs were $ 1.2 billion; total costs to society were S3.4 billion. Com- 
parisons of the 1973 NSLP with alternatives limiting the 1973 NSLP 
to the needy indicated the latter would reduce Federal and social 
costs 12-25 percent while increasing participation and nutritional 
effect among the poor. Participation would be reduced 15-24 percent 
(because of fewer nonpoor), but nutritional impact would go down 
only 12-19 percent, generally improving program cost-effectiveness 
A shift to food stamps in place of NSLP would reduce costs, partici- 
pation, and nutritional impacts more than 50 percent. Comparison of 
the 1973 NSLP with expansion to more nonneedy and to a universal 
free NSLP indicated that Federal costs would increase 58-200 per- 
cent, while participation and nutritional impacts increased only 
16-44 percent Costs to society would increase similarly, 15-41 per- 
cent. The study does not provide a complete guide for policy deci- 
sions for increasing the cost-effectiveness of the NSLP for improving 
the nutritional status of children because of the method of aggregat- 
ing earlier partial studies, and the failure to adequately relate pro- 
gram spending, and subsidy rates to nutritional impacts However, 
results suggest that cost-effectiveness could be significantly in- 
creased by limiting or eliminating subsidies to the nonpoor. 



494 

Price Impacts of Federal Market Order Programs, 

January 7, 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture. Farmer 

Cooperative Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service 

Programt Evaluated: Marketing Agreements and Orders (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 

75-137). 

Data Bate Reference: E- 002 2 0002 

This report was prepared in response to the President's October 
14, 1974, proposal to review all marketing agreements and orders for 
farm products for their inflationary impact. It was found that milk 
marketing orders per se were not inflationary; however, they under- 
girded the market power of large cooperatives, permitting them to 
bargain for above-order price premiums. Thirteen of the 49 existing 
fruit and vegetable marketing orders provided sufficient market 
power to producers to be potentially inflationary; these included 
Florida tomatoes, California-Arizona naval and Valencia oranges, 
California-Arizona lemons, ripe olives, walnuts, cranberries, al- 
monds, dried prunes, tart cherries, raisins, hops, and celery. Market 
orders, in general, fostered considerable price stability. In light of the 
current concern about inflation, the study found that the information 
for considering market order changes did not include adequate data 
on price impact and that the departmental decision process on orders 
virtually foreclosed consideration of courses of action other than 
those recommended at the Agricultural Marketing Service division 
director level Market orders can be an effective means for support- 

129 



494 



Federal Program Evaluation! on Food 



mg and stabilizing farm prices when these orders are able to control 
a substantial volume of marketings Some adjustments may be 
needed En market order legislation and/or in the Department's deci- 
sion process to reduce or eliminate inflationary impacts when such 
impacts are a priority. However, there is insufficient research-based 
knowledge available to provide reliable guidance for improved public 
policy decisionmaking on market orders 



495 

Pricing Grade A Milk Used in Manufactured Dairy Products. 
R. E. Jacobson, and others Ohio Agricultural Research and Deve- 
lopment Center, Columbus, 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agricultural Marketing Service. 
Dairy Div 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service: Dairy 
Div. 

Program! Evaluated: Federal Milk Marketing Order Program 
Budget Function: Agriculture (350); Agriculture: Farm Income Sta- 
bilization (351) 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, title VII, 
as amended (P.L. 75-137; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). 

A major purpose of this study is to appraise existing policies and 
objectives Tor pricing milk used for manufacturing under Federal 
milk orders. . 



496 

Pricing under Federal Milk Market Regulation; Theory, Objectives, and 
impact. 

John E. Kwoka, Jr. 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agricultural Marketing Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Marketing Service; 
Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 
Program! Evaluated: Marketing Agreements and Orders (10.000); 
Dairy Products (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351); 
Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services (352). 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). Agricultural Market- 
ing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137). 
Data Base Reference; E- 00204002 

This study seeks to determine whether market order milk prices 
are set for the benefit of consumers, or whether they are used to 
produce excess profits for producers through cartelization. The 
weighted average retail price for milk was 9 percent above competi- 
tive levels in 1960 and 22 percent above in 1970, suggesting that the 
magnitude of price distortion has been considerable and appears to 
be growing. The major constraint on further price rises in most mar- 
kets is the threat of importing milk from Minnesota and Wisconsin. 
The excess production of fluid milk generated by milk market order 
prices was 3 percent in 1 960 and 12 percent in 1970. It is concluded 
that no argument for Federal regulation of milk markets based on 
consumer interests or simple price stabilization is tenable. Regulation 
has permitted the cartelization of producers and enforced profit- 
maximization prices. The findings indicate a need to further review 
the role of Federal Mitk Marketing Orders, particularly in light of the 
currently changing structure of milk markets. 



497 

Profile of School Foodservice Personnel, 

Virginia Wilkening, Alfred Black. Information Planning Associates 
Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 

Agency Spent oring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service: Child Nu- 
tntlon Div. 

Program! Evaluated; Child Nutrition Program 
Budget Function) Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

130 



Authority: National School Lunch Act (PL. 79-396; 42 U.S.C. 
1752; 42 US.C. 1759a; 42 U.S.C. 1773a). 

Foodservice workers were found to be normally semiskilled 
workers, 45-50 years of age, high school graduates, about 8 years 
experience, earning $2.73 per hour. Approximately one-third of ihc 
managers had advanced from a skilled job. More than 60 percent of 
managers were promoted or hired as managers without food service 
management training. Thirteen percent of managers managed more 
than five foodservice units and 22 percent more than two units, Only 
30 percent of respondents had completed formal training in the past 
10 years. Courses most often taken by respondents were Sanitation 
and Safety, Use and Care of Equipment, Quantity Food Preparation, 
Nutrition, and Menu Planning. The report is based on a question- 
naire completed by 7,386 school foodservice personnel. Each FNS 
region was sampled in proportion to the number of schools in the 
region. Responses were received from some schools not randomly 
selected. Also, some randomly selected schools did not respond 
Foodservice personnel tend to be semiskilled employees who have 
had little formal training for their jobs. Most of their training is 
"on-the-job." They express willingness to receive formal training if 
it is made more accessible and convenient. 



498 

A Program Evaluation of the- Great Plains Conservation Program. 
May 1974. 

Agency Spontorlng Evaluation: Soil Conservation Service, 
Agency Managing Programt Soil Conservation Service 
Program! Evaluated! Great Plains Conservation (10.000).; Long- 
Term Agricultural Conservation (10.000) 

Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Conservation and Land Management (302); Agriculture: Agricul- 
tural Research and Services (352). 

Authority; Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (P L 
84-1021). 
Data Baie Reference; E-002 18001 

This report is to: 1) evaluate the Great Plains Conservation Pro- 
gram (GPCP) impact on wind and water erosion losses, economic 
stability of agriculture, and regional income; 2) ascertain the impact 
of alternative allocations of cost-share funds among Slates and prac- 
tices upon selected program objectives; and 3) determine trade-offs 
between erosion reduction and agricultural income, It was found thai 
the program practices, as applied, reduced erosion losses by about 
221 million tons annually, or 56 percent of the technologic ally- feasi- 
ble erosion reduction (39/tons) that could be achieved by optimizing 
the allocation of program resources among States and practices for 
this objective. The average Federal cost per ton of soil loss reduction 
was estimated to be 5.19 cents; this could be reduced to 2. 87 cents 
per ton by optimizing the allocation of program resources for this 
objective. The contribution of the program practices to the farm 
income of the region was $43.7 million, 34 percent of the program's 
technologically-feasible maximum contribution. A shift in the alloca- 
tion of current GPCP resources among practices and States to maxi- 
mize the reduction in soil losses would increase the reduction in sot! 
loss to 397 million tons and increase farm income to $75 J million. 
A shift in the allocation of current GPCP resources among practices 
and States to maximize farm income would decrease the reduction 
in soil loss to 193 million tons and increase farm income to $128.2 
million. The implied trade-off between maximizing GPCP impacts 
on farm income and erosion reduction is 26 cents of additional farm 
income for each ton less of erosion reduction benefits. This second 
evaluation of GPCP within 5 years reemphasizes the need to reorder 
priorities among practices and States to optimize the use of cost- 
share funds for both soil conservation and farm income purposes. 

Food 



Program Evaluation* on Food 



503 



499 



Evaluation on 1973 Feedgram Program Performance. 
June 4, 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 

servation Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 

vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Feedgrains and Products (10000) 

Budge} Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351). 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L 81-439). Agricultural Act 

of 1964 <P.L 38-297). Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act 

<P.L 80-B06) 

Data Ba*a Reference: E-00209002 

In the 1973 Fecdgrain Program, farmers could choose option A, 
which required initially a 25 percent set-aside of fcedgrain acreage 
Cater reduced to 10 percent), or option B (soybean option), which 
required no set-aside but would allow no more feedgrain acres than 
in 1972. The objective of the program was to reduce the feedgrains 
set-aside by 20 1 million acres or 55 percent from 1972, and increase 
soybeans by several million acres and reduce costs. The program 
actuary reduced set-aside acreage by 27.5 million acres, from 36.6 
million lo 9 1 million. Only 40 percent of the acres released from 
set-aside were planted to crops. An additional 10 percent was used 
for pasture, 25 percent was left idle, and the remainder was used for 
hay or fallow Feedgrains acreage increased in all regions by 6.3 
million acres Soybean acreage increased in all regions by 10.2 mil- 
lion acres. Much of the increase in soybean acreage was the result 
of the increase in prices of soybean relative to corn and not the B 
option as expected. Feedgrains payments were reduced from $1.8 
billion to 5 1, 1 billion. The implication of the study is that in periods 
of expanding demand and excess capacity, the market signals (prices) 
are strong enough to generate the desired production responses with- 
out the need for the more costly program provisions designed to get 
the sarne result. 



5OO 

Flagrant Evaluation Report on Psoraptic Cattle Scabies. 
May 1*76. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Programs Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control-Psoroptic 
Caltle Scabies 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

The potential spread of psoroptic scabies is estimated to reach up 
to 24 percent of the beef cattle population in 18 years and 5 percent 
of the dairy cattle population in 37 years. This assumes that control 
of the pest would be limited to producer's own efforts and that only 
30 percent of the beef herds and 50 percent of the dairy herds 
infected each year would be cleaned up in this way. If the pest 
sp reads u p to its estimated potential, annual beef cattle losses would 
reach $103 million; milk production losses, $21 million; and dairy 
cattie beef production losses, $2 million. Treatment of infected herds 
would cost producers another $104 million. The current control 
program is credited with keeping outbreaks to an average of 70 per 
year. This is reflected in a benefit/cost (B/C) ratio of 22 to 1 for $2. 1 
million in Federal funds and $1.6 million in State funds. Increasing 
the nu mber of investigations into the source of outbreaks is expected 
to increase the B/C ratio to 27 to 1. A 10-year eradication program 
is estimated to cost $36 million in Federal and State funds, with 
annual costs peaking at $4.6 million in the second year. The B/C 
ratio far such a program was estimated to be 37 to 1. The findings 
on program effectiveness are somewhat more optimistic than is in- 
dicated by the historic relationships between the number of reported 
outbreaks of psoroptic cattle scabies and the level of program ac- 
tivity. More information is needed on program effectiveness. This 
should include additional work on the extent to which the pest's 



spread is limited by environmental and other factors and work on the 
cost-effectiveness of producer controls for cow-calf vs. feedlot opera- 
tions. 

501 

Program Planning and Budgeting Mode] for the Reduction of Losses from 
Swine Tuberculosis in the United States. 
February 1975. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service: Animal Disease and Pest Control Div. 
Agency Managing Program: Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Programs Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control-Swine 
Tuberculosis 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Losses due to condemnation or special processing of TB infected 
pork were between $5.1 and $6.3 million in 1974. This was higher 
than the losses prior to 1 972 when stricter meal inspection standards 
were imposed in response to the Surgeon General's opinion that 
swine TB could be a potential human health hazard Losses in hog 
production efficiency due to the disease are not thought to be signifi- 
cant. An expected benefit/cost ratio of 1.46 (discounted at 10 per- 
cent) was estimated for a national swine TB control program option 
including a mandatory swine identification system. The program 
without a mandatory identification system would be less cost effec- 
tive. A control program limited to indemnification and without an 
identification system would generate no economic efficiency bene- 
fits. The study adequately estimates the losses from swine TB and 
indicates the uncertainty with respect to the cost and effectiveness 
of a control program. The program cost estimates do not fully reflect 
costs of the required identification system which should at least be 
partially charged against the program. The low ratio of benefits to 
costs under even the most optimistic assumptions implies that a 
control or eradication program is not likely to be cost effective. Some 
additional research and development currently underway to improve 
swine TB slaughter surveillance methods could augment private ef- 
forts to control the disease and might allow for more efficient control 
programs in the future. Research to clarify whether and to what 
extent (if any) swine TB constitutes a human health hazard may be 
justified. 

503 

Racial Composition in the National School Lunch Program. 
1973. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Program* Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority! National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Base Reference: E-00207011 



503 

Reaction lo the National Agrictiliural Outlook Conference, 
October 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture; Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture: Economic 
Research Service 

Programs Evaluated! Supply, Demand, and Price Analysis- 
Forecasts and Projections (10.000) 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(552). 
Authority: Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (P.L. 79-733). 

Data Base Reference: E-00219006 

The majority of the conference attendees during 1972 and 1973 
were satisfied with the conference. Only 1 1 percent reported that the 



Food 



131 



503 



Federal Program Evaluation! on Food 



conference inadequately mel their objectives for attending; most 
individual sessions were rated adequate or excellent by the majority 
of attendees. Over 1 percent suggested lhat the national conference 
te eliminated, but a majority of these favored substitution of regional 
:onferences for the national Almost one-third of the potential out- 
ook users surveyed, who did not attend one conference, write m for 
lutlook information About 15 percent of the nonattendees surveyed 
lad never heard of the conference. Attendees estimate that they 
each 35 million people per year with information made available at 
he conference Since the value added by the conference was not 
issessed, nor its relative cost-effectiveness compared with available 
less costly) alternatives for disseminating information to the target 
ludience, the study results are insufficient for judging the overall 
tublic value and cost-effectiveness of the conference No major deci- 
.ion implications can be derived from these limited findings 



telaitanship between Program Participation and Level of Economic 

ictivtty 

Jctober 1972 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation; Food and Nutrition Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Pood and Nutrition Service 

rogrami ivaluatod: Food Stamps (10000) 

iudg&t Function: Agriculture. Agricultural Research and Services 

352); Income Security Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 

icnts (604) 

kulhoilty; Food Stamp Act of 1964 (PL 88-525). P.L. 91-671. 

'ola Bate Reference: -00207024 



OS 

leport of Task Force on Farm Income Estimates 
atiuary 1975. 

igeney Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
omic Research Service 

ifleney Wonaglng Program: Department of Agriculture: Economic 

;esearch Service 

togromt Evaluated: Farm Income Estimation (ERS) 

.uthorlty: Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S C. 1621- 

627). 

A special task force determined that in most years major errors 
i farm income estimates occurred in estimating nonfarm money 
icome, government payments, and net changes in farm inventories. 
towevcr, in a volatile marketing year, estimates of total cash receipts 
ere a more significant source of error. The original estimate of gross 
urn income, in 1973, had to be increased several months later by 
9 billion, Errors in cash receipts accounted for $5 billion, inventory 
Tors, for S3 billion; and other adjustments, for $1 billion. ERS's 
:counlmg methods were inconsistent with the Nation Income and 
roduct Account and GNP as published by Department of Com- 
icrce, causing some items to be excluded and some to be double 
Hinted. According to the Commerce Department, ERS's farm in- 
line estimates were among the least accurate of the various national 
amponents reported to them, The failure of the task force to deal 
ith social costs and utility of farm income estimates seriously limits 
jphcauon of the findings for policy or program design decisions. 
he report implies that USDA farm income estimates are useful 
lough to support the cost of generating them, making them more 
tturate^ and standardizing them with the Department of Com- 
icrce For this and other information type programs, an evaluation 
r their social cost and utility is suggested before significant increases 
i resources are committed for purposes of improving quality. 



'.eportcn the Beekeepers Indemnity Payment Program 
redenc L. Hoff. December 1976. ' 

: Eco- 



Agency Managing Program; Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Dairy and Beekeeper Indemnity Program 
Budget Function: Agriculture. Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
Authority: 7 U.S.C 135b note. 7 U.S.C. 450J-450I. 

Bee pollination is beneficial to a large portion of our agricultural 
production and is essential to some fruit, vegetable, and seed crops. 
Beekeepers, particularly commercial pollinators in areas of high pes- 
ticide damage, reportedly have a comparatively unfavorable income 
position because of depressed honey prices, rising costs, nnd pesti- 
cide losses. The bee colony population declined from 5.9 mil lion in 
1947 to 4.1 million in 1972 and had recovered to 4.2 million in 1975. 
The average S10 per acre bee pollination fee could be increased 
substantially with very little impact on per unit production costs for 
most commodities. Eight States reported pesticide damage lo fiS 
percent of the colonies registered in the ASCS program. The remain- 
ing 42 States reported damage to only 2.5 percent of the registered 
colonies. From 1967-1975, a totfll of $18.9 million was paid in in- 
demnities to 2.628 beekeepers representing two million damaged 
colonies (California, Arizona, and Washington beekeepers received 
49 percent of this). Twenty individuals received $4.7 million or 28 
percent of the total. The study does not critically address ilic ques- 
tion of USDA program effectiveness. The analysis is based on data 
from previous State studies plus ASCS statistics on the pragiam 
history, but does not identify trends and causal relationships neces- 
sary to measure the program's impact. This study suggests, but does 
not conclusively show, that termination of the program would in ihc 
long run lead to higher pollination fees sufficient to maintain n viable 
bee pollination industry with minor effects in terms of increased crop 
production costs. The study did not analyze short run adjustments. 
which may occur with program termination. 



507 

Review and Evaluation of Price Spread Data for Footh. 
January 1976. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture: Economic 
Research Service 

Program* Evaluated) Price Spread and Marketing Bill Dntn 
Authority: Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C 1621- 
1627). 

Economic Research Service's price spread and markciing bill 
data are widely used by Members of Congress, Department official i, 
trade associations, and others to describe the cost distribution of Ihc 
food dollar and the costs of food marketing. Practical llmliiitoM on 
the data currently available and conceptual difficulties limit the 
precision of the estimates, particularly for cost and profit compo- 
nents of the food dollar. However, further improvement wouldl re- 
quire costly data acquisition, since virtually all sources available 
useful data are currently drawn upon, Users frequently attempt to 
apply these data to questions for which the data arc not appropriate. 
It was concluded that data series on marketing margins arc useful and 
should continue to be published, although the utility of the currcnl 
series may not be increased significantly by use of additional re- 
sources to improve or refine them. New or additional datn scries and 
economic studies may more effectively contribute to several of ihe 
basic purposes expected of the current series. Further efforts to iden- 
tify the intended users of the marketing bill series and their need* or 
uses for the data should be considered before revising, renlacin* or 
supplementing that series in particular. 



506 



mm ^ 
October 1974. 



32 



Food 



Federal Program Evaluation* on Food 



512 



Agoncy Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign Agricultural Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Foreign Agricultural Service 

Program* Evaluated: Foreign Market Development and Promotion 

(10000) 

Btfdget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(352). 

Authority! Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 

1954 (P.L 83-480). Agricultural Act of 1954 (P.L. 83-690). 

Data Bate Reference: E-OQ212010 



509 

School Feeding Effectiveness; Summary Report, 
Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. September 1972. 
Aaency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Program* Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604) 

Aulhorityi National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Base Reference: E-OG207004 

A scries of studies of the National School Lunch Program in New 
Jersey was conducted because of the low participation rate in the 
Slate-only 18 percent of the school students participated. The results 
indicate that schools did not participate because they lacked kitchen 
facilities and because the initial overhead costs to begin food service 
operation were a major problem. Administrators of schools that par- 
licipalecl reported that onsite kitchen systems were the most efficient 
in terms of costs and benefits, and satellite systems were rated se- 
cond The type A pattern was not a restraint to student participation 
although the subsidized meals were generally considered to be un- 
palalable. Most new foods were found to be acceptable. Potentially 
significant losses in nutrient content of foods due to heat preparation 
were identified. In some cases, additional Department of Agriculture 
outreach effort may be needed to concentrate on establishing onsite 
feeding facilities in schools. A vitamin supplement provided to chil- 
dren who bring their own lunches would raise the nutritional content 
of their meals to Federal Standard. Findings on low acceptability of 
subsidized lunches and nutrient losses due to cooking raise serious 
questions about the assumption that serving type A lunches results 
in an equivalent effect in terms of nutrients ingested. 



510 

The Southwestern Screwworm Eradication Program; A Review. 
Charles Lincoln, W. G, Eden. August 30, 1974. 
Agency Span taring Evaluation: Animal and Plant Health Inspec- 
tion Service. 

Agency Managing Program! Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service 

Program* Evaluated: Animal Disease and Pest Control (10.000); 
Plant Disease and Pest Control (10.000); Import Inspection (10.000) 
Budget Function i Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Federal Plant Pest Act (P.L. 85-36; 7 U.S.C 147-148; 7 
U.S.C. 1 50). Plant Quarantine Act (P.L. 62-275; 7 U.S.C. 151-164a). 
Terminal Inspection Act (P.L. 63-293; 7 U.S.C. 166). Mexican Bor- 
der Act, as amended (PX. 85-36; 7 U.S.C. 149). Department of 
Agriculture Organic Act of 1944. Mexican Pink Bollworm Act. 
Golden Nematode Act. Honeybee Act. Halogeton Glomeratus Act. 
Federal Noxious Weed Act P.L. 65-40. P.L. 80-645. P.L. 87-539. 
P.L. 82-529, 7 U.S.C. 145. 7 U.S.C. 281-282. 7 U.S.C. 1651-1656. 7 
U.S.C. 2801-2813. 
Data Bale Reference: -00205002 

The program yielded an annual ratio of benefits (reduced lives- 
tock losses and reduced production costs) to costs in excess of 39:1 
during 1972-74. Increased, screwworm infestation in the past 3 years 
is partially attributed to weather conditions, changes in animal hus- 
bandry practices, and increased livestock and wildlife population in 
the Southwest. The sterile fly technique is sound in principle. Knowl- 
edge in field effectiveness of released Hies is limited. Limited plant 

Food 



capacity to produce sterile Hies is a constraint in bad years. Lack of 
ability to determine the number and distribution of wild flies may be 
the greatest weakness in the program This results in less effective 
release practices. Eradication in Mexico will be more difficult, and 
several uncertainties were noted Winter weather provides a signifi- 
cant natural control mechanism in the United States, but not in 
Mexico, Elimination of the knowledge gaps and other limitations 
cited could improve the effectiveness of the current U S program m 
the Southwest. Some continuing research support is indicated, Al- 
though moving the screwworm barner zone to Tehuanlepec, Mexico, 
could facilitate keeping the screwworm from reentering the United 
States, the joint program with Mexico faces most of the same limita- 
tions and some additional uncertainties due to the climate, limited 
surveillance capability, and other factors affecting the potential for 
successful attainment of an eradication objective in northern Mexico 



511 

Special Cost of Alternative Dairy Price Support Levels. 
Boyd M. Buxton, Jerome W. Hammond. March 7, 1975 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Dairy Products (10.000), Marketing Agree- 
ments and Orders (10.000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture. Farm Income Stabilization (351) 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297). Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P.L. 80-806). Agricultural Market- 
ing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137). 

Public Avallabllityi American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 
Vol. 56, No. 2 
Data Bate Reference: B-00219003 

The social cost of the Department of Agriculture's March 1973 
decision to set the support price at the minimum 75 percent of parity 
was zero. Raising the support prices to 85 percent of parity would 
have resulted in a net social cost of $340 million if increased Govern- 
ment purchases due to higher support price were donated abroad or 
destroyed. The net social cost of this same decision could be reduced 
to $65 million by redistributing the increased Government purchases 
back to the United States community as manufactured products The 
suggested measure of social cost is intended to be an additional 
criterion for making decisions regarding dairy price supports, and not 
to displace existing criteria such as budget costs, farm income, and 
consumer price effects, However, since the "social cost" calculations 
yield factors closely paralleling other previously calculated factors 
(e.g., amount that the support price exceeds the free market price), 
it is not clear that the additional measure in fact provides any addi- 
tional information. 



512 

Special Supplemental Food Program for Women. Infants, and Children- 
A Medical Evaluation, 

F. Shank, J. Edozien. Research Triangle Inst. July 1976. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Programi Food and Nutrition Service: Special 
Supplemental Food Unit 

Programs Evaluated: Supplemental Food Program for Women, In- 
fants, and Children (WIQ 

Budget Function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 1771. 

Participation in the Special Supplemental Food Program for 
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was associated with an in- 
crease in the rate of growth, weight, and height. Daily intake of 
protein, calcium, phosphorous, and riboflavin were reduced for in- 
fants 6-12 months old. Their intake of iron, vitamin A, thiamine and 
ascorbic acid increased. Children increased their daily consumption 
of most nutrients. Incidence of anemia was reduced in all age groups. 
Pregnant women increased their intake of protein, calcium, phos- 
phorous, iron, vitamin A, thiamine, niacin, and ascorbic acid. Post- 

13ft 



512 



Federal Program Evaluation! 0n te> 



paftum women increased their intake of thiamme <* "oorTtac acid. 
The WIC Program was associated with an increase in the birthweight 
of babies. Clinical, biological and dietary data were obtained on each 
ttctfeipaat. Dietary data included a 24-hour recall. Comparison of 
measurement results taken before and after the program provided 
Jitaates of program impacts. The WIC Program apparenrty 
achieved nutritional improvement in pregnant and postpartum 
women and infants and children. 



513 

Spew* SujyUm&ital Food Pngnm /or Women, Infants, and Children- 
Delivery Systems Evaluation. 

P Shank, M. Bendick. April 1976. , 

Aaarvev Sponsoring Evaluation: Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Mana B 1n9 Puflwm, Food and Nutrition Service: Special 
Supplemental Food Unit 

Piogrami Evaluated: Supple menial Food Program for Women, In- 
fants, and Children (WIC) 

Budget function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 
Authority! 42 U.S.C. 1771. 

Average monthly cost per recipient was about $20. Administra- 
tive cost was highest ($7.24) for direct distribution and lowest for 
home delivery ($2.64). Advantages of direct distribution were low 
coat, control of the food package, and presence of participants at 
clinics for education The main disadvantage Was inconvenience for 
participants. Home delivery was more expensive than direct distribu- 
tion hut was more convenient for participants. Control of food substi- 
tutions was a potential problem. The retail purchase system struck a 
middle ground for cost, recipient burden, and food substitution Each 
participant was automatically given the maximum food quantity at 
76 percent of the clinics surveyed. About two-thirds of W1C partici- 
pants had incomes below the poverty threshold; 49 percent also 
received food stamps. Overall, 96 percent of recipients were satisfied 
with WIC foods, but 85 percent of administrators wanted greater 
flexibility in prescribing (he food package, About 8 1 percent of the 
recipients indicated they did not restrict supplemental food use to 
purposes of the WIC program but used the food for the entire family 
Recipients reportedly increased their use of medical facilities as a 
result of the program, The evaluation wasbased on a strn tilled sample 
of 96 WIC clinics in 30 States. Some 7 1 food retailers, 3,600 partici- 
pants, and 14 1 nonparticipants were interviewed. This sample repre- 
sented various types of delivery systems, geographic locations, and 
ethnic groups. WIC distribution systems apparently are effective m 
distributing the food package, The retail purchase system appears to 
he more satisfactory than the other delivery systems. 



514 

Staff Report on the National Agricultural Outlook Conference November 
15-18, 1976. 

Alan R. Bird. February 1977. 

Agency Sponiorinfl Evaluation! Department of Agriculture: Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Asney Managing Program Department of Agriculture: Economic 
Research Service 

Ptofltams Evaluated: Supply, Demand, and Price Analysis- 
Forecasts and Projections and Related Programs 
Authority! Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621- 
1627), 

An evaluation of the 1977 National Agricultural Outlook Confer- 
ence held in November 1976 indicated that total attendance was 
over 1,000, including a record high of 753 non-USDA registrants. 
This contrasted with an 8.2 percent decline in attendance ^preced- 
ing year. Responses from 170 attendees indicate that the conference 
was a significant source of Information for many and should continue 
to be held at USDA about the same time of year. Those who attended 
found many sessions disappointing because the subject matter was 
often noncommittal, poorly presented, and lacked relevance. There 



were allegedly too many panelists, papers were matte avji/jVit 
late, and points of view lacked divergence In addition iJie fccil: 
and equipment were judged to be inadequate The finding* . 
based largely on the responses of 170 non-USDA atlemfces Tr. 
people who knew about the conference but chose aoi taatter.de, 
not represented The analysis depends siibslaniially on trie fl j: k > 
interpretation of open ended questions The cosls of tic cutfe::' 
were not analyzed. The critical comments of the participant* **& 
that consideration should be given to possible changes in tore 
content, and facilities to increase the appeal of (he sessions to 
participants However, the evaluation findings alone do not pco= 
sufficient information for determining conclusively 
fercnce justifies its cost 



515 

A Study of Alternatives to Commodity Donation? to Sehooh 

September 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture 

of Planning and Evaluation. 

Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 

Programs Evaluated: Direct Distribution of Food (lOGQGj 

Budget Function: Agriculture. Agnciilturnl Research and Sir 

(352), Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income S-. 

ments (604). 

Authority; Agricultural Adjustment Act (P. I, 73-10), A^rid 

Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-137), 

Data Base Reference! B-00200008 



516 

A Study of the Use and Value of Improved t'orciga Whrat tn(s 

to USDA Programs and Activities. 

The Futures Gioiip. July 1976. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Foreign ARricuUwM Sm;c 

Aflsncy Managing Program* Foreign Agriaillural S 

Programs Evaluated: Market intelligence on<l O 

Large Area Crop Inventory nxpcnmcnl (LACIIvr 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research end $ 

(352). 

Authority: Agricultural Act of 1054 (7 LI.S.C, 



Interviews with USDA analysts and (lccisummnk.ee* ft-, 
the quality oC USD A foreign when! protluclicHulnlfl \anci by 
but is generally deficient, as is infornmtUin mi niliur ft\ tort i 
the demand for U.S. wheat exports. Export demand, yfi:tf. 
and other factors mny be mure imporinnt them cstirmu i c-l 
production for most major USDA policy and prog, tarn <f 
Improved accuracy in foreign wheat production ciilmaifi r 
tribute relatively little to improved demand or jirii* r 
the overriding influence of other variables which, (ire 
considerable uncertainty or error. Current USDA snppl> t-i 
and commodity stabilization policies rely laigcly nn fr>is\ 
and do not include program decisions sensitive n irnpr lt M 
foreign wheat production estimates. Improvement's in iht 
may potentially contribute to minor improvement m Pi 
480 and other export program dccisionii. Hie vtiuly ir,\c. 
tively unstructured interviews of USDA annlyslsBnilri^m 
who use wheat crop information. The reference! i!t*rt 
interview responses by the interviewer were cnnmient i 
This procedure precluded the usual icsls of itaiiMical i. 
and vnlidity. The study did not evaluate Hie in* of *Jie*i i: 
in the wheat market or other private sector da Won Im? 
in the accuracy of foreign crop production nisy be r>f lir 
for USDA decisionmoking purposes. Maj 
the data would therefore have to be justified Urjgelj 
benefits' from better information lor ilie private 



134 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



sir 



, n f Im P roved SRS Wh^ Information to 

VSi>A Programs and Activities. 

August 1976. 

Agency Spaniertng Evaluation: Department of Agriculture Statisti- 
cal Reporting Service, 

Afltncy Managing Program: Department of Agriculture: Statistical 

Reporting Service 

Pragrami Evaluated: Agricultural Statistics (SRS) 

Budget Function! Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 

(3*2) 

Aulhorllyi Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U S C 1621- 

1627). 

Interviews with USDA analysts and decisionmakers found that 
the forecasting errors, which are associated with weather uncertain- 
ties, in current season wheat production estimates are larger than 
sampling or other errors. These errors are more important for winter 
ihan for spring wheat. Most users are concerned with the total eco- 
nomic effects, of wheat supply. For their purposes, minor improve- 
ments in estimating current production may be overshadowed by 
existing errors in estimates of carryout size and feed use. Current 
USDA supply adjustment, commodity stabilization, and related poll- 
cfcs rely largely on market forces and do not include decisions sensi- 
tive to modest improvements in wheat production information. SRS 
information on wheat production, stocks, and prices are used con- 
stantly throughout USDA and are of fundamental importance in 
analyzing how USDA policies arc working and for various related 
purposes. The study involved relatively unstructured interviews of 
USDA anniysts and decisionmakers who use wheat crop informa- 
tion. The inferences drawn from the interview responses by the inter- 
viewer were consistent with theory. The study procedure precluded 
the usual tests of statistical significance and validity. The study did 
not evaluate the use of wheat information in the wheat market or 
other private sector decisions. Improvements in the accuracy of SRS 
wheat production information may be of limited value for USDA 
[Ice is ion making purposes under current conditions. Major invest- 
ments to improve the data would therefore have to be justified largely 
by the potential benefits from better information for the private 
sector. 



518 

The Sugar Program: Large Costs and Small benefits. 
I). Gale Johnson. April 1974. 

Agency Spon toting Evaluation: Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service. 

Agency Managing Programs Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Program I Evaluated! Sugar Act Program (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture' Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
Authority: Sugar Act of 1948 (P.L. 80-388). 

Public Availability: American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Re- 
search; Washington, DC 
Data Bate R of a re nee: E-00209007 

The production, distribution, and pricing of sugar is highly regu- 
lated in almost all countries including the United States. Over half 
the sugar that moves in world trade does so within the framework of 
special preferential arrangements. An important effect of the U.S. 
sugar program has been the protection of U.S. sugar refining. Sugar 
quoins are more stringent against refined sugar than raw sugar. Less 
than 2 percent of total U.S. sugar imports are refined^ sugar. There 
are no cteor guidelines or national grounds for establishing import 
quotas and quotas for domestic areas. As a result, allocations are 
assigned by political process. The annual cost of the sugar program 
lo American consumers and taxpayers ranges between $502 and 
S730 million. About a third of the gross transfer goes to foreign quota 
holders and the remainder to domestic growers. The net income 
benefit to producers is about a quarter of their gross transfers. The 
study provides strong evidence of the high cost of the sugar program 
in relation to economic benefits to U.S. producers. The sugar pro- 
gram has been terminated as a result of Congress' decision not to 
extend the authorizing legislation. Any effort to restore it should be 

Food 



consistent with the U.S policy for liberalization of trade, and modifi- 
cations should be considered that would bnng costs more in line with 
the benefits to U.S producers. 



519 

Survey of Grade and Weight Selling of Livestock. 
February 1974. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Agriculture. Packers 
and Stockyards Administration 

Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture Packers 
and Stockyards Administration 

Program* Evaluated: Maintenance of Equitable Marketing Condi- 
tions for Livestock and Poultry (10000) 

Budget Function: Agriculture; Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Packers and Stockyard Act of 1921, as amended {PL 
67-51) 

Data Bate Reference: E-Q0208001 

This study assesses the cost and effectiveness of the Packers and 
Stockyards Administration (P&SA) fiscal year 1 969 survey and fiscal 
years 1970-71 sample surveillance of grade and weight selling or 
livestock (cattle and hogs). The 1969 survey and subsequent surveil- 
lance were conducted to determine the extent to which packers 
purchasing livestock on a carcass basis were not in compliance with 
recently established P&SA grade and weight selling regulations The 
objective was to assure that producers and purchasers received true 
value for the livestock carcasses traded The program directly in- 
creased cattle and hog producers' returns by $428,000 in 1969, S56,- 
000 in 1970, and $79,000 in 1971 due to correction of wrong tare 
weight settings. It saved cattle producers $1 I million in 1969 by 
eliminating excess deductions. Corresponding savings for 1970 and 
1971, based on projection of the deterrent effect of 1969 returns, 
were estimated at $1.4 million and $1 6 million, respectively. Total 
savings to the livestock industry were estimated to be S12 per dollar 
of P&SA salary and travel outlay in 1969 This ratio increased to S20 
in 1970 and $50 in 197 i, due almost entirely to the lower cost of 
sample surveillance Study implications are that the new P&SA regu- 
lations appear to have had beneficial effects in improving producer 
returns. Active surveillance of markets can improve their competi- 
tiveness. 



520 

Title III Reparation Complaints and Other Reparation Type Complaints. 

August 1975. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Department of Agriculture: Packers 
and Stockyards Administration. 

.Agency Managing Program: Department of Agriculture- Packers 
and Stockyards Administration 
Programs Evaluated: Livestock Market Regulation 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352). 

Authority: Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, as amended. 
Agriculture, Environmental, and Consumer Protection Appropria- 
tion Act. 5 U S.C. 3109. 7 U.S.C. 181-229. 15 U.S.C 1601-1665. 15 
U.S.C. 1681-16811. 

The reparation provisions (section 308) of the Packers and Stock- 
yards Act were designed to afford complainants a prompt and inex- 
pensive method of recovering losses resulting from violations of the 
act A study of the administration of these provisions finds that the 
benefit/cost ratio of Title III of the informal reparation program was 
19 7 to 1.0 in fiscal year 1974, about the 7-year average of 1968-74, 
{The agency helped 345 livestock producers to recover $2.2 million 
in claims at a cost of $112,000.) In fiscal year 1974, the benefit/cost 
ratio for Title II reparation activity was 8 14 to LO. (Settlement 
totaled $85 1,000 for 96 complaints.) Without the Packers and Stock- 
yards Act, complainants might have recovered some larger claims 
through informal and court action. However, P&SA contends that 
court costs would be much higher, both to complainants and re- 
spondents, take longer to settle, and could not be properly evaluated 

135 



520 



Federal Program Evaluations on Food 



in many cases The reparation program of P&SA is more effective 
and more equitable than other present procedures to settle disputes 
between sellers and market agencies, dealers, and stockyards. 



was provided to show that positive attitudes of school administrators 
are sufficient for a consistent positive relationship between participa- 
tion and improved effectiveness 



521 

Uniform Grain Storage Agreement 
April 1974 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluations Agricultural Stabilization and Con- 
servation Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Commodities (10000} 
Budget Function: Agriculture Farm Income Stabilization (351) 
Authority: Agricultural Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-297), Commodity 
Credit Corporation Charter Act (P L SO-806). 

Data Bate Reference: E- 00209 003 



523 

Use of Land Reserves to Control Agricultural Production 
M. Erickson. September 1976. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation; Department of Agriculture. Eco- 
nomic Research Service. 

Agency Managing Program: Agricultural Stabilization and Conser- 
vation Service 

Programs Evaluated: Cropland Conversion Program; Conservation 
Reserve Program 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
Authority: Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (P,L 
87-703). 



Since L940 the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) has set the 
rates and conditions for the storage of CCC grains under the terms 
of the Uniform Grain Storage Agreement (UGSA). The study eva- 
luated the effectiveness of the UGSA in terms of the objective of 
assuring that producers have access to adequate commercial storage 
to assure efficient operation of the CCC commodity loan program, 
Tests were also made of the appropriateness of the specific rates This 
study concludes, that storage space approved under the UGSA has 
been widely available for farmers' grain, and lack of storage has not 
constituted a constraint on the CCC loan program. UGSA rates have 
not been a primary factor influencing off-farm storage capacity, ex- 
cept in the 1950's. UGSA rates in 1973 were generally below firms' 
published tariffs Economic Research Service (ERS) cost estimates, 
on which the UGSA rates are based, have not been biased upward 
or downward, but have not always been accurate. Higher UGSA 
rates on corn vis-a-vis small grains are justifiable on the basis of cost; 
on soybeans they are not- Rates of return to warehousemen under the 
UGSA do not appear to have been excessive during the four years 
sampled (since 196-1), using ERS estimates of replacement costs. The 
study provides selected indicators suggesting that the UGSA has 
achieved objectives at costs that were probably not excessive The 
study suggests that the conservative rate-setting policies of the CCC 
Board during the 1970 1 s have not impaired the effectiveness of the 
UGSA, and that there is little need for broad increases in rates to 
assure availability of adequate storage capacity. 



522 

The USDA Study on High School Participation in Child Nutrition 
Programs. 
September 1973. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluations Food and Nutrition Service. 
Agency Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Program Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture: Agricultural Research and Services 
(352), Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604). 

Authority) National School Lunch Act (P.L, 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207005 

The altitude of school administrators was the single most impor- 
tant factor relating to panic ipation-in low participation schools, 80 
percent of the administrators had a negative or indifferent atlJfude 
toward the program. Schools with poor facilities modular scheduling, 
extensive a la carte service and school lunch periods experienced Jow 
participation. Of the low participation schools, 50 percent had poor 
facilities! and 50 percent had modular or split-shift scheduling; fifty 
five percent of students felt that the lunch period was too short; and 
54 percent also thought the lunch line was too long. To increase 
participation in the National School Lunch Program the outreach 
efforts should emphasize the development of positive attitudes to- 
ward the program by school administrators. However, no evidence 

136 



This study examined the effectiveness of land reserve programs 
in reducing actual crop acreage and found that one acre of land in 
a reserve program reduced actual acreage as follows: total wheat, 
1961-70, -.61; total wheat, 1971-73, - .41; corn and soybeans, 1961- 
72, - 62; corn, 1961, 1961-70, - .50; total cropland, 1937-73, - .60. 
The study was based on three independent research studies (1974- 
75) using appropriate methods of analysis. No measurement of data 
quality or reliability of results was included. However, crosscompari- 
sons of independent results plus reference to basic Agricultural Cen- 
sus indications and ASCS data verified the practical reliability of 
findings. The study proposed that a voluntary land reserve program 
could be made more cost effective in reducing crop surpluses ant!, at 
the same time, maximize production efficiency on nonreservc land 
if the annual allotment base for each crop was based on the form's 
cropping pattern the previous year. 



524 

Water Management Research by Utah State University (Latin Anitrka); 
Field Review and Assessment. 

Ernest Smerdon, and others. LAT 333.913 U896. Mnrch 1976. 72 
pp. 

Agency Sponiorlng Evaluation: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America. 

Agency Managing Program: Agency for International Develop- 
ment: Bureau for Latin America 

Programs Evaluated: Food and Nutrition-Latin America 
Budget Function! International Affairs: Foreign Economic and Fi- 
nancial Assistance (151), 

Authority! Foreign Service Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 
U.S.C. 2151 etseq.J. 
Public Availability: AID Reference Center 

Work under the present contract should be continued us pro- 
grammed. Subsequent to the completion of the project, major effort 
should be planned dealing with programs to assist small farmers In 
onfarm water management in Central America and in South 
America. In addition, the sociopolitical studies underway should be 
continued but restructured along socioeconomic and impact assess- 
ment lines. It appears that work on evapotranspiration should noi 
have such high priority in the future. Early work had a larger compo- 
nent in field demonstration of irrigation methods and practices. 
However, the project has drifted from the goal of improving onfaTm 
water management. More emphasis on adaptive research and deve- 
lopment and "how to" demonstrations seems to be desired. Each 
project should relate to others to insure a focus of all component 
projects on the objective of immediately improving food production 
through better onfarm water management. Recommendations in- 
clude strengthening internal communication to reduce confusion and 
problems for the contractors; strengthening the Agency's ability to 
better relate project substance to project purpose and objectives; and 
defining "research" so it has the same meaning for all parlies in- 
volved in the project. 

Food 



federal Program Evaluation! on Food 



528 



525 

Ifho's Picking Up the Check for Pennsylvania's School Lunches? 
Don E- Hardenberg. 1972. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation! Food and Nutrition Service. 
Aganty Managing Program: Food and Nutrition Service 
Programs Evaluated: School Lunches (10.000) 
Budget Function: Agriculture Agricultural Research and Services 
(352); Income Security: Public Assistance and Other Income Supple- 
ments (604) 

Aurhorltyi National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396). 
Data Bate Reference: E-00207007 

A 1971 study of the school lunch program in Pennsylvania found 
that 19 percent of the schools were without a lunch program These 
were most prevalently elementary schools in low income urban areas. 
Fifty-five percent of all needy children were not receiving a free or 
reduced price lunch even though 2/3 of them were going to schools 
that served lunches. Concerning free and reduced lunches the study 
found (hat only 47 percent of schools used Federal announcement 
procedures to promote them. Eighty-seven percent of student enroll- 
ment was provided with application forms for them. Forty-four per- 
cent of the schools with poverty enrollments under 50 percent were 
Jn violation of Federal rules for establishing eligibility-only 21 per- 
cent did so in schools with more than 50 percent poverty enrollment, 
and 25 percent of the schools violated the anonymity requirement. 
If the assumption regarding the effects of nutrition on the ability to 
learn could be accepted with confidence, the study would suggest 
that special actions need to be taken at the local level to improve 
altitudes of local officials and so improve participation among pov- 
erty children. 



EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION 



527 

An Analysis of Selected Department of Labor Projects for Migrant and 
Seasonal Farmworkers 

Linton & Co., Inc , Washington, DC MEL 77-02 October 1976 - 
264 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Employment and Training Ad- 
ministration: Office of Program Evaluation. 

Agency Managing Program: Employment and Training Adminis- 
tration 

Program* Evaluated: Farm Workers (17.230); Comprehensive Em- 
ployment and Training Programs (17.232) 

Budget Function: Education, Manpower, and Social Services: Train- 
ing and Employment (504). 

Authority: Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973, 
as amended (P.L. 93-203). 
Public Availability: NTIS, Document No. PB 263 618/AS 

The report reviews, on the basis of a study of six programs, 
operations and problems of programs funded under section 303 of 
the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act to provide train- 
ing, education, and other services to migrant and other seasonal 
farmworkers. The report also examines: briefly a history of social 
legislation for seasonal farmworkers and the nature of this popula- 
tion. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 



536 

Report on Survey of the Fishery Products Inspection Service, National 

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 

July 1972. 21 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Department of Commerce: Office 

of Audits. 

Aganty Managing Program; National Oceanic and Atmospheric 

Administration 

Program Evaluated: Fishery Products Inspection and Certification 

(11413) 

Budget Function; Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 

Other Natural Resources (306) 

Authority: Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (P.L. 79-733). Fish 

and Wildlife Act of 1956 (P,L 84-1024). 

Data Base Reference: E-00300008 



While there are more than 4,000 fish-processing firms in the 
United States, inspection services are provided only to 38 firms that 
sell primarily to institutions that require inspected fishery products. 
While requests for reimbursable inspection services have been re- 
ceived from additional firms, the ability to take on more work has 
been hampered by recent restrictions on hiring. Thus it is essential 
for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA A) 
la review Us priorities with a view toward meeting increased de- 
mands for inspection and so provide a means of responding to the 
intent of !aw and the growing concern by fishery inspection officials 
and consumer advocates who wish to protect the health of consumers 
by assuring that fishery products distributed to the consumers are in 
fact of good quality, wholesome, and properly marked or labeled. 
There is also a need for increasing the ability of the NOAA inspec- 
tion service to make quality inspections, and provisions must be 
made for laboratory testing as part of the regular inspection proce- 
dure. 



528 

Commercial Sank Links to the Farm Credit System through PCA 

Participants and FICB Discounts, 

D. D. Osburn, J. A. Petty. FCA Research Journal, Two. December 

1976. 6pp. 

Agency Managing Program; Farm Credit Administration 

Program* Evaluated: Farm Credit System 

Budget Function: Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351), 

Authority! Farm Credit Act of 1971 (P L. 92-181; 12 U.S.C. 2001- 

2259). 

Public Availability: Farm Credit Administration; Washington, DC 

20578 

The Production Credit Association's commercial bank participa- 
tion program has continued a slow development. The other financial 
institution's discounting program has had moderate growth. Both 
programs are far below their potential. Should farm credit needs 
increase as projected, the participation program could be widely used 
by small rural banks when local funds are not sufficient to serve large 
agricultural credit needs. Of the two ways of discounting (direct and 
through agricultural credit corporations), it seems that direct dis- 
counting with Federal intermediate credit banks offers the greatest 
possibilities. The main reason cited was the large amount of capital 
necessary to establish an agricultural credit corporation, and the fact 
that the small rural banks which really needed the discounting ser- 
vices were the ones which did not have the necessary capital. 
Another problem has been that commercial bankers and the Farm 
Credit System have regarded each other as competitors. The credit 
sources account for a very small portion of agricultural credit. If the 
demand for agricultural credit grows rapidly, these programs offer 
the tools which could help to supply needed agricultural credit, 
However, numerous operational difficulties would have to be over- 
come. 



Food 



137 



529 



Federal Program Evaluation! on 



29 

^S Farmer A f r ojl ie Analysis of Ftfwl Land Bank Borrows 

D. Osburn FCA Research Journal, Two December 1976. 8 pp 

y r, POtU r " 18 tvoluoH Fa ^edit Administration Re- 
L/IV, 

Agency Manoglng Program: Farm Credit Administration 
Programs Evaluated: Farm Credit System 
aurfget Function. Agriculture: Farm Income Stabilization (351). 
2239) Fa ^ Credit Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-181, 12USC.2001- 

Public AvailabHHy; Farm Crfidit Administrate. Washington, DC 

Farming is becoming a more capital-intensive business. Estimates 
* * l?! Itai rec l uiremen(s r r a one-man farm range from $250,000 
to $500,000 A number of reserve rental, leasing, and ownership 
arrangements enable young farmers to control or be involved with 
resources of this magnitude. About 20 percent of all farmers nation- 
wide are under 35 years of age, but m contrast, about 25 percent of 
the Federal land bank borrowers are young farmers. I n addition, 4 
percent of all borrowers had debt-to-asset ratios in excess of 70 
percent while on the other hand, about 12 percent of young farmers 
had debt-to-asset ratios in excess of 70 percent. In spite of their 
relative higher debts and similar debt service loads to those of all 
borrowers, young farmers, j n general, were financially sound. Real 
estate financing was extended to many low equity borrowers who 
would not meet traditional sound credit eligibility requirements. This 
was often accomplished through the use of Farmers Home Adminis- 
tration second mortgage financing. Loan liquidation procedures were 
ttnlormade for young farmers to ease the repayment burden. The 
program is making favorable progress and is maintaining a sound 
base for the investing public. 



OFFICE OF EDUCATION 



531 

Evaluation of the Impact of ESS4 Tiefel Programs for Migrant Ch/tfff. 
of Migrant Agricultural Workers; Executive Summary. 
Exotech Systems, Inc , Falls Church, VA. January 25, 1974 -I toll 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Office of Education Office of PJa 1 --- 
ning, Budgeting, and Evaluation 
Agency Managing Program: Office of Education 
Programs Evaluated: Educationally Deprived Children-Migrant 
(13429) 

Budget Function: Education, Manpower, and SociaJ Services Ele- 
mentary, Secondary, and Vocational Education (501). 
Authority; Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (P.L 
89-10). 

Public Availability; ERIC, Document Nos ED 093 524-093 527 
Data Base Reference: E-00501027 

Allocations increased to $72 8 million in fiscal year 197}, ftjiri 
programs operating m all States except Hawaii and Alaska Par- 
ticipating were 250,000 children, the majority of whom were j.n 
kindergarten through sixth grade. Ten States were selected for princi- 
ple study, based on their high percentages of migratory worker*. 
Migrant children fall behind their nonmigram conterparis in grade 
level and achievement, most markedly in the (bird and fourth grades 
This may indicate a deficiency in basic reading and arithmetic skills* 
Most migrant students drop out of school before the ninth grad* h 
most, however, would like to remain in school in spite of economic 
and academic pressures Migrant parents expressed satisfaction wiih 
the experiences of their children in school, and most desiied that 
their children go on to postsecondary education Real and perched 
academic failure and frustration are powerful factors in the dropout 
pattern. A possible solution is a secondary program providing eco- 
nomic support, effective remedial work, and a clear sequence of 
activities aimed toward the career goals of the students and iheir 
parents, 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION 



530 

United States Benefits of Improved Worldwide Wheat Crop Information 
front a Landsat System. 

Klaus P. Heiss. E CON. Inc. 76-122-1B. January 31, 1976, 240 pp 
Agancy Sponsoring Evaluation: National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 

A 8 eney Managing Program: National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration: Office of Applications 
Programs Evaluated: Space Applications 

Budget Function General Science, Space, and Technology: Space 
Science. Applications, and Technology (254), 
Authority: National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 as 
amended (42 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.). 

Public Availability: National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion; Office of Policy Analysis; Washington, DC 20546 



benefits can be obatined in agriculture from 
benefits to the United States of such public 
CropS are> On hc averfl ge, S174 mil- 
:rue directiy to US. consumers in 
are production 
lemand. These 



-.., 

..... 4wvui4re and objective worldwide wheat crop 
information using space systems may have a very stabilizing infiu- 
ence on world commodity markets, in part making possible the estab- 
Jishment of long term stable trade relationships. 

138 



OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 

532 

Outreach of the Nutrition Program for the Elderly, 

Opinion Research Corp., Princeton, NJ. EDC 502. December 

1975. 196 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Administration on Aging, 
Agency Managing Program: Office of Human Development 
Progromi Evaluated; Aging-Nutrition Program (13.635) 
Budget Function: Education, Manpower, and Social Services (300). 
Authority: Older Americans Act of 1965, as amended (P.L. 39-73. 
42 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.). P L. 90-42. P.L. 91-69. P.L. 92-258. P.L 
93-29 P.L 93-351. P.L. 94-135. 
Public Availability: NT1S; Document No SHR 000135fr 

This study investigates the quality of the outreach component o! 
the Aging Nutrition program. Outreach involves efforts made to 
inform people of the existence and nature of the program and to 
recruit eligible persons. Questions included whether outreach was 
needed or used in [he initial filling of sites, used for replacement 
purposes, or used on a continuing basis to reach the needy. Inter- 
views were conducted with 2,000 randomly selected persons, bolh 
participants at 30 nutrition program sites and others living in the 
areas served by the sites. The study found that sites lend to be cither 
"open" (in which participants come once or twice a week and nutri- 
tion is a primary goal) or "needy" (in which participants eat four to 
five times a week, and nutrition is considered relatively Jess impor- 
tant than socialization). Outreach at open sites is mostly by word of 
mouth and at needy sites is heavily promoted by personal contacl 
Participants at the sites were found to be better off than nonpartict- 
pants in terms of both nutrition and mental health, although, of 
course, this cannot be attributed more to the program than lo self- 
selection. Recommendations concern overall project direction, aieas 

Food 



federal Program Evaluation! on Food 



536 



of interest to project personnel at the local level, and future evalua- 
tion. 



SOCIAL AND REHABILITATION SERVICE 



charged to HEW public assistance and State-supported programs. 
The State took corrective action on procedures pertaining (o county 
administrative and overhead costs, data procedures pertaining to 
county administrative and overhead costs, data processing overhead 
costs, and postage costs. The State generally concurred. 



H3 

Public Assistance-Allocation of Costs to Administer the Food Stamp and 
Food Distribution Programs, Georgia. 
EDC 1129. January 1977. 19 pp. 

Agenty Sponiortng Evaluation: Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare: Assistant Inspector General for Auditing. 
Agency Managing Program: Social and Rehabilitation Service 
Programs Evaluated: Public Assistance-Maintenance Assistance 
(Slate and Local Administration) (13.761) 

Budget Function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

Authority: Social Security Act of 1935, as amended (P.L. 74-271; 42 
U.S.C. 601 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; 42 U S.C. 1351 et seq.). 
(P.L. 86-571; 24 U.S.C. 321 et seq.). 

The allocation of costs for administering the Food Stamp pro- 
gram by the Georgia Department of Human Resources was audited 
from 1974 through 1976. The major objective was to ascertain if 
amounts claimed for Federal financial participation were limited to 
only those costs involved in reviewing the eligibility of public assist- 
ance recipients for the food stamp program. A secondary objective 
was to evaluate the adequacy of State agency instructions to county 
agencies on claiming Federal financial participation for costs as- 
sociated with operating the food stamp program. Cost allocation 
procedures by the Department of Human Resources were generally 
adequate with regard to public assistance and food programs. Cost 
allocation procedures were not satisfactory for joint county workers 
who were not properly allocated to the food stamp program Before 
October 1975, only salaries, fringe benefits, and travel costs svere 
directly charged to public assistance and nonpublic assistance pro- 
grams. Other costs, such as equipment, supplies, and data processing, 
were charged indirectly. It was recommended that steps be taken to 
implement the direct costing method. Georgia's Department of Hu- 
man Resources essentially agreed with the findings of the audit. 



TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 



535 

Analysis and Review of the Valley Agricultural Resource Development 
Program. 

Billy J. Bond, Porter L. Russ November 11, 1975. 65 pp. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Tennessee Valley Authority Office 
of Agricultural and Chemical Development. 

Agency Managing Program: Tennessee Valley Authority: Div. of 
Agricultural Development 

Program! Evaluated: Regional Resources Development 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Water Resources and Power (301); Agriculture: Agricultural Re- 
search and Services (352). 

Authority: Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933, as amended (16 
U.S.C. 12A). 

This document reviews and evaluates the status of The Tennessee 
Valley Authority's (TV A) regional agricultural resource develop- 
ment program. Included are an analysis of the program, including 
current program objectives and program activities associated with 
these objectives; a description of the internal and external environ- 
ment under which the program functions; and recommendations for 
changes in direction and emphasis. Based on the evaluation, future 
program activities will be directed to increasing Food production 
output; improving lime and fertilizer use; improving production effi- 
ciency, lessening the impact of input cost increases; improving re- 
source allocation and financial management; developing a needed 
marketing infrastructure; reducing the conversions of good cropland 
from agriculture; introducing high-yielding, high income enterprises 
to reduce land use pressures; testing and introducing new TVA fertil- 
izers; giving special attention to low income rural families; and fur- 
ther developing beneficial uses of waste heat from TVA powerplants 
for agricultural production. 



534 

Review of HEW^s Participation in the Cost of Administering the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture's Food Stamp Program in Oklahoma. 
EDC 1113. January 1977. 21 pp. 

Agoncy Sponsoring! Evaluation: Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare: Assistant Inspector General for Auditing. 
Agency Managing Program: Social and Rehabilitation Service 
Piograim Evaluatad: Public Assistance-Maintenance Assistance 
(Stale and Local Administration) (13.761) 

Budget Function: Income Security: Public Assistance and Other In- 
come Supplements (604). 

Authority: Social Security Act of 1935, as amended (P.L. 74-271; 42 
U S.C. 601 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 1351 et seq.). 
(P.L. 86-571; 24 U.S.C. 321 et seq.). 

Oklahoma's Department of Institutions, Social, and Rehabilita- 
tive Services was audited from July 1, 1972, through December 31, 
1975, to evaluate its administration of the Food Stamp program. It 
was found that the State did not charge costs totaling $562,673 to 
the Food Stamp program due to an oversight. Due to this oversight, 
$560,899 was incorrectly charged to HEW. During the audit period, 
the State did not allocate all administrative, travel, and other county 
overhead costs to the program. Other cost allocation errors were 
made with regard to data processing overhead costs and postage 
costs, The State did not allocate to the Food Stamp program any 
costs related to the data processing of case information, even though 
such information was employed to determine the eligibility of recipi- 
ents for Food Stamps. Costs for processing case information were 



536 

Fertilizer Research and Development Program Evaluation. 
Charles H. Davis. October 1975. 69 pp. 

Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Tennessee Valley Authority: Office 
of Agricultural and Chemical Development. 

Agancy Managing Program: Tennessee Valley Authority; Div. of 
Chemical Development 

Program* Evaluated: National Fertilizer Development 
Budget Function: Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Water Resources and Power (301); Agriculture: Agricultural Re- 
search and Services (352). 

Authority: Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933, as amended (16 
U.S.C. 12a). 

The evaluation contains background, description of the present 
program, the external situation, objectives of the future Tennessee 
Valley Authority Fertilizer Research and Development program, 
and implementation of the future program. Broad interrelated objec- 
tives of the program for 1976-81 were formulated to satisfy pressing 
national needs. Achieving these objectives will require more empha- 
sis on basic research. These objectives are: completing conversion of 
the demonstration plant processes to utilization of wet-process phos- 
phoric acid and urea, continuing to improve existing technology, 
increasing the efficiency of fertilizer utilization, minimizing pollu- 
tion, conserving natural resources, decreasing energy consumption, 
and developing technology independent of petroleum and natural gas 
feedstock or energy. Specific projects to be emphasized in the next 



Food 



139 



536 



Federal Program Evaluation* on 



5 years are identified. The two of highest priority are ammonia from 
coal (an investigative phase report has been prepared, November 5, 
1976) and utilization of marginal or low-grade phosphate rock Oth- 
ers include:, con [rolled-release fertilizers, processes that conserve en- 
ergy by utilization of the heat of chemical reactions, recovery of 
uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid, and bridging the gap 
between recovered sulfur byproducts of the electric power industry 
and the fertilizer industry. Management strategy and resource re- 
quirements of the future program are described. 



537 

The Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer Introduction Pro- 
gram. 

Billy J. Bond. Circular 2-79. April 1977. 49 pp. 
Agency Sponsoring Evaluation: Tennessee Valley Authority: Office 
of Agricultural and Chemical Development. 

Agency Managing Program: Tennessee Valley Authority Office of 
Agricultural and Chemical Development 
Programs Evaluated: National Fertilizer Development 
Budget Function; Natural Resources, Environment, and Energy: 
Water Resources and Power {301); Agriculture: Agricultural Re- 
search and Services (352), 

Authority: Tennessee Valley Authority Act or 1 933, as amended (16 
U.S.C. 12A) 

Chemical fertilizers are the lifeblood of modern American 
agriculture, The National Fertilizer Development Center of the 
Tennessee Valley Authority (TV A) is the primary source of new 
technology for making better fertilizers and more effective use of the 
resources used in fertilizer manufacture. This report highlights major 
contributions of fertilizers and fertilizer technology to the United 
Slates and to the world during the last 4 decades. It identifies specific 
impacts of fertilizers on increased agricultural producation, food 
prices and dietary practices, soil conservation, and the Nation's eco- 
nomic posture; and it presents an analysis of the critical importance 
of TVA's fertilizer development and introduction programs-both to 
date and for the future-to the efficiency of American agriculture and 
to all consumers The TVA fertilizer program has one of the most 
effective introduction processes of any Government agency, and a 
strong introduction program is necessary; otherwise most new fertil- 
izer technology will not move into the economy to ultimately benefit 
farmers and consumers. An array of promising new products that can 
be expected to change the face of the entire industry within the next 
decade is contained in the present introductory program. Diminished 
effectiveness will result without sufficient tonnages of products for 
testing and development. The 1978 plans include a minimum level 
of fertilizer to be distributed in an introduction program. This level 
is inadequate for a ftilly effective program for the future. 



140 



Food 



Major Food Legislation 

Citations in this appendix relate to significant food-related legislation enacted through the 95th Congress, First 
Session, 



538 



Food and Drugs Act of 1906 (P.L. 59-384; 34 Stat. 
76B). 

This act was the first Federal food and drug law. It was updated 
by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (52 Stat. 1040) 
which provided authority for the broad and varied regulation of food, 
drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices. The act prohibited the adul- 
teration or misbranding of all such products. Further, it set forth 
specific, premarketing requirements regarding certain drugs, food 
additives, and color additives, The act was last amended in 1976 by 
the Health Research and Health Services Amendments of 1976 (90 
Stat. 539). 



539 

Packers and Stockyards Act [of] 1921 (P.L. 67-51; 42 
Stat. 159). 

This act was designed to regulate interstate and foreign com- 
merce in livestock, livestock products, dairy products, poultry, 
poultry products, and eggs. The general provisions of the act: (1) 
required that accounts and records of business be kept and set out 
punishments for failure to do so; (2) authorized the Federal Trade 
Commission to enforce the act; (3) named the Attorney General to 
institute court proceedings for enforcement; and (4) authorized the 
Secretary of Agriculture to set rules and regulations for administra- 
tion, of ihe act. The act was last amended September 13, 1976 by P.L. 
94-4 10 to: (1) establish a statutory trust to protect the public interest 
from inadequate financing; (2) give authority to the Secretary to 
request a temporary injunction or restraining order; (3) call for 
prompt payment for purchase of livestock; and (4) give Federal 
preemption of State and local requirements. 



540 

Capper- Volstead Act of 1922; Co-operative Marketing 
Associations Act (P.L. 67-146; 42 Stat. 388), 

This act enabled persons engaged In the production of agricul- 
tural products (such as farmers, planters, ranchmen, dairymen, and 
nut or fruit growers) to act together In associations, corporate or 
otherwise, with or without capital stock in collectively processing, 
preparing for market handling, and marketing in interstate and fo- 
reign commerce. 



541 



Grain Futures Act (P.L. 67-331; 42 Stat. 998). 

The act set forth prohibitions in dealing in commodity futures, 
designated businesses engaged in buying, selling, or receiving grain 
for sale or consignment as "boards of trade," and set conditions and 

Food 



requirements for their operation. It also set guidelines for coopera- 
tives and corporations, required reports by the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture and registration of commissioned merchants and brokers, and 
included commodity futures trading under the provisions of the In- 
terstate Commerce Act. The act was amended June 1 5, 1936, chang- 
ing the name to the "Commodity Exchange Act." The act was most 
recently amended by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission 
Act of 1974 (P.L, 93-463) to establish the Commodity Futures Trad- 
ing Commission. 



542 

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 
1935 (P.L. 74-46; 49 Stat. 163). 

This act combined the objective of promoting soil conservation 
and profitable use of agricultural resources with that of reestablishing 
and maintaining farm income at fair levels. The goal of income parity 
was introduced into legislation for the first time. A third major objec- 
tive of the act was to allow for the protection of consumers by 
assuring adequate supplies of food and fiber. This act was last 
amended by the Rural Development Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-419). 



543 



Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (P.L. 74-605; 49 Stat. 
1363). 

The act established the Rural Electrification Administration 
(REA) as a lending agency with responsibility for developing a pro- 
gram for rural electrification. The act was amended in 1949 authoriz- 
ing REA to make loans to improve and extend telephone service in 
rural areas. In 1973 authority to guarantee loans made by non-REA 
lenders was authorized by an amendment. This act was last amended 
by the Rural Electrification Administration Technical Amendments 
Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-570). These amendments corrected unintended 
inequities in the interest rate criteria for REA borrowers. 



544 

Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (P.L. 75-430; 52 
Stat. 31). 

This act combined the conservation program of 1936 legislation 
with new features designed to meet drought emergencies as well as 
price and income crises resulting from surplus production. Marketing 
control was substituted for direct production control, and authority 
was based on congressional power to regulate interstate and foreign 
commerce. Title V of this act established the Federal Crop Insurance 
Corporation to insure wheat producers against unavoidable losses in 
production. 

141 



545 



Mojor Food 



545 

Department of Agriculture Organic Act of 1944 (P.L. 
78-425; 58 Stat. 734). 

This act provided for the control and eradication of certain ani- 
mal and plant pests and diseases, cooperation with the states in fire 
control in National forests, application of agricultural conservation 
and related programs, operation of the Farm Credit Administration 
and the Rural Electrification Administration, and orderly marketing 
of agricultural commodities. This act was last amended in 1976 (P.L 
94-231) to clarify the authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to 
control and eradicate plant pests and for other purposes. 



546 

National School Lunch Act (P.L. 79-396; 60 Stat. 230). 

The act was designed to safeguard the health and well-being of 
the Nation's children and to encourage the domestic consumption of 
nutritious agricultural commodities and other food. This was to be 
accomplished by assisting the States in providing an adequate supply 
of foods and other facilities for the establishment, maintenance, oper- 
ation, and expansion of nonprofit school lunch programs. The act was 
last amended in 1977 by the National School Lunch Act and Child 
Nutrition Amendments of 1977 (P,L. 95-166; 91 Stat 1325). 



547 

Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (P.L, 79-733; 60 
Stat. 1087). 

This act set out the duties of the Secretary of Agriculture relating 
to agricultural products, stated the basis for allotment of funds to 
States and the minimum sum for contracting, and required coopera- 
tion between Federal and State agencies. The act was last amended 
by the Education Amendments of 1972 (P.L, 92-318). 



543 

Agricultural Act of 1948 (P.L. 80-897; 62 Stat. 1247). 



requiring the level of support to be based on supply. Price supports 
for most feed grains became mandatory. 



550 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Ael of 
1954 (P.L. 83-480; 68 Stat. 454; 7 U.S.C. 1704), 

This act served as the basic authority to sell surplus agrieullurij 
commodities for foreign currency, mafce shipments for emereeKr 
relief, and, barter farm products for strategic material. The ad di- 
rected that the President: (1) give priority consideration to truliu 
available the maximum feasible volume of food coinmodiiiei rt- 
quired by those countries most seriously affected by food ilwtiEH 
and by inability to meet immediate food requirements on a norcal 
commercial basis; (2) continue to urge all traditional and poiewjl 
new donors of food, fertilizer, or the means of financing these ccc> 
modities to increase their participation in efforts to addr$ the eratr- 
gency and longer term food needs of the developing \voild;<i)re^M 
U.S. assistance to efforts by aid-receiving countries to increase rttfr 
own agricultural production (with emphasis on devcloprotnl d 
small, family farms) and distribution of food commodities, <,4)fct 
special consideration to the potential for expanding Amerki'i 
agricultural markets abroad in the allocation of commwUtSei a 
concessional financing; and (5) give appropriate recognition and 5.;. 
port to a strong and viable American farm economy in piovidi ng fd 
security for foreign and domestic consumers. This act 
by the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-] 13). 



551 



Agricultural Act of 1954 (P.L. 83-690; G8 Slat. 910). 

This act established price supports for the basic comiuodilictci 
a flexible basis. The transition to flexible support was 
set asides of basic commodities. Special provisions were 
various commodities. 



If producers had approved marketing quotas, the act provided 
mandatory price support at 90% of parity for the 1949 crops of wheat, 
corn, rice, peanuts (marketed as nuts), cotton, and tobacco marketed 
before June 30, 1950, The act authorized the Secretary of Agriculture 
to require compliance with production goals and marketing regula- 
tions as a condition of eligibility for price support to producers of all 
nonbasic commodities marketed in 1949. This act was superseded by 
the Agricultural Act of 1 949 which set support prices for basic com- 552 

modities at 90% of parity for 1950 and between 80 and 90% for 1951 

crops. These supports were effective if producers had not disap- Agricultural Act of 1956 (P.L, 84-540: 70 Sin! IBS) 

proved marketing quotas or (except for tobacco) if acreage allot- " 

ments or marketing quotas were in effect. The act also provided for The Soil Bank was established under this *ci The Soil Ju- 

loans to cooperatives for the construction of storage facilities and for , . . "" ww MI. IM ion &, 

certain changes with respect to acreage allotment and marketing pr 8 am Was desl 8 ned to adjust supply and demand of a^J^ 

quota provisions. products by taking farmland out of production. The program n 

divided into two parts, an acreage reserve and a con wrvi lion ntov 
The specific objective of the acreage reserve w*s to redu 
amount of land planted to allotment crops. Under ill lermj. firus 
cut land planted to these crops below established allotment! wit* 
base acreage and received payments for diverting Uiij lind to COCK 
vation. The last year of the program was 1958. AH hmen w 
participate in the conservation reserve by designating crofU&jx 
using it for conservation, 



549 



Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L, 81-439; 68 Stat. 1051). 

This act made innovations in the cotton and corn support pro- 
grams. It also provided for continuation of supports for rice without 

142 



Mo] or Food legislation 



559 



553 

Poultry Products Inspection Act (P.L. 85-172; 71 Stat. 
441). 

This ael provided for the inspection of poultry and poultry pro- 
ducts and regulated the processing and distribution of such articles 
to prevent the movement or sale in interstate or foreign commerce 
of adulterated or misbranded poultry products. The Wholesome 
Poultry Products Act (P L. 90-492; 82 Stat. 791, August 18, 1968) 
amended the original act by: (1) adding provisions that diseased 
poultry and poultry products would be condemned through uniform 
inspection standards, supported by scientific fact or criteria; and (2) 
striking out the provisions that provided for inspection by the inspec- 
tion service to prevent the movement (in interstate commerce or 
foreign commerce or in a designated major consuming area) of un- 
wholesome of adulterated poultry products. 



554 



Food Stamp Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-525; 78 Stat. 703). 

The purpose of this act was to promote the distribution of the 
country's agricultural abundance to lower income households to al- 
leviate hunger and malnutrition in these households. The act author- 
ized the Secretary to set up the coupon program, determine eligibility 
requirements for households, and regulate the issuance of the cou- 
pons This act was last amended by the Food and Agricultural Act 
of 1977 (P,L. 95-113). 



555 



Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 (P.L. 
89-4; 79 Stat. 12). 

This act provided for the control and prevention of erosion and 
sediment damages in the Appalachian region and promoted the con- 
servation and development of the soil and water resources of the 
region. The Secretary was authorized to enter into agreements of not 
more than 10 years with landowners, operators, and occupiers, in- 
dividually or collectively, in the Appalachian region. The agrements 
provided for land stabilization, erosion and sediment control, recla- 
mation, and conservation. This act was last amended by the Appala- 
chian Regional Development Act Amendments of 1975 (P.L. 
94-188). 



tary feed grain program begun in 1964. The rice program was con- 
tinued, but an acreage diversion program similar to the one covering 
wheat would become effective whenever the national acreage allot- 
ment for rice was reduced below the 1965 figure. This act established 
a Cropland Adjustment Program, which authorized the Secretary to 
enter into 5- to 10-year contracts with farmers. These contracts 
called for converting cropland in order to conserve water, soil, wild- 
life, or forest resources; OF establish, protect, or conserve open 
spaces, national beauty, wildlife or recreational resources; or prevent 
air or water pollution. 



557 

Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-642; 80 Stat. 
885). 

The objective of this act was to strengthen and e\pand the food 
service programs for children. The act authorized the special milk 
and school breakfast programs and also authorized a nonfood assist- 
ance program for the States. This act was last amended by the Na- 
tional School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act Amendments of 1977 
(P.L. 95-166). 



558 



Agricultural Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-524; 84 Stat. 1358). 

This act established a 3-year program that discontinued the use 
of acreage allotments and marketing quotas for wheat, upland cotton, 
and feed grains. To qualify for price support, the farmer was required 
to keep a specific percentage of his cropland out of production, with 
this acreage set aside for conservation use. He could then grow 
whatever he wished on his remaining land except for the crops that 
remained under controls-the so-called quota crops-because of earlier 
legislation not affected by the new act. The act also authorized pay- 

[tl^ntc tn Kf>F>V p/>ntro vuhn thrmioli nn Fniilt r\f t-Vi^ir fiuiti horl ciiffor 



556 



Food and Agriculture Act of 1965 (P.L. 89-321; 79 
Stat. 1206). 

Milk was one of the commodities covered by this act. After 
producers in a milk marketing area had approved an overall plan 
authorized by this legislation, each dairy producer in a milk market- 
ing area received a fluid milk base, which allowed him to cut surplus 
production. This act extended the Wool Act of 1954 and the volun- 



Food 



559 



Major FoodLeliTrrtii 



sugar consumers and those engaged in the domestic sugar producing 
industry; and to promote the export trade of the United States. The 
1971 act authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to implement a U.S. 
sugar program. To accomplish this the Secretary established the 
Sugar Division of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation 
Service (ASCS), U.S. Department of Agriculture. 



vented from planting any portion of allotments because of drought, 
flood, or natural disaster, or other conditions beyond their conircl 
The Secretary was directed to determine and apportion naiuial acre- 
age allotments for wheat, feed grains, and upland cotton Public U* 
83-480 was extended for another 4 years. Long term contracts for L? 
to 25 years were authorized for the Rural Environmental Conservt- 
tion Program and the Waterbank Program, and the dairy and beel- 
eeper indemnity programs were continued. 



560 

Farm Credit Act of 1971 (P. L. 92-181; 85 Stat. 583). 

This act directed that the Farm Credit System come under the 
supervision of Ehe Farm Credit Administration. The purpose of the 
System was to provide further sound, adequate, and constructive 
credit to American farmers and ranchers. The Farm Credit System 
includes: Federal land banks, the Federal land bank associations, the 
Federal intermediate credit banks, the production credit association, 
and the banks foi cooperatives. This act was last amended in 1975 
by the Farm Credit Act of 1971 amendments (P.L. 94-184). 



563 



Egg Research and Consumei Information Act (P.L. 91- 
428; 88 Stat. 1171). 

The act authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to establish aid 
appoint an Egg Board to administer the act to insure an effective aii 
continuous coordinated program of research, consumer and pro- 
ducer education, designed to strengthen the egg industry's positira 
in the marketplace, and maintain and expand domestic and foieign 
markets and uses for eggs, egg products, spent fowl, and products rf 
spent fowl of the United States." 



561 

Rural Development Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-419; 86 Stat. 
657). 

The general purpose of the act was to provide for improving the 
economy and living conditions of rural America, The act amended 
the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961, The 
Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (P.L. 83-566), and 
the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act (7 USC 101 1). The act also 
authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to provide financial, techni- 
cal, and other assistance to the Slates to prevent, control, and sup- 
press wildfires threatening human life, livestock, wildlife, crops, 
pastures, orchards, ran gel and, woodland, farmsteads, or any other 
improvements. The Secretary was also authorized to cooperate and 
e with colleges and universities to provide the essential 
eccssary for successful rural development programs. 
is set out in the act were: Rural Development Exten- 



564 

Federal Land Policy, and Management Act of 1976 (P.L. 
94-579; 90 Stat. 2743). 

This act called for the establishment of public land policy tzi 
contained guidelines for its admin is Iration. It also provided for the 
management, protection, development, and enhancement of pubtc 
lands, This public law amended the Arid Lund Act of 188! (25 Ssit 
526) which originally set aside funds for: (1) investigating the(,l 
to which the arid regions of the United States could be redeemed t j 
irrigation; and (2) the selection of sites for reservoirs and oth-tr 
hydraulic work necessary for storage of water for irrigation The 
1976 act repealed the provisions of the 18&8 act dealing wilh At 
reservation of reservoir sites. The 1976 act also extended U S. re- 
served water rights include Indian reservations and other 
lands. 



565 

United States Grain Standards Act of 1976 (P.L. 94- 
582; 90 Stat. 2867). 

The act established within the Department of Agriculture tfae 
Federal Grain Inspection Service to administer Inspection and 
weighing requirements for grain shipped oulaidc the United Stales, 
prescribe, charge, and collect inspection fees to cover costs of inspec- 
tion; conduct inspections of grain inspection operations; and assea 
penalties on violators of the act. 



Food 



MO]OT Food Leglilalion 554 

546 

Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-113; 91 
Stat.9l3;7U.S.C. 1281). 

The act extended for 4 years the commodity, Food for Peace 
<P L. 83-480), and food stamp programs which would have expired 
on September 30, 1977 The cost of the act is estimated at $11 billion 
a year, with over $5 billion of that going into the food stamp program. 
Some of the major provisions of the act include (1) increased wheat 
and corn target prices and loan rates; (2) a sugar support program; 
(3) a mandatory soybean loan program with an unspecified floor; (4) 
a fined instead of variable milk price support program; (5) indemnity 
payments to dairy farmers for losses due to toxic substances; (6) ice 
cream quality standards designed to limit use of whey and casein; (7) 
increased payment limitations on most grains; (8) provision for a 3-5 
year grain reserve of 300-700 million bushels; (9) authorization for 
the President to negotiate an international emergency food reserve; 
<10> authority to establish set-aside programs; (11) increased funding 
for P.L. 480, (12) an expanded agricultural research and education 
program; (13) provision that the government pay 100% of the super- 
visory cost of federal grain inspection; (14) a provision directing 
USDA to "develop and implement a national food and human nutri- 
tion research and extension program;" (15) a food stamp program 
eliminating the purchase requirement; and (16) revisions to the crop 
disaster program that include elimination of the "historical acreage" 
allotment 



Food 145 



Includes entries under descriptors (representing subject matter), identifiers (representing proper names), 
and short titles of laws in one alphabetic sequence. 

Sample entry: 



)escnptor 

Food Aid 

e The Overseas Food Donation Program : 

Its Constraints and Problems 
(Report) 000 

Type of Publication / 

Accession Number 



iui .L i~- . r. , - , Identifier 

Wheat Export Subsidy Program 

Russian Wheat Sales and Weaknesses ' Tl1te 

in Agriculture's Management of 
Wheat Export Subsidy Program 
(Report) 000 



Type of Publication 



Accession Number 



Accountability Procedure* 

U S. Grant Support of International 
Planned Parenthood Federation 
Needs Better Oversight (Report) 



Accounting 

Audit of Commodity Credit Corpora- 
lion, Fiscal Year 1973 (Report) 

Audit of Federal Crop Insurance Cor- 
poration for Fiscal Year 1973 (Report) 

Audit of (he Food Service Contract 
with Marriott Corporation (Report) 

Review of HEW's Participation in the 
Cost of Administering the U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture's Food 
Stamp Program in Oklahoma 



Accounting Errors 

Report of Task Force on Farm Income 
Estimates 



Accounting Syitemi 

Farmers Home Administration's Deter- 
mination of the Value of the Govern- 
ment's Equity Transferred to the 
Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund 
(Report) 



Accreditation 

The Environmental Protection Agen- 
cy's Determination of Pesticide Data 
Reliability (Report) 



153 



I mpact of the Sel- Aside Program on the 
U.S. Wheat Acreages 

Use of Land Reserves to Control 
Agricultural Production 



193 

1P2 
203 

534 



505 



204 



044 



474 
523 



Additive* 

Need to Establish Safety and Effective- 
ness of Antibiotics Used in Anima! 
Feeds (Report) 056 

Need to Resolve Safety Questions on 
Saccharin (Report) 050 

Regulation of the Food Additive Aspar- 
tame (Report) 047 

Use of Cancer-Causing Drugs in Food- 
Producing Animals May Pose Public 
Health Hazard: The Case of Nitrofu- 
rans (Report) 046 



Admlnlttratlve Cotti 

Audit of Federal Crop Insurance Cor- 
poration for Fiscal Year 1973 (Report) 

Review of HEW's Participation in the 
Cost of Administering the U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture's Food 
Stamp Program in Oklahoma 



192 



534 



Administrative Procedures 

Review of Practices, Procedures, and 
Controls to Prevent Spoilage or Theft 
of Federal Commodities. Donated to 
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
for Food Relief Programs (Report) 029 



Advertlting 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition 
and the Consumer, II: A Working Pa- 
per (Report) 217 

National Nutrition- Policy Study; Re- 
port and Recommendation, VII (Re- 
port) 228 

National Nutrition Policy: The Food 
Industry, Its Resources and Activities 
in Food Production and Nutrition: A 
Working Paper (Report) 206 

The Role of the Federal Government m 
Nutrition Education (Report) 249 



Afghan Fertilizer Company 

Afghan Fertilizer Company and Chec- 
chi and Company Advisory Teem 



Africa 

Agricultural Credit Project No. 621-11- 
1140-117 

Central African Livestock Production 
and Marketing Project 

Central Veterinary Laboratory (1961- 
1976} Ministry of Production, 
Bamako, Mali-Project 625-610 

Impact of Population Assistance to an 
African Country (Report) 

Liberia Agricultural Programming 

The Masai Livestock and Range Man- 
agement (Kenya) 

Problems in Managing U.S. Food Aid to 
Chad (Report) 

The Progress of the National Maize 
Project at the End of One Cropping 
Season in Morogoro and Arush Re- 
gions (Tanzania) 

Regional Organizations Development: 
Africa Cooperative Savings and 
Credit Association/Directed Agricul- 
tural Production Credit 

The Thabo Bosiu Rural Development 
Project in Lesotho 



Agribusiness 

Exporters' Profits on Sales of U.S. 
Wheat to' Russia (Report) 

National Nutrition Policy Study! Re- 
port and Recommendation, I (Report) 

Report to ROCAP-Agro Business 
Evaluation (Small Farmer Participa- 
tion) 

U.S. Food Exports: Supplying the 
World's Food Needs (Staff study) 



Agricultural Act of 1948 

(Digest of Law) 



380 

362 
388 

390 

155 

402 

403 
122 

407 

403 
415 

134 

222 

409 



Food 



548 

147 



Agricultural Act of 1949 

(Digest of Law) 



Agricultural Act of 1954 

(Digest of Law) 



Act of 1956 

(Digest of Law) 



Agricultural Act of 1970 

(Digest of Law) 



Agricultural Adjustment Act 
(Digest of Law) 



Agricultural Astlitance 

Afghan Fertilizer Company and Chec- 
chi and Company Advisory Team 

Agency for International Development 
Loan and Grant Assistance to the 
Agricultural Sector (Guatemala) 

Agricultural Research Project No. 621- 
11-1 10-107 (Tanzania) 

Alleviating Agricultural Producers' 
Crop Losses: Whal Should the Fed- 
eral Role Be? {Report) 

Annual Report an Public Law 480 

Assessment and Field RevEcw of Water 
Management Research by Colorado 
State University (Pakistan) 

Assessment Report on the- Haiti Small 
Coffee Farmer Project andthe Bureau 
dc Credit Agricole 

Capitalization of Farm Program Bene- 
fits into Land Values 

The Centra! Hclmand Drainage Project 
(Phase I) 

Central Veterinary Laboratory (1961- 
1976) Ministry of Production, Bam- 
ako, Mali-Project 625-* 10 

Colombia Small Farmer Technology 

Distribution of Farm Program Pay- 
ments by Income of Sole Proprietors 

Evaluacion Final del Programs de 
DesarrolloAgropecuario (1971*1974) 

Evaluation of Extension Activity and 
Recommendations 

Evaluation of the Italian Identified Soy- 
bean Oil Promotion 

Federal Assistance to Quechan Indian 
Tnbe for Controlled Environment 
Agricultural Program {Report} 

Federal Subsidy Programs (Kepott) 

A Pol low-Up Study of Attitudes of Par- 
ticipants In US. Department of 
' ' 'vinpia 1974 



54? 



551 



552 



544 

380 

3&1 
313 



171 
355 



3S5 

366 
41:7 
3 a? 

3PO 
3P1 

4J7 



455 

062 
253 

465 
3?fl 

285 



Report on Activities Pursuant to Title 
XII of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1975 

Report to ROCAP-Agro BusmessEval- 
uation (Small Farmer Participation) 

Rest notions on Using More Fertilizer 
for Food Crops in Developing Coun- 
tries (Report) 

Review of Governmental Affairs Insti- 
tute-Agricultural Sector Implementa- 
tion Project 

Review of the Rice Council for Market 
Development Brand Incentive Pro- 
gram 

Rural Cooperatives in Guatemala; A 
Study of Their Development and 
Evaluation of AID Programs in Their 
Support 

Secretaria dc Estado de Agricultural 
Programs Nacional de Desarrollo 
Agricula para el Pequeno Agrlcultor 
(Agricultural Sector-T-027) 

Small Farmer Risk Taking 

Some Problems Impeding Economic 
Improvement of Small-Farm Opera- 
tions 1 What the Department of 
Agriculture Could Do (Report) 

Summary of GAO Reports Issued Since 
1973 Pertaining lo Farm Bill Legisla- 
tion (Report) 

Technical As si stance- Agricultural Eco- 
nomic Research and Planning 

The Thaba Bosiu Rural Development 
Project in Lesotho 

The United States Should Play a 
Greater Role in the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization of the United 
Nations (Report) 

U.S. Participation in International Food 
Organizations: Problems and Issues 
(Staff study) 

Water Management Research by Utah 
State University (Latin America) 

World Food Conference (Report) 



Agricultural Attache* 

The Agricultural Attache Role Over- 
seas: What He Does and How He Can 
Be More Effective for the United 
States (Report) 



Agricultural C horn leal* 

Afghan Fertilizer Company and Chec- 
chl and Company Advisory Team 

Fertilizer Research and Development 
Program Evaluation 

Pesticides in the Aquatic Environ- 
ment 

Restrictions on Using More Fertilizer 
for Food Crops in Developing Coun- 
tries (Report) 

The Tennessee Valley Authority's Na- 
tional Fertilizer Introduction Pro- 

gram , 

orld Fertilizer Market, Information 

System 



374 



409 



095 



410 



503 



Agricultural Colleges 

Financial and Technical A**' * ' a nce tcJ 
Non-Metropolitan planning DJ * 



412 
413 



064 

174 
414 

415 

162 

163 

524 
264 



141 



380 
536 
375 

095 

537 
351 



tricts 



Agricultural CommotJIMo* 
Administration of Mnrkclirig 

Fresh Fruits and Vegetable* 
Appraising the Effects nf the 

tural Act of 1970 upon 1 1 ri u 

Economy 
Audit of Commodity rrcuili t' 

lion. Fiscal Year 197} fflff*' rfi 
Audit of Commodity frc 

lion, Fiscal Year 197-1 f 



Costs of Producing li -- 

the United States; Iff S J976 r 



Projections for 15)77 

Do Retail Food Prices At*;u it I CD l 

Price Changes without Urnluc l* 

Report on the Data Av mlM^ an-1 

quired to Answer Thm Q*'** n " n 
port) 

Economic Conscqticni.es 
Farm Commodity Pi 



"*!ri 
^A 
R- 



Economic Impact of frojHtscJ < tis-ijd 
m Beef Grades 

Evaluation of the USDA 1'VmJ Si-f;>, 
Release, Food Market Inn Alcd 

Evaluation of the U.S E 5 c pa 1 1 ir, c f-i tl 
Agriculture Food Sujiply Herfi. 1 -.', 

Food Marketing Alcn 

Examination of Fitndi A p pi of 1 1> ! f ^1 1, t 
Economic and Foml AI<1 in I nJ., n> -: i 
(Report) 

Farm and Food Policy, lfl7J ifttpvr) 

Impact of Cashing Dullhe J'tn-1 D,nr,- 
butlon Program 

Impact of Russian (train I'uri f*,^i t T, 
Retail Pood nrul I'ntru Pik<i -! 
Farm Income in Iho |O7J 4*i,'p Vcu 
(Report) 

Impact of USDA I'rtJflrarm ur>^ W jJ 
Cooperatives 

Implications of TJIscsiniifiuin.! ! ""DA 
Commodity Acqultiilnn* r,-1 |> c/> 
button Aclivltlca 

Implications of DbtoniJo 
Commodity Acqufi!d(Mi 
butlon Aclivill 

Improvements Needed Id 
Commodity FtiUilcs T( ftili 

Investigation of Rail SKijipinj 
tween Specified Points, 

Lessons to be Learned frum i!v Vf t - 

agement of CoramrxHiwi* Rc*4..> 

from Terminated 

nomic Assistance P/^i 
Marketing Order Program Av 

ment of Its Effects on S* l*\ t#J 

modltles (Report) 



It Working? (Atfoal 
The Need for 

tices in MftrkcliHK 
The Overseas Food Don* tk^ 



Price Impacts of Federal 
Programs 

Pricing under Fedenl 
Regulation 



Subject Index 



Agricultural Exporti 



The Profit and Pnce Performance of 
Leading Food Chains, 1970-74 (Re- 
port) 

Sales of Corn Stored in Commodity 
Credit Corporation Bins in Iowa and 
Nebraska and Wheat Stored in Com- 
mercial Warehouses (Report) 

A Study of the Use and Value of Im- 
proved Foreign Wheat Information to 
USDA Programs and Activities 

A Study of the Use and Value of Im- 
proved SRS Wheat Information to 
USDA Programs and Activities 

Summary of a Report The National 
School Lunch Program, Is It Work- 
ing? (Report) 

Uniform Gram Storage Agreement 
US Actions Needed to Cope with 
Commodity Shortages (Report) 

What the Department of Agriculture 
Has Done and Needs to Do To Im- 
prove Agricultural Commodity Fore- 

casting and Reports (Report) 

1976 US Agricultural Outlook 



1977 U.S. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 



Agricultural Cooperatives 

Evaluation Report on the Technical As- 
sistance Effort Devoted to Improving 
Cooperative Firm Operations, Fiscal 
Year 1 97 3 

Impact of USDA Programs upon Rural 
Cooperatives 

Statistics of Farmer Cooperatives 



Agricultural Credit 

Agency Tor International Development 
Loan and Grant Assistance to the 
Agricultural Sector (Guatemala) 

Agricultural Credit Project No. 621-1 1- 
1140-117 

ASCS Prairie Village Commodity Of- 
fice 

Audit of Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion, Fiscal Year 1973 (Report) 

Audit of Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion, Fiscal Year 1974 (Report) 

Commercial Bank Links to the Farm 
Credit System through PCA Partici- 
pants and F1CB Discounts 

Evaluation of Emergency Livestock 
Credit Act of 1974 as Amended 

Farmers Home Administration's Deter- 
mination of the Value of the Govern- 
ment's Equity Transferred to the 
Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund 
(Report) 

The Farmers Home Administration's 
Emergency Loan Program (Report) 

Farmers Home Administration's Prac- 
tices with Regard to Credit Reports 
for Mortgage and Agricultural Loans 
(Report) 

Intercauntry Evaluation of Agency for 
International Development Land Sale 
Guaranty Programs (Ecuador and 
Costa Rica) 

Intel-country Evaluation of Small 
Farmer Organizations (Ecuador and 
Honduras) 

Food 



277 

073 
516 
517 

028 

521 

136 

081 
263 
27-1 



461 



475 
340 



381 
382 
299 

193 
197 

528 
357 

204 
083 

077 

399 

400 



Personnel Management Improvements 
Initiated or Needed to Help Farmers 

Home Administration Meet Its Ex- 
panded Missions (Report) 065 

The Progress of the National Maize 
Project at the End of One Cropping 
Season in Morogoro and Arush Re- 
gions (Tanzania) 407 

Recommendation for the Elimination of 
Hazard Insurance Coverage on Grain 
for Which the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Pays Storage Charges 
(Report) 200 

Regional Organizations Development' 
Africa Cooperative Savings and Cred- 
it Association /Directed Agricultural 
Production Credit 408 

Young Farmers: A Profile Analysis of 
Federal Land Bank Borrowers 529 



Agricultural Economic* 

Agricultural and Rural Economic and 
Social Information 296 

Agricultural Price Support Programs 1 A 
Layman's Guide (Report) 112 

Agriculture in a World of Uncertainty: 
The Potential Impact of Rising Costs 
of Production on Agriculture and Ru- 
ral America. A Compilation of Cost 
Production Data and Associated Eco- 
nomic Studies (Report) 25B 

Annual Report of the Farm Credit Ad- 
ministration and the Cooperative 
Farm Credit System 376 

Crop and Livestock Estimates 302 

Economic Consequences of Federal 
Farm Commodity Programs, 1953-72 

439 

Farm and Food Policy, 1 977 (Report) 294 

Federal Deficiency Payments Should 
Not Be Made for Crops Not Grown 
(Report) 1 14 

The Financial Requirements of World 
Agriculture in a Food-Short Era (Re- 
port) 159 

Food and Agriculture Issues for Plan- 
ning (Staff study) 175 

The Impact of Oil Price Decontrol on 
Food and Agriculture (Report) 068 

Impact of Russian Grain Purchases on 
Retail Food and Farm Prices and 
Farm Income in the 1975 Crop Year 
(Report) 260 

Impacts of Domestic and. Foreign Food 
Programs on the U.S. Agricultural 
Economy (Report) 279 

Marketing Alternatives for Agriculture: 
Is There a Better Way? (Report) 273 

A Neoclassical Analysis of the US. 
Farm Sector, 1948-1970 4SB 

Potential Effects of Application of Air 
and Water Quality Standards on Agri- 
culture and Rural Development (Re- 
port) 257 

A Program Evaluation of the Great 
Plains Conservation Program 498 

Studies in Price Stability and Economic 
Growth. Paper No. 5: Food Prices in 
1975 (Report) 259 

Summary of GAO Reports Issued Since 
1973 Pertaining to Farm Bill Legisla- 
tion (Report) 174 

1976 U.S. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 

263 



1977 US. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 



Agricultural Experiment Stations 

Agricultural Research: Its Organization 
and Management (Staff study) 

An Evaluation of Research on Im- 
proved Equipment for Harvesting and 
Handling Soybeans 

Impacts of Federal Funding Require- 
ments on Marketing Research at 
State Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tions 



Agricultural Exporti 

The Agricultural Attache Role Over- 
seas; What He Does and How He Can 
Be More Effective for the United 
States (Report) 

Agriculture's Implementation of GAO's 
Wheat Export Subsidy Recommen- 
dations and Related Matters (Re- 
port) 

Assessment of the National Grain In- 
spection System (Report) 

Exporters' Profits on Sales of U.S. 
Wheat to Russia (Report) 

Export Sales Reporting 

Food Power: The Use of U.S. Agricul- 
tural Exports as a Tool in Interna- 
tional Affairs (Report) 

Impact of Russian Grain Purchases on 
Retail Food and Farm Prices and 
Farm Income in the 1975 Crop Year 
(Report) 

Increasing World Food Supplies: Crisis 
and Challenge (Report) 

Information concerning Reports of a 
Possible Wheat Shortage (Report) 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition 
and the International Situation, II: A 
Working Paper (Report) 

The Need for Regulating Trade Prac- 
tices in Marketing Farm Products 
(Chapter IV) 

Oilseeds and Products Program Evalua- 
tion 

Russian Wheat Sales and Weaknesses in 
Agriculture's Management of Wheat 
Export Subsidy Program (Report) 

Studies in Price Stability and Economic 
Growth, Paper No. S: Food Prices in 
1975 (Report) 

A Study of the Use and Value of Im- 
proved Foreign Wheat Information to 
USDA Programs and Activities 

U.S. Actions Needed to Cope with 
Commodity Shortages (Report) 

US Agriculture in a World Context 
(Report) 

U.S. Assistance for the Economic 
Development of the Republic of 
Korea (Report) 

Use of U S. Food Resources for Di- 
plomatic Purposes! An Examination 
of the Issues (Report) 

U.S. Food and Agricultural Policy in 
the World Economy (Report) 

What the Department of Agriculture 
Has Done and Needs to Do To Im- 
prove Agricultural Commodity Fore- 
casting and Reports (Report) 



274 



096 



-551 



477 



141 

145 
045 

134 
310 

144 

260 
119 

152 

213 

487 
490 

130 

259 

514 
136 

146 

115 

291 
170 

061 

149 



Agricultural Extension Work 



Sub|art Ijidn 



Agricultural Extension Work 

Disincentives to Agricultural Produc- 
tion in Developing Countries (Report) 

Extension Management Information 

Syslem (EMIS) 
Financial and Technical Assistance for 

Non-Metropolitan Planning Districts 

Some Problems Impeding Economic 
Improvement of Small-Farm Opera- 
tions- What the Department of 
Agriculture Could Do (Report) 



Agricultural FEnance 

Annual Report of the Farm Credit Ad- 
ministration and the Cooperative 
Farm Credit System 

An Experiment to Determine Whether 
It Was Technically and Operationally 
Feasible to Eradicate the Boll Weevil 
(Report) 

Intercounlry Evaluation of Small 
Farmer Organizations (Ecuador and 
Honduras) 

Personnel Management Improvements 
Initiated or Needed to Help Farmers 
Home Administration Meet Its Ex- 
panded Missions (Report) 

Rural Cooperatives in Guatemala: A 
Study of Their Development and 
Evaluation of AID Programs in Their 
Support 



Agricultural Foreeaitt 

Costs of Producing Milk in the United 

Stales, 1975 and 1976 (Report) 
1976 U.S. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 



Agricultural Import! 

Review of US. Import Restrictions: 
Need to Define National Sugar Goals 
(Report) 



Agricultural Industrie* 

Uvest-ock Management Reporting Sys- 
lem (Livestock MRS) 



Agricultural Information Syttemi 

Food Information Systems: Summary 
and Analysis (Report) 

Foreign Agricultural Commodity Infor- 
mation System 

Foreign Production, Supply, and Utili- 
zation Information System 



Agricultural Innovation!. 

Management of Agricultural Research: 

Need and Opportunities for Improve- 
ment, (Report) 



Agricultural Insurance 

Analysis of Individual Underwriting 

Progress and Problems 

150 



153 

311 

358 

044 



376 



oao 



065 



411 



276 
263 



142 



320 



315 
314 



096 



420 



Crop Insurance System 305 

An Evaluation of Insurance Experience 

449 

Recommendation for the Elimination of 
Hazard Insurance Coverage on Grain 
for Which the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Pays Storage Charges 
(Report) 200 

Report to Congress: Federal Crop In- 
surance Corporation 370 



Agricultural Labor 

Agricultural Research Project No. 621- 

11-110-107 (Tanzania) 383 

Enforcement of the Farm Labor Con- 
tractor Registration Act 373 

Stronger Controls Needed over the Mi- 
grant and Seasonal Farmworkers As- 
sociation Programs in North Carolina 
(Report) 097 

The Thaba Bosiu Rural Development 
Project in Lesotho 415 



Agricultural Legislation 

Agricultural Program Evaluation Laws 
and Studies (Report) 164 

Farm and Food Policy, 1977 (Report) 294 

Impacts of Federal Funding Require- 
ments on Marketing Research at 
Stale Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
liona 477 

The Need for Regulating Trade Prac- 
tices in Marketing Farm Products 
(Chapter IV) 487 



Agricultural loam 

American Foreign Food Assistance: 
Public Law 480 and Related Materi- 
als (Report) 289 

Farmers Home Administration's Deter- 
mination of the Value of the Govern- 
ment's Equity Transferred to the 
Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund 
(Report) 204 

Farmers Home Administration's Prac- 
tices with Regard to Credit Reports 
for Mortgage and Agricultural Loans 
(Report) 077 



Agricultural Marketing 

Administration of Marketing Orders for 
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (Report) 109 

Agency for International Development 
Loan and Grant Assistance to the 
Agricultural Sector (Guatemala) 381 

Annual Budget Estimates 352 

Appraising trie Effects of the Agricul- 
tural Act of 1970 upon Oklahoma's 
Economy 424 

Assessment of the National Grain In- 
spection System (Report) 045 

Canadian System of Regulating Wheat 
Stocks and the Role of Domestic In- 
ternational Sales Corporations in Ex- 
portlngAgricultural Products (Report) 

137 

The Case of Public Law 480: The Side 
Effects of Foreign Aid-Wheat in Co- 
lombia 428 



Cash Groin Pnce Reporting in [he 
United States ^ 

Central African Livestock Produclion 
and Marketing Project $$ 

Commodity Futures Trading Commn 
sion Annual Report j^ 

Evaluation of the USDA Food Supply 
Release, Food Marketing Alcil ijj 

Evaluation of the U S. Department of 
Agriculture Food. Supply Rclcaif, 
Food Marketing Alert ' ^ 

Explanatory Notes for the Annual 
Budget Submission y* 

Farm Programs, Pesticide Use, end So 
cial Costs ^ 

Impact of USDA Programs upon Kuril 
Cooperatives c ^ 

Impacts of Federal Funding Require- 
ments on Marketing Research ai 
State Agricultural Experiment Sla 
lions fj 

Marketing Alternatives for Agriculture 
Is There a Better WayV (Report) ]r) 

The Masai Livestock and Rnngc Man 
agement (Kenya) 4-3 

The Need for Regulating Trade Prc 
tices in Marketing Farm Product! 
(Chapter II) 41$ 

Oilseeds and Products Program I'vsluj. 
tion ff. 

Poultry Marketing Regulation* 20I,- 
100-201.104 0i 

Price Impacts of Federal Market Onlei 
Programs JH 

Pricing Grade A Milk Used In Mnu- 
factured Dairy Products tu 

Pricing under Federal Milk MuLcl 
Regulation rfj 

Program Evaluation on 1973 rU|rnn 
Program Performonce ffl 

The Progress of the National Mm* 
Project et the End of One Ciopping 
Season in Moragoio and Atuih Re- 
gions (Tanzania) #3 

Review and Evaluation of Price SpitaJ 
Data for Foods yj 

Title HI Reparation Coinplaliili tnJ 
Other Reparation Tyjw Complainli JJJ 



Agricultural Marketing A<l 

(Digest of Law) 



Agricultural Model* 

Food and Agriculture Models for Policy 
Analysis (Staff study} 



Agricultural P*U 

APHIS Evaluation Task Force on Mc- 
Gregor Report: The Emtgrani Pol 

Citrus Blackfly Program Evalimion * 

The Emigrant Pest W 
An Evaluation of the WllcJiwerdl pjift- 

gram *W 

Plant Pest Information Syslem Kt 
The Southwestern Screwwoim Ejadto- 

tion Program 1'i 



Index 



Agricultural Production 



A fcr1cuHiiral Policy 

The Agricultural Attache Role Over- 
seas What He Does and How He Can 
Be More Effective for the United 
Slates (Report) 141 

Agricultural Policy, Food Policy, Nutri- 
tion Policy, World Food Problems; A 
Select Bibliography, 1969-1975 (Re- 
port) 167 

Agricultural Price Support Programs: A 
Layman's Guide (Report) 112 

Agricultural Research and Develop- 
ment- Background Papers (Report) 261 

Agriculture's Implementation ofGAO's 
Wheat Export Subsidy Recommen- 
dations and Related Matters (Re- 
port) 145 

Dairy Products Acquired from the 
Commodity Credit Corporation for 
Us< in Veterans Administration Hos- 
pitals 379 

Department of Agriculture Payments 
Made in Connection with the 1973 
Wheat Program (Report) 108 

Economic Consequences of Federal 
Farm Commodity Programs, 1953-72 

439 

Farm and Food Policy, 1977 (Report) 294 

Federal Deficiency Payments Should 
Not Be Made For Crops Not Grown 
f Report) 114 

Food and Agriculture Issues for Plan- 
ning (Staff study) 175 

Food and Agriculture Policy Options 

(Report) 173 

Food Information Systems: Summary 
and Analysis (Report) 171 

Food Power: The Use of U.S. Agricul- 
tural Exports as a Tool in Interna- 
tional Affairs (Report) 144 

The Food Situation in Pakistan (Report) 

157 

Grain Marketing Systems in Argentina, 
Australia, Canada, and the European 
Community (Report) 161 

Grain Reserves: A Potential U.S. Food 
Policy Tool (Report) 169 

Impact of Soybean Exports on Domes- 
lie Supplies and Prices (Report) 135 

Impact of the Set-Aside Program on the 
U.S, Wheat Acreages 474 

International Food Reserves: Back- 
ground and Current Proposals (Re- 
port) 293 

Legislative History of the Child Feeding 
Programs (Report) 008 

Liberia Agricultural Programming 402 

Marketing Alternatives for Agriculture: 
Is There a Better Way? (Report) 273 

National Nutrition Policy: Selected Pa- 
pers on Technology, Agriculture Ad- 
vances and Production, A Working 
Paper (Report) 231 

Pricing Grade A Milk Used In Manu- 
factured Dairy Products 495 

Providing Economic Incentives to 
Fanners Increases Food Production 
in Developing Countries (Report) 160 

Report on Nutrition and the Interna- 
tional Situation (Report) 231 

A Study of the Use and Value of Im- 
proved SRS Wheat Information to 
USDA Programs and Activities 517 

Pood 



U S Actions Needed to Cope with 

Commodity Shortages (Report) 
U.S. Agricultural Policy (Report) 
U.S. and World Food Secunty (Report) 

Use of U.S. Food Resources for Di- 
plomatic Purposes: An Examination 
of the Issues (Report) 

U S. Food and Agricultural Policy in 
the World Economy (Report) 

U S. Food Exports Supplying the 
World's Food Needs (Staff study) 

1976 U.S Agricultural Outlook (Report) 

1977 U.S. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 



Agricultural Prices 

Administration of Marketing Orders for 
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (Report) 

Alleged Discriminations and Conces- 
sions in the Allocation of Railcars to 
Gram Shippers (Report) 

Analysis of the Effects of Federal Milk 
Marketing Orders on the Economic 
Performance of U.S. Milk Markets 

The Case of Public Law 4RO: The Side 
Effects of Foreign Aid-Wheat in Co- 
lombia 

Cash Grain Price Reporting in the 
United States 

Economic Consequences of Federal 
Farm Commodity Programs, 1953-72 

Economic Effects of the 1976 Beef 
Grade Changes 

Evaluation of the Fiscal Year 1974 
USDA Special Beef Purchase 

Federal Deficiency Payments Should 
Not Be Made for Crops Not Grown 
(Report) 

The Fertilizer Situation: Past, Present, 
and Future (Staff paper) 

Food and Agriculture Issues for Plan- 
ning (Staff study) 

The Impact of Oil Price Decontrol on 
Food and Agriculture (Report) 

Impact of Soybean Exports on Domes- 
tic Supplies and Prices (Report) 

The Overseas Food Donation Program: 
Its Constraints and Problems (Report) 

Price Impacts of Federal Market Order 
Programs 

Pricing Grade A Milk Used in Manu- 
factured Dairy Products 

Review and Evaluation of Priee Spread 
Data for Foods 

Sales of Corn Stored in Commodity 
Credit Corporation Bins in Iowa and 
Nebraska and Wheat Stored in Com- 
mercial Warehouses (Report) 

1975 Food Price Study 5: A Preliminary 
Evaluation of USDA's Farm to Retail 
Price Spread Series (Report) 

Agricultural Price Supports 

Agricultural Price Support Programs: A 
Layman's Guide (Report} 

Canadian System of Regulating Wheat 
Slocks and the Role of Domestic In- 
ternational Sales Corporations in Ex- 
porting Agricultural Products (Report) 



136 
172 

280 

291 
170 

148 
263 
274 

109 
104 
421 

428 
429 

439 
440 
446 

114 
082 
175 

068 
135 

121 
494 
495 

507 

073 
267 



137 



Capitalization of Farm Program Bene- 
fits into Land Values 
Farm and Food Policy, 1977 {Report) 
Federal Deficiency Payments Should 
Not Be Made for Crops Not Grown 
(Report) 

Federal Subsidy Prog re ms (Report) 
Food and Agriculture Policy Options 
(Report) 

Government Regulation of Milk Mar- 
kets 

Impact of Cashing Out the Food Distri- 
bution Program 

Reduction in Federal Expenditures 
Possible through Commodity Credit 
Corporation's Assumption of Insured 
Warehousing Risks- (Report) 

Review of Economic Literature on Milk 

Regulation 
Special Cost of Alternative Dairy Price 

Support Levels 
U.S Import Restrictions Alternatives 

to Present Dairy Programs (Report) 



Agricultural Production 

Agricultural Policy, Food Policy, Nutri- 
tion Policy, \Vor3d Pood Problems: A 
Select Bibliography, 1969-1975 (Re- 
port) 

Agricultural Research and Develop- 
ment: Background Papers (Report) 

Agriculture in a World of Uncertainty: 
The Potential Impact of Rising Costs 
of Production on Agriculture and Ru- 
ral America, A Compilation of Cost 
Production Data and Associated Eco- 
nomic Studies (Report) 

Alleviating Agricultural Producers' 
Crop Losses- What Should the Fed- 
eral Role Be? (Report) 

American Foreign Food Assistance 1 
Public Law 480 and Related Materi- 
als (Report) 

Appraising the Effects of the Agricul- 
tural Act of 1970 upon Oklahoma's 
Economy 

Central African Livestock Production 
and Marketing Project 

Conservation of the Land and the Use 
of Waste Materials for Man's Benefit 
(Report) 

Costs of Producing Milk in the United 
States, 1974 (Report) 

Costs of Producing Selected Crops in 
the United States: 1975, 1976, and 
Projections for 1977 (Report) 

Crop Diversification Matrix 

Crops Replacement 

Disincentives to Agricultural Produc- 
tion in Developing Countries (Report) 

Economic Consequences of Federal 
Farm Commodity Programs, 1953-72 

Effectiveness of the 1971-73 Set-Aside 
Programs (Feedgrains, Wheat, and 
Upland Cotton) 

Effect of the Small Watershed Program 
on Major Land Uses 

An Evaluation of Research on Lym- 
phoid Leukosis and Marek's Disease 

An Evaluation of the Snow Survey and 
Water Supply Forecasting Program 



427 
294 

114 
253 

173 

417 
470 

110 

418 
511 

147 



167 
261 



1256 



171 



289 



424 



278 
271 

275 
304 
306 

158 
439 



444 

452 

457 

151 



Farm Programs, PeslicEde Use, and So- 
cial Costs 

Federal Assistance to Quechan Indian 
Tribe for Controlled Environment 
Agricultural Program (Report) 

The Financial Requirements of World 
Agriculture in a Food-Short Era (Re- 
port) 

Food and Agriculture Issues for Plan- 
ning (Staff study) 

Food and Agriculture Policy Options 
(Report) 

Food Information Systems, Summary 
and Analysis (Report) 

The Food Situation in Pakistan (Report} 

Foreign Production, Supply, and Utili- 
zation Information System 

Grain Reserves: A Potential US Food 
Policy Tool (Report) 

The Immovable Feast (Report) 

Impact of the Set-Aside Program on the 
U S Wheat Acreages 

Impacts of Domestic and Foreign Food 
Programs on the US Agricultural 
Economy (Report) 

Implementation of Recomm&ndafions 
of the World Food Conference; A Re- 
port to Congress (Report) 

Increasing World Food Supplies: Crisis 
and Challenge (Report) 

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment 
(LACIE) 

The Masai Livestock and Range Man- 
agement (Kenya) 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition 
and Pood Availability, A Working Pa- 
per (Report) 

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition 
and the- International Situation (Re- 
port) 

National Nutrition Policy Nutrition 
and the International Situation, II; A 
Working Paper (Report) 

National Nutrition Policy^ Selected Pa- 
pers on Technology, Agriculture Ad* 
vances and Production, A Working 
Paper (Report) 

National Nutrition Policy Study: Re- 
port and Recommendation, I (Report) 

National Nutrition Policy Study: Re- 
port and Recommendation, II (Re- 
port) 

National Nutrition Policy Study; Re- 
port and Recommendation, VI (Re- 
port) 

New Approach Needed to Control Pro- 
duction of Major Crops if Surpluses 
Again Occur (Report) 

Opportunities for Mote Effective Use of 
Animal Manure (Report) 

Organizing end Financing Basic Re- 
search lo Increase Food Production 
(Report) 

Program Evaluation on 1973 Peedgrain 

Program Performance 
The Progress of the National Maize 
' " ' of One Cropping 
i and Arush Re- 
Incentives to 
ood Production 
ies (Report) 



463 
062 

159 

H75 
173 

272 
157 

316 

169 

250 

474 
279 

290 
119 
319 

403 

211 
215 
216 

221 
222 
223 
227 

113 
087 



160 



Report on Nutrition and Food Availa- 
bility (Report) 

Report on Nutrition and the Interna- 
tional Situation (Report) 

Report on the Beekeepers Indemnity 
Payment Program 

Review of U.S. Import Restrictions 
Need to Define National Sugar Goals 
(Report) 

Studies in Price Stahility and Economic 
Growth Paper No, 5, Food Prices in 
1975 (Report) 

A Study of the Use and Value of Im- 
proved Foreign Wheat Information lo 
USDA Programs and Activities 

A Study of the Use and Value of Im- 
proved SRS Wheat Information to 
USDA Programs and Activities 

To Protect Tomorrow's Food Supply, 
Soil Conservation Needs Priority At- 
tention (Report) 

The United Stales, FAO and World 
Food Politics: U,S. Relations with an 
International Food Organization (Re- 
port) 

US Agricultural Policy (Report) 

U.S Agriculture in a World Context 
(Report) 

US. and! World Fertilizer Situation: 
Outlook for 1975, 1976 and 1980 (Re- 
port) 

US and World Food Security (Report) 

US Assistance to Pakistan Should Be 
Reassessed (Report) 

US Food and Agricultural Policy in 
the World Economy (Report) 

The U.S. Food and Fiber Sector: Energy 
Use and Outlook (Report) 

What the Department of Agriculture 
Has Done and Needs to Do To Im- 
prove Agricultural Commodity Fore- 
casting and Reports (Report) 

The World Food Conference. Selected 
Materials for the Use of the U.S. Con- 
gressional Delegation to the World 
Food Conference, Rome, Italy, 
November 5-16, 1974 (Report) 

1976 U-S. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 

1977 U.S. Agricultural Outlook (Report) 



Agricultural Products 

Agricultural Research:: Its Organization 
and Management (Staff study) 

Defense Supply Agency's Policy for 
Purchasing Potatoes (Report) 

Excluding Substandard Canned Pineap- 
ple from the United States (Report) 

Fertilizer Research and Development 

Program Evaluation 
Pood Industry Studies (Report) 
Grain Marketing Systems in Argentina, 

Australia, Canada, and the European 

Community (Report) 
Impact of U.S, Development and Food 

Aid In Selected Developing Countries 

(Report) 

Marketing Meat: Arc There Any Im- 
pediments to Free Trade? (Report) 

The National School Lunch Program: Is 
It Working? (Report) 



255 

231 
506 

142 
259 
516 

517 
092 

28B 
172 

146 

254 
260 

124 
170 
252 

081 

282 
263 
274 

086 
182 
140 

536 
269 

161